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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 19

Mount Holyoke
Mount Holyoke (hol'yok) Col Lege, A College For Women At South Hadley, Mass. It Was Founded By Mary Lyon (q.v.) ; Chartered In 1836 And Opened In 1837 Under The Name Of Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. From The First It Has Had A Reputation For Thor Ough Scholarship; The Curriculum ...

Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon, The Estate Of George Washington, In Fairfax County, Va., On The Right Bank Of The Potomac, 15 Miles Below Washington, D. C. The Original Name Of The Estate Was Hunting Creek, And It Contained About 800 Acres. When It Came Into Possession Of Lawrence Washington, The Brother Of ...

Mountain Climbing
Mountain Climbing, Formerly Re Garded As Exploration Or Adventure, Now Rec Ognized As One Of The Hardier Outdoor Sports. At First Regarded As Extremely Perilous, Moun Tain Climbing Or Mountaineering Now Claims Hundreds Of Thousands Among Its Devotees. The Effort, Endurance And Skill Required By The Sport Are In Themselves ...

Mountains
Mountains. A High Elevation Of Land Is Called A Mountain; A Low Elevation, A Hill. The Application Of The Term °mountain° Varies In Different Localities. In The Low Lands, Where The Elevations Are Not Numerous, And Do Not Reach A Great Height, A Rise Of Ground Of About 100 Or ...

Mourning
Mourning. In Most Nations From The Earliest Ages It Has Been The Custom Of Bereaved Persons To Testify Their Grief For The Loss Of Friends Or Relatives By Some External Change Of Dress And Deportment. The Eastern Nations And The Greeks Cut Off Their Hair, The Romans Al Lowed The ...

Mouse
Mouse, A Small Rodent Mammal Of The Family Muricke, The Larger Members Of Which Are Called Rats, Hamsters, Lemmings, Voles (qq.v.), Etc.; Specifically, The House-mouse (mus Muscat/us), Originally Asiatic, But Universally Domesticated. The Family Is An Extremely Large One, Embracing Some 300 Well-established Spe Cies, And Is Distributed Over The ...

Mouth
Mouth, Diseases Of The. The Principal Diseases Of The Mouth May Be Classified As Fol Lows: Inflammation Of The Mucous Membrane And Its Results; Epulis, Gumboil, Ranula, Sali Vary Calculus And Salivary Fistula. Inflammation Of The Mouth (stomatitis). — This Disorder Is Usually Caused By Local Irri Tants, Such As ...

Moving Pictures
Moving Pictures, Censorship Of. Since The Beginning Of The 20th Century The Development Of The Film-drama, Or Moving Pic Ture, Has Revolutionized Amusements In America. With Low Prices, The Attendance Has Become Enormous, And The Influence Upon So Ciety Is More Portentous Than Either That Of The Church Or The ...

Moving Pictures
Moving Pictures Are Produced By Lantern Projection On A Screen, Of A Series Of Pictures In Such Rapid Succession That The Eye Sees Them As One Continuous Representation. The Possibility Of Such Pictures Depends Upon What Might Be Considered A D,:fect Of The Human Eye, Known As The Of Vision"— ...

Mowat
Mowat, Sm Oliver, Canadian Statesman: B. Kingston, Ontario, 22 July 1820; D. Toronto, 19 April 1903. He Was Educated In Kingston And Toronto, Studied Law In Kingston And Be Gan Practice In That City, Afterward Moving To Toronto. He Took High Rank In His Profession, Especially As An Equity Lawyer. ...

Moxom
Moxom, Philip Stafford, American Con Gregationalist Clergyman: B. Markham, Canada, 10 Aug. 1848. During The Civil War He Served As °captain's Boy” (1862), Then Enlisted In The Illinois Cavalry In 1863, And Served Till 1865. At The Close Of The War He Entered Upon A Course Of Study At Kalamazoo ...

Mozart
Mozart, Mo'zirt (ger. Meitsart), Johan Nes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilns, Austrian Composer: B. Salzburg, Austria, 27 Jan. 1756; D. Vienna, 5 ,dec. 1791. With This Somewhat Harsh Combination Of Names Mozart Was Baptized On The Day Following His Birth. His Parents Were Johannes Georg Leopold Mo Zart, And His Wife, Anna ...

Much Ado About Nothing
Much Ado About Nothing. 'much Ado About Nothing) Is First Mentioned In August 1600 And Was Printed In The Same Year. It Is Not Referred To In Meres's Famous List Of Shakespeare's Plays In 1598, Unless Indeed It Is To Be Identified With The Mysterious Comedy, 'love's Labour's Won,' Which ...

Mucous Membrane
Mucous Membrane. The Mucous Membranes Line Passages And Cavities Which Communicate With The Exterior Of The Body, Where They Become Continuous With The Skin. They Constitute The Lining Of The Alimentary Canal Or Tract, Which Begins At The Mouth And Ends At The Anus, A Distance Of About 27 Feet, ...

Mucus
Mucus, A Semi-fluid Substance, Of A Viscid, Tenacious Character, Produced By The Various Mucous Membranes Of Animals, And Found Cov Ering The Exposed Surface Of Such Membranes. Thus It Is Produced In The Mucous Membrane Lining The Nose, The Mouth And Throat, The Gullet, Stomach, Large And Small Bowel, The ...

Mud Bel
Mud-bel, The Amphibian Siren Lacertina, Which Has Persistent Gills But No Hind Legs. It Resembles The Proteidm (q.v.) In Many Ways. See Sramme. The Name Of Various Fishes Found In Muddy Water, Or Fond Of Burrowing In The Ooze Of Swamps. The Nile Bichir And Its Relatives, The Reed-fishes Of ...

Muhlenberg
Muhlenberg, Heinrich Melchior, German-american Clergyman, Organizer Of The Evangelical Lutheran Church In America: B. Eimbeck, Hanover, 6 Sept. 1711; D. New Provi Dence (now Trappe), Montgomery County, Pa., 7 Oct. 1787. He Was Educated At The Univer Sity Of Gottingen (1735-37), Studied Theology There (1737-38) And At Halle (1738-39), Was ...

Muhlenberg_2
Muhlenberg, John Peter Gabriel, American Patriot: B. Trappe (then New Provi Dence), Montgomery County, Pa., 1 Oct. 1746; D. Near Philadelphia, 1 Oct. 1807. He Was The Son Of H. M. Muhlenberg (q.v.), The Founder Of The German Lutheran Church In America. He Was Educated For The Ministry, Was For ...

Mukden
Mukden, Mook'den, Moukden, Or Fung-tien-fu, Capital Of Manchuria And Of The Province Of Shinking, Situated On The Hun, A Tributary Of The Liau River, About 500 Miles Northeast Of Peking. Its Port Is Newch Wang, About 120 Miles Distant, Near The Gulf Of Liao-tong. It Is The Cradle Of The ...

Mulberry
Mulberry, A Genus (morus) Of Trees Of The Order Moracem (q.v.), Of Which 100 Species Have Been Described, But Only Five Are Now Rec Ognized. The Mulberries Are Characterized By The Possession Of Leaves Variable In Form Even Upon The Same Twigs; Moncecious Flowers In Axillary Catkins; And Multiple Blackberry-like ...

Mulch
Mulch, Any Material Kept In A Loose Con Dition At The Surface Of The Soil For The Purpose Of Checking Evaporation, Conserving Moisture, Protecting Plant-roots Or Low-growing Plants From Frost Or Heat, Preventing Puddling And Washing Of The Soil, Retarding Growth In Spring, Keeping The Surface Soil Open, Supplying Plant ...

Mule As A Work
Mule As A Work Animal, The. The Use Of Mules For Doing The Work Of The World Is Almost As Old As History. The His Torical Records That Have Come Down To Us Re Counting The Exploits And Industrial Achieve Ments Of The More Civilized Peoples Of The Earth Have ...

Muller
Muller, Miller, Adam Heinrich, Ger Man Economist: B. Berlin; 1779; D. 1829. In His 19th Year He Went To The University Of Gottingen, Where He At First Occupied Himself With Theology And Then Became A Student Of Jurisprudence, In Which He Was A Pupil Of Hugo. He Afterward Sought To ...

Muller_2
Muller, Johannes, German Physiologist: B. Coblenz, Prussia, 14 July 1801; D. Berlin, 28 April 1858. He Studied, From 1819, At Bonn And Berlin, Started Service (1824) As Dozent Of Physiplogy And Comparative Anatomy At Bonn, And Became Assistant Professor (1830), Then (1833) Professor Of Anatomy And Physiol Ogy At Berlin. ...

Mullet
Mullet, The Name Of Several Distinct Kinds Of Fishes Having External Similarities. (1) The Red Mullets Or Surmullets Are A Group Of Elongate Marine Fishes Of Moderate Re Nowned For The Delicacy Of Their Flesh, And The Esteem In Which They Were Held By The Ancients. They With The Goat ...

Mummy
Mummy (arab. Mumia), Specifically A Dead Body Preserved From Putrefaction By Embalm Ing With Bitumen Or Other Asphaltic Substances. The Wider Use Of The Term Includes Bodies Pre Served In A Dry State By Any Process. The Custom Of Thus Nreserving The Bodies Of The Dead Has Prevailed In Several ...

Mumps
Mumps, A Popular Name For A Contagious Epidemic Inflammation And Enlargement Of One Or Both Parotid Salivary Glands, Occurring Usu All In Youth, Males Being More Frequently Affected Than Females. In Some Localities It Disappears For Years, In Other Places It Is En Demic. Epidemics Usually Occur In The Spring ...

Munch Bellinghausen
Munch-bellinghausen, Ling-how'zen, Eligius Franz Joseph, Freiherr Vox, Also Known Under The Pseudonym Fried Um Haim, Austrian Dramatist And Short-story Writer: B. Krakau (cracow), 2 April 1806; D. Vienna, 22 May 1871. He Came To Vienna In 1811 And Began Studying Law There In 1822, Making The Acquaintance While A Young ...

Munchhausen
Munchhausen, Hier Onymus Karl Friedrich, Baron : B. Boden Werder, Hanover, 1720; D. There, 1797. He Was A German Soldier And Served In His Youth As A Cavalry Officer In The Russian Army. He Was Possessed Of An Adventurous And Dare-devil Spirit And An Imagination That Knew No Bounds. He ...

Mundelein
Mundelein, George William, American Roman Catholic Archbishop: B. New York, 2 July 1872. He Studied First At The De La Salle Institute And Later At Manhattan College, After Which He Began His Theological Course At Saint Vincent's Seminary, Beatty, Pa., Completing It At The Urban College Of The Propaganda In ...

Municipal Accounting In The
Municipal Accounting In The United States. Definitions.— The Term Imuni Cipality," When Used Herein, Is A Generic Designation Of All Public Corporations Formed By Or For A Community With Powers Of Local Gov Ernment, By Whatever Name Or Designation Known In The Several States Of The Union. Chief Justice Marshall ...

Municipal Colleges And Uni
Municipal Colleges And Uni Versities. The United States.— The Pas Sion For Free Public Education In The United States Has Carried Well Beyond The Original In Tention. At First Only The Elementary School Was Free; Tuition Was Free, And The Schools Were Maintained By Public Taxation. Secondary Education Was Then ...

Municipal Debts
Municipal Debts. One Of The Most Striking Facts In Modern American City De Velopment Is The Appalling Increase In Municipal Indebtedness. Startling Figures Upon This Sub Ject Have Been Compiled By The United States Census Bureau. Municipal And Country Debts Increased 76 Per Cent From 1890 To 1902. From 1902 ...

Municipal Debts Franchisespublic
Municipal Debts ; Franchises; Public Util Ities ; Assessments. Liability Of Municipalities.—since A Munici Pality Is Not A Government Possessing Sover Eign Powers It Is Not, Like The State, Immune From Suit Without Its Consent. On The Other Hand, Since In The Performance Of Many Func Tions It Is An ...

Municipal Government
Municipal Government. In March 1897, As A Tribute To The Growing Public Interest In The City Problems,
Municipal Home
Municipal Home Rule.— Munici Pal Home Rule Is The Term Applied To The Power Possessed By Many American Cities To Frame And Adopt Their Own Charters. It Is A Power Which Must Be Conferred Upon Municipalities By A Provision Of The State Constitution Since The Courts Have Held With Practical ...

Municipal Law
Municipal Law. In England And America Municipal Law Means The National Law Or The Law Of The Land, Both Public And Private, In Contradistinction To External Or International Law. The Municipal Law Of America Is De Rived From That Of England, Which Has Had A Continual Development Extending Over 13 ...

Municipal Ownership
Municipal Ownership Is A Term Broad Enough To Include The Ownership By A Municipality Of Any Form Of Property. Usage Has Limited Its Meaning, However, To The Owner Ship By Cities Of Certain Well Recognized Types Of Public Or Services Such As Water, Gas, Electricity And Street Railway Transporta Tion. ...

Municipal Reform Acts
Municipal Reform Acts, English. The Body Of Laws Passed By The English Parlia Ment Since 1833 Dealing With Municipal Fran Chises, Suffrage Charters, Etc. In The 14th And 15th Centuries The Municipal Suffrage Fell Gradu Ally More And More Into The Hands Of Restricted Bodies Of Men. Notorious Abuses Crept ...

Municipalities
Municipalities. Municipalities Are As Old As Civilization Itself. The Story Of The Nations Of Antiquity That Flourished In The Val Leys Of The Nile, Tigris And Euphrates Is In Large Part The Narrative Of What Went On In The Imposing Cities Of Thebes, Memphis, Baby Lon And Nineveh. History Gives ...

Munkacsy
Munkacsy, Moon'lcache, Michael, Hun Garian Painter: B. Munkics, Bereg County, Hungary, 10 Oct. 1846; D. Endenich, Near Bonn, I May 1900. His Real Name Was Lieb, But He Is Known Only Under The Assumed Name Derived From That Of His Birthplace. Beginning Life As A Carpenter, He Met The Strolling ...

Munsell
Munsell, Joel, American Printer: B. Northfield, Mass., 14 April 1808; D. Albany, N. Y., 15 Jan. 1880. He Established Himself In Albany In 1827, And Was Publisher And Editor Of The New York State Mechanic From 1841 To 1843. At Various Times He Was Thepub Lisher Of The Unionist, The ...

Munson
Munson, Thomas Volney, American Horticulturist And Plant Breeder: B. On A Farm Near Astoria, Iii., 26 Sept. 1843; D. Denison, Tex., 21 Jan. 1913. His Early Education Was Obtained In The Rural District Schools, Followed By A Course In An Academy At Lewiston. He Subsequently Took A Course In A ...

Munsterberg
Munsterberg, Hugo, German-american Psychologist : B. Dantzic, Germany, 1 June 1863; D. Cambridge, Mass., 16 Dec. 1916. He Was Graduated At The Dantzic Gymnasium In 1882, And Pursued Post-graduate Studies In Physiology, Philosophy, Natural Sci Ences And Medicine Until 1887. He Received The Degree Of Ph. D. At Leipzig In ...

Munzer
Munzer, Miint'ser, Thomas, German Re Ligious Fanatic: B. Stolberg, About 1490; D. Frankenhausen, 15 May 1525. He Claimed That He Was In Direct Communion With The Holy Spirit, And Advocated Communism, Denouncing All Existing Governments. His Violence Brought Him Into Conflict With Luther As Well As With The Catholics. He ...

Mural Painting
Mural Painting, That Branch Of In Terior Decoration Which Has For Its Object The Adornment Of The Walls Of Buildings By Paint Ing, As Distinguished From Mosaic, Wainscoting, Sculpture, Tapestry And All Other Kinds And Means Of Adornment. By Extension The Term In Cludes Also The Painting Of Vaults And ...

Murat
Murat, Mu-ri, Joachim, French Mar Shal And Some-time King Of Naples: B. Bastide, Lot, France, 25 March 1771; D. Pizzo, Calabria, Italy, 13 Oct. 1815. He Was The Son Of A Pros Perous Innkeeper Of La-bastide-fortuniere, Near Cahors, France, And Had A Remarkable Career. While Studying For The Priesthood At ...

Murat_2
Murat, Napoleon Achille, French Amer Ican Author: H. Paris, 21 Jan. 1801; D. Was Ceissa, Leon County, Fla., 15 April 1847. He Was The Son Of Joachim Murat, King Of Naples, And Before His Father's Overthrow Bore The Title Of Prince Of The Two Sicilies. When His Father Lost The ...

Muravieff
Muravieff, Moo-ra-ve-ef, Russian Noble Family, Originally Settled In The Grand Duchy Of Moscow, Hut In 1488 Receiving From Ivan Vassilievitch Holdings In Novgorod. Its Chief Members Are Nikolai Jerofeyevitch, D. Montpellier 1770, Governor Of Livonia And. Au Thor Of The First Russian Algebra. Mikhail Nricurrcer, B. Smolensk, 25 Oct. 1757; ...

Murcia
Murcia, Mer'shi-e (sp. Moor'the-a), Spain, The Capital Of The Ancient Kingdom And Modern Province Of Same Name, 30 Miles North West Of Cartagena, On The Segura, Which Divides The Town Into Two Unequal Portions, Connected By A Handsome Bridge. The City Is Surrounded By A Brick Wall And Is Entered ...

Murger
Murger, Henri, On-re Miir-zhar, French Poet And Novelist: B. Paris, 24 March 1822; D. There, 28 Jan. 1861. He Entered A Lawyer's Office, But Left It And Was For A Time Secretary To The Russian Count Tolstoi. Of His Career In 1838-48 Almost Nothing Is Known. He Was A Member ...

Murillo
Murillo, (sp. Moo-til'yo), Bartolotne Esteban, Bar-to'16-ma As-ta:ban, Spanish Painter: B. Seville, 31 Dec. 1617; D. There, 3 April 1682. He Began His Art Educa Tion Under Juan Del Castillo, And In 1642 Sought Wider Experience In Madrid, Where His Towns Man Velasquez Was Enjoying A Brilliant Career. By The Latter ...

Murmansk
Murmansk, A New Town In The Extreme Northwest Of Russia, On The Kola Peninsula And The Northern Terminus Of The Kola-petro Grad Railroad. Situated On A Sheltered, Ice Free Harbor On The Murman Coast, The Town Has Sprung Into Existence And Importance During The European War. In Appearance It Resembles ...

Murner
Murner, Moor'ner, Thomas, German Satirist And Opponent Of The Reformation: B. Strassburg, 24 Dec. 1475; D. About 1536. He Studied At The Principal Universities Of Europe, Devoting Himself Particularly To Theology And Philosophy, And Early Gained A Reputation For Ability, Marred However By A Quarrelsome Dis Position. He Led An ...

Murphy
Murphy, Charles Francis, American Politician: B. New York, 20 June 1858. He Le Ceived A Public School Education, And Early In Life Began To Take An Interest In Politics. As Organizer And Member Of The Sylvian Club And Through His Fame As An Athlete He Gained A Wide Personal Acquaintance. ...

Murphy_2
Murphy, Franklin, American Manufac Turer And Politican: B. Jersey City, N. J., 3 Jan. 1846. In 1856 The Family Removed To Newark Where His Father Was Born And Which Had Been The Home Of His Ancestors From Its Original Settlement In 1656. He Enlisted In The Federal Army In 1862 ...

Murray
Murray, James Augustus Henry, Scot Tish Philologist And Lexicographer; B. Denholm, Near Hawick, Roxburghshire, 1837; D. 26 July 1915. He Was Graduated Ra. Of London Uni Versity, From 1855 Till 1858 Was An Assistant Master In Hawick Grammar School, Becoming In The Latter Year Master Of Hawick Academy, For A ...

Murrays Translations Of Euripides
Murray's Translations Of Euripides. George Gilbert Murray, Since 1908 Regius Professor Of Greek At Oxford University, Was Born In Sydney, N. S. W., In 1866, Went To England In 1877 And Became Professor Of Greek At Glasgow In 1889. Besides His Work As A Translator, He Has Edited A Criti ...

Muscat
Muscat, Miis-kat', Muskat, Or Mas Kat, Arabia, The Capital Of Oman, On The Gulf Of Oman, Commanding The Entrance To The Persian Gulf. It Is A Fortified Seaport Of Con Siderable Commercial And Strategical Import Ance; The Seat Of The Imam Or Sultan Of Mus Cat; By Arrangement It Has ...

Muscatine
Muscatine, Mils-ka-ten, Iowa, City, County-seat Of Muscatine County, On The Mis Sissippi River, And On The Iowa Central, The Chicago, Rock Island And Pacific And The Chicago, Milwaukee And Saint Paul Railroads, About 30 Miles Below Davenport And 140 Miles East By South Of Des Moines. It Is At A ...

Muscid2e
Muscid2e, Mds-cl'di, Family Of Flies From The Latin Musca, A Fly. The Most Familiar Ex Amples Are The House-fly And The Blow-fly. They Belong To The Order Diptera And Their Wings Have The Characteristics Of The Family, Being Naked, Furnished With A Single Pair; The Pro Boscis Is Used For ...

Muscles
Muscles, Diseases Of. Very Little Is Known Of The Diseases Of Muscles Themselves. Muscle-tissue, In Common With Other Types Of Tissue, Undergoes Certain Forms Of Degeneration, Fatty, Mucoid, Gelatinous, Calcareous, Etc., But Of The Diseases Of The Muscular Tissues Them Selves There Are Few Well-defined Types. The Reason For This ...

Muscles
Muscles. The Organs Called Muscles Are Made Up Of A Collection Of Muscle-cells, Which Have For Their Function The Accomplishment Of Bodily Movements. These Movements May Be Gross, As In Walking, Or Very Minute, Such As Take Place In The Contracting Movements Of The Arteries Or Veins; They May Be ...

Muscular System
Muscular System, Development Of. Two Main Forms Of Muscle-tissue (see Muscles) Exist In The Human Body, The Striated Muscle-tissue, Which Makes Up The Muscles Of The Bony Framework Of The Body, And Which Responds To Willed Or Wished Impulses Passing Through The Brain Structures, And Also To Vege Tative Stimuli ...

Muses
Muses, Goddesses Of The Liberal Arts And Sciences ; Originally Nymphs Of Inspiring Foun Tains. Different Accounts Are Given Of Their Origin. There Is Also A Great Difference In Their Names And Attributes. The Most Cele Brated Are The Daughters Of Zeus And M-nemo Syne. According To Homer They Lived ...

Museums
Museums Are Institutions For The Preser Vation, Study And Display Of Natural Objects, Or Of Those Made By Man, While As A Sequence Of Study Comes The Publication Of Information Thus Derived. The Word Museum Originally Signified Merely A Grove Or Other Locality Sacred To The Muses, But With The ...