Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 23 >> Reaction to Relativity

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 23

Reaction
Reaction, In Chemistry, A General Term For Any Chemical Change That Is Brought About By The Mutual Interaction Of Two Or More Sub Stances. Reactions Between Two Primary Sub Stances May Be Conveniently Divided Into Three Classes, As Follows : (1) Those In Which The Two Substances Combine Additively, So ...

Reactions And Reaction Times
Reactions And Reaction Times In Psychology. Owing To The Large Place Occupied By Movement In Man's Life And The Practical Importance Of Knowing The Time Required In Movements In Making Records In Physics And Astronomy, Much Labor Has Been Spent By The Psychologist And Physiologist In Measuring The Time Used ...

Read
Read, John Meredith, American Jurist: K Philadelphia, Pa., 21 July 17974.d-there,•29 Nov. 1874. He Was A Son Of George Read, Signer Of The Declaration Of Independence, Was Graduated At The University Of Pennsylvania In 1812 And Admitted To The Bar In 1818. In 1822-23 He Occupied A Seat In His ...

Read_2
Read, Nathan, American Inventor: B. Warren, Worcester County, Mass., 2 July 1759; D. Near Belfast, Maine, 20 Jan. 1849. He Was Graduated From Harvard In 1781; Studied Medi Cine; In 1796 Established With Others The Salem Iron Foundry, Where Chain Cables And Other Iron Work For Ships Were Manufactured, And ...

Read_3
Read, Thomas Buchanan, American Poet And Painter: B. Chester County, Pa., 12 March 1822; D. New York, 11 May 1872. His Father Was A Farmer And He Received But Little School Ing. He Lived At Various Times During His Youth And Young Manhood At Philadelphia, Cincinnati, New York And Boston, ...

Reading
Reading, Pa, City, County-seat Of Berks County, On The Schuylkill River And The Schuylkill Canal, And On The Pennsylvania And The Philadelphia And Reading Railroads, About 58 Miles Northwest Of Philadelphia, And 54 Miles East Of Harrisburg. Its Area Is About 10 Square Miles. Reading Was First Settled By English ...

Reading Op Earley
Reading Op Earley, Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Earl, British Jurist : B. London, 10 Oct. 1860. The Son Of A Fruit Merchant, He Was Educated At University College School, London, And In Brussels And Hanover. For A Time He Was A Seaman On A Coal Ship Running To South America, ...

Reads
Reads, Ad, Charles, English Novelist And Lay-writer: B. Ipsden House. Oxfordshire, 8 June 1814; D. Shepherd's Bush, London, 11 April 1884. He Was Graduated At Oxford In 1835, At Which He Obtained A Fellowship, And Was Called To The Bar In 1843, But, Finding Litera Ture More Attractive Than Law, ...

Real Variable
Real Variable, Theory Of Functions Of The; A Mathematical Science. A Variable Is A Symbol (such As X Or Y Or "time) Or 'temper Ature))) Which Stands For Any Member Of A Class Of Things. A Particular Member Of The Class Is Called A "value) Of The Variable Which Is ...

Realism And Naturalism In
Realism And Naturalism In Literature. Realism In Literature Means That The Writer Represents Persons, Scenes, Things, And Facts As They Are, Life As It Is. The Word Is Used In Many Senses—as Opposed To Romanticism, To Conventionalism, To Sentimentalism, To Ideal Ism, And To Imaginative Treatment. Sometimes It Is A ...

Realschulen
Realschulen, Ra-firshoo-len, A Class Of Institutions In The German System Of Secondary Education Characterized By The Em Phasis Laid Upon The Study Of The Sciences, Mathematics And Modern Languages As Opposed To The Gymnasia In Which The Classics Constitute The Principal Feature Of The Curriculum. The Realschule Took Its Rise ...

Realty
Realty And The Terms Real Property And Real Estate Denote The Interest One Has In Lands; It Applies Not Only To Ground But To Everything Which Is Attached Or A Part Of It, As Trees, Stones, Houses Or Other Structures. Timber, Grain And Grass Rooted To The Soil Are Realty, ...

Reams Station
Ream's Station, Battle Of. As The Extension Of General Grant's Left To Globe Tavern On The Weldon Railroad (see Gums Tavern, Battle Or) Did Not Prevent General Lee's Use Of The Road As A Line Of Supply Up To A Point Within A Day's Wagoning To Petersburg, General Grant Determined ...

Reapers And Binders
Reapers And Binders. Technically The °reaper* Is A Grain Harvesting Machine Which, In Addition To Cutting Down The Grain, Gathers It Into Bunches Ready For Tying Into Sheaves. Speaking Generally, However, The Mowing Machine Is Classed As A Reaper, Along With The Sidcle And Scythe And Other Such Simple Implements. ...

Reaumur
Reaumur, Ra-6-mfir, Rene Antoine Fer Chault De, French Physicist: B. La Rochelle, 28 Feb. 1683; D. La Bermondiere, Me., 17 Oct. 1757. He Studied Under The Jesuits At Poitiers, And Afterward At Bourges, And Went To Paris In 1703. His Relative, The President, Henault, Introduced Him To The Savants Of ...

Rebellion
Rebellion, An Uprising With Force And Arms Against Established Authority. A Rebellion May Be An Armed Outbreak For The Purpose Of Obtaining The Redress Of A Grievance Or Pre Venting The Enforcement Of An Obnoxious Law; Shays' Rebellion In Massachusetts Having Been An Example Of The Former, And The Pennsyl ...

Rebound Checks
Rebound Checks, Devices Attached To The Running-gear Of Automobiles And Designed To Check The Rapid Reaction Of A Spring Which Has Been Suddenly Compressed, And Thus Prevent The Bouncing Movement Of A Car, Which Is In Duced By The Extreme Resiliency Of Modern Springs. This Reaction Causes A Bouncing Move ...

Recall
Recall, The, Or As It Was Formerly Termed, The "imperative Mandate' Is A Process By Which The People, At Their Will, May Vacate Any Office Before The Expiration Of The Term For Which The Person Holding That Office Was Elected. Should Any Public Official Fail Properly To Per Form The ...

Receiver
Receiver, In Taw, Is An Officer Of The Court Through Whom The Court, On Account Of Its Jurisdiction, Takes Possession Of Property Which 2s The Subject Of A Suit, For The Purpose Of Pre Serving It From Injury Or Loss, Secures The Pro Ceeds And Finally Disposes Of Them According ...

Recidivists
Recidivists, In Law, Offenders Who Re Lapse Into Former Criminality. Statistics Show That A Large Percentage Of Persons Convicted Of Crime Are Old Offenders,. Or Recidivists. Figures Differ In Various Countries And In Various Parts Of The Same Country As To The Percentage. Per Haps At Least 40 Per Cent ...

Recitative
Recitative, Res"i-ta-tev' (italian, Reci Tativo), A Species Of Musical Recitation, Forming The Medium Between Song And Rhetorical Decla Mation, And In Which The Composer And Per Former, Rejecting The Rigorous Rules Of Time, Endeavor To Imitate The Inflections, Accents And Emphasis Of Natural Speech. Although The Rules Of Time And ...

Reclamation Laws
Reclamation Laws. Under This Heading Are Treated Two Groups Of Statutes Known Respectively As The Carey Act And The Reclamation Law. The Carey Act Provides For The Grant Of 1,000,000 Acres Of Desert Land In Each Of The States In Which Desert Land Occurs Upon Condi Tion That The State ...

Reclus
Reclus, Rã-klii, Jacques =see, French Geographer: B. Sainte-foy-la-grande, In The Gironde, 15 March 1830; D. Brussels, Hol Land, 4 July 1905. After Being Educated In The College Of His Native Town And At The Uni Versity Of Berlin He Traveled In Germany, Eng Land, Ireland And America. In 1859 He ...

Recollections Of Childhood And
Recollections Of Childhood And Youth. Renan's 'recollections Of Childhood And Youth) ('souvenirs D'enfance Et De Jeunesse)) Were Written Between 52 And 60, As The Matured Orientalist And Philosophic Interpreter Of Religious Evolution Looked Back With Celtic Sensitiveness Of Poetic Fancy On His Own Impressionable And Strangely-ordered Youth And The Struggles ...

Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance, Re-konl-sans, The Examination Of A Territory, District, Etc., Or Of An Enemy's For The Purpose Of Direct Ing Military Operations. Also The Preliminary Examination Of A Country Or District In Refer Ence To Its General Natural Character, Prepara Tory To A More Particular Survey For The Pur Poses Of ...

Recording Of Conveyances Or
Recording Of Conveyances Or Deeds, The Official And Public Registra Tion In All States Of All Conveyances Of Land, Made At Full Length, Either In The Office Of The Clerk Of The County Where The Land Is Situated, Or In What Is Known As The Register's Office. The Statutes Requiring ...

Recreation Centres
Recreation Centres. It Is Only In Recent Years That Serious Consideration Has Been Given To The Subject Of Recreation As A Fixed Phase Of Municipal Life. The Awakening Of Civic Spirit, However, Has Shown That In Order To Receive The Best From Its Citizens, The City Is Under Obligation To ...

Rectum
Rectum, The Lower Portion Of The Large Intestine Or Colon. The Term, However, Is A Misnomer So Far As The Human Anatomy Is Con Cerned, For The Bowel Adapts Itself To The Curves Of The Sacrum And At One Point Doubles Upon Itself. The Rectum Is From Six To Eight ...

Recusants
Recusants, Relefi-zants Or Re-kfizants, A Term In Use Under The Penal, Laws Of England, When It Was Sought To Force The Consciences Of The People By Legal Punishments. Recusants Were Those Persons Who Refused Or Neglected To Attend Divine Service On Sundays Or Holydays In The Established Church Or To ...

Red Cross Societies
Red Cross Societies, A General Name For Those Societies Founded For Assisting The Wounded In Time Of War, So Named Because Their Distinctive Badge Is A Red Cross On A White Ground. Such Societies Have Been Established An All Civilized Countries As A Result Of An Inter National Conference Held ...

Red River
Red River, A Large River Of The United States, The Southernmost Of The Great Tributa Ries Of The Mississippi River. Its Headwaters Are In The Northwestern Part Of Texas, On The Eastern Edge Of The Llano Estacado, And It Flows East-southeast, Forming The Boundary Be Tween Texas And The Indian ...

Red River Campaign
Red River Campaign. In 1864 Gen Eral Banks, To Reduce Texas, Asked For Rein Forcements In Order To Take In Rear The Confed Erate Works At Galveston And The Mouth Of The Brazos; But Halleck Advised Operating By Way Of The Red River, Capturing The Confederate Depot And Dockyard At ...

Red River Of The
Red River Of The North, A Stream Which Has Its Source Among The Lakes In The West Central Part Of Minnesota. It First Flows South And Southwest, Then West To The Boundary Between Minnesota And North Da Kota, Where It Turns North And Forms The Bound Ary Between The States ...

Red Robe
Red Robe, The. One Of The Most Pow Erful Of The Plays Of Social Criticism Written By Engine Brieux Is The Red Robe) ((la Robe Rouge)), Produced In 1900. It Is A Scathing Indictment Of The System Of Criminal Justice Peculiar To France. It Satirizes The Unscrupu Lous Place-hunting Of ...

Red Rover
Red Rover, The
Redfield
Redfield, William Charles, American Scientist: B. Middletown, Conn., 25 March 1789; D. New York, 12 Feb. 1857. In 1803 He Was Ap Prenticed To A Mechanic At Upper Middletown (now Cromwell), In 1811 Set Up For Himself At Middletown As A Mechanic And Small Merchant, And In 1821 Began His ...

Rediscounting
Rediscounting. To Foreigners It Has Always Been A Subject Of Wonderment That Re Discounting Remained In American Banking History A Branch Of Financial Service Availed Of Little Or Not At All. Rediscounting Has Even Been Looked Upon By American Bank Authorities Askance As A "bad* Practice And An Evidence Of ...

Redmond
Redmond, Red'mond, John Edward, Irish Political Leader: B. Dublin, 1851; D. March 1918. He Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin, Studied Law And Was Admitted To The Bar. In 1876 He Was Elected A Member Of The House Of Commons From New Ross, And Later Held A Position In The ...

Redpath
Redpath, James, Journalist: B. Ber Wick-on-tweed, England, 14 Aug. 1833; D. New York, 10 Feb. 1891. He Emigrated To De Troit, Mich., In 1848, And In 1852 Removed To New York And Became Connected With The Tribune. In 1855 He Went To Kansas And Took Part In The Free-soil Movement ...

Reds Of The Midi
Reds Of The Midi, The. The First Book Written In Modern Provencal To Be Pub Lished In English. Was Reds Of The Midi' ((les Rouges Du Midi,' 1896). In A Prologue, Felix Gras Gives A Charming Picture Of His Own Boyhood And Of His Juvenile Admiration For The Napoleonic Veteran ...

Redwood Of California
Redwood Of California, The Great Cypress-like Forest Tree (sequoia .cemper Virens) Of The Pacific Coast. It Is Of The Same Genus With The Big Trees (s. Gigantea), Botani Cally Described Under Sequoia ; The Latter Occurs In Scattered Groups On The West Slope Of The Sierra Nevada, While The Redwood ...

Reed
Reed, Joseph, American Soldier And Statesman : B. Trenton, N. J., 27 Aug. 1741; D. Philadelphia, 5 March 1785. He Was Graduated From Princeton And Spent Two Years Studying Law In The Middle Temple, London. He Re Turned To Trenton And Took Up The Practice Of Law And In 1767 ...

Reed_2
Reed, Thomas Brackett, American States Man: B. Portland, Maine, 18 Oct. 1839; D. Wash Ington, D. C., 7 Dec. 1902. He Was Graduated From Bowdoin College•n 1860, Winning The First Prise In English Composition. He Then Took Up The Study Of Law, Went To California In 1863, And Was Admitted ...

Reed_3
Reed, Walter, American Military Surgeon And Bacteriologist: B. Harrisonburg, Rocking Ham. County, Va., 1851; D. Washington, D. C., 23 Nov. 1902. He Was Graduated From The Medical Department Of The University Of Vir Ginia And From The Bellevue Hospital Medical College Of New York And Was Made First Lieu Tenant ...

Referendum
Referendum, In The United States, The Submission Of The Legislative Acts Of A Represen Tative Assembly To The People For Acceptance Or Rejection By Popular Vote. Under Its Ameri Can Application, The Referendum Means That A Specified Time Must Elapse Before A Law (or, In Case Of A City, An ...

Reflections On The Revolu
Reflections On The Revolu Tion In France, Published In 1790, Re Mains To-day One Of The Most Interesting And Important Of The Writings Of Edmund Burke (1724-97). The Immediate Object Was An Answer To A Famous Sermon Which Dr. Price Had Preached In Favor Of The Revolution, But It Amounts ...

Reformation
Reformation, The. The Reformation Was The Movement In The Religious Life Of Western Europe In The 16th Century Which Re Sulted In The Formation Of The Protestant Church. At Earlier Periods There Had Been A Feeling That Conditions In The Leadership Of Christendom Needed Improvement And Attempts At Betterment Were ...

Reformed Church In America
Reformed Church In America, The, Is One In Denominational Polity And Doc Trinal Type With The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church Of The Netherlands, And Bore That Name Until The Year 1867. The Beginnings Of Dis Tinctive Reformed Church Theology Should Be Credited To The Brethren Of The Common Life? This ...

Reformed Church In The
Reformed Church In The United States (the), Commonly Known As The German Reformed Church, Was Founded By Immigrants From Germany And Switzerland Who Came To The New World During The 18th Century, In Several Instances Driven Hither By Persecution. Some Went To Virginia, In Which The First Congregation Was Organized ...

Reformed Churches In South
Reformed Churches In South Africa. The Union Of South Africa Con Tains Six Reformed Churches. The Oldest Of These Is The Dutch Reformed Church Of The Cape Province, Dating From 1652 And Num Bering About 160 Congregations, Some Of Which Are Located In Rhodesia And Mashonaland. Its Theological Seminary Is ...

Reformed Episcopal Church
Reformed Episcopal Church, A Denomination Organized By Members Of The Protestant Episcopal Church, Who Give Substan Tially The Following Statement Of The Events And Circumstances Which, As They Believe, Justify Their Course : (1) The Protestant Reformation In England Had Outwardly A Political Origin (in The Act Of The King, ...

Refraction
Refraction, A Deviation In The Course Of A Ray Of Light When It Passes Through The Surface Of A Transparent Medium. A Familiar Result Of Refraction Is Seen When One Looks Very Obliquely Into A Transparent Pool Of Water, Of Which The Bottom Is Visible. The Water Seems Much Shallower ...

Refrigeration And Refriger Ating
Refrigeration And Refriger Ating Machinery. Refrigeration Is The Operation Of Cooling Substances By Artificial Means. Natural Ice Forms The Greatest Source Of Refrigeration, But There Are Certain Conditions Where Cold Produced Through Mechanical Means Possesses Advantages Over Natural Ice, Which Have Led To The Development Of A Number Of Re ...

Regeneration
Regeneration, The Act Or The State Of Being Born Again In A Spiritual Sense. The Word Is A Literal Version Of The Term Palingenesia, Pe Culiar To The New Testament, In Which It Occurs Twice Only, Namely, Mat. Xix, 28, Where It Signi Fies The Renovation Of All Things At ...

Regeneration
Regeneration, Is Zoology, Signifies The Reproduction, Or Natural Restoration, Of Parts Of The Body, Whether External Or Internal, Lost By Injury. This Power Of Renewal Belongs In Some Degree To All Living Creatures, And Is One Of The Distinguishing Features Of Organic, As Distinct From Inorganic, Nature. A Broken Crystal ...

Reger
Reger, Max, German Composer: B. Brand, Bavaria, 19 March 1873; D. Jena, 12 March 1916. He Removed With His Family To Weiden In 1874, And Received His Early Musical Training Under His Father And An Organist Named Lindner. In 1890-95 He Studied Under Riemann At Sondershausen And At The Conser ...

Regicide
Regicide, A Term Applied To Persons Who Bring About The Death Of A King, By Assassina Tion Or Otherwise And Specially Applied In His Tory To The Judges Of Charles. I, And The Mem Bers Of The French Convention Who Voted For The Death Of Louis Xvi. Of The Judges, ...

Regiment
Regiment. In Modern Armies The Regi Ment Is A Colonel's Command And Is The Largest Permanent Association Of Soldiers. Regiments May Be Combined Into Brigades, Brigades Into Divisions And Divisions Into Armies; But These Combinations Are But Temporary, While In The Regiment The Same Officers Serve Continually And In Command ...

Regina
Regina, Canada, City And Capit, Of The Province Of Saskatchewan And For Ni„.ty Years Previous To 1905 The Capital Of The West Territories, The Commercial, Educational, Social, Political And Industrial Centre Of That Prairie Country Lying Between Winnipeg And The Rocky Mountains And The Largest City Between Nipeg (356 Miles ...

Regiomontanus
Regiomontanus, German Astronomer, Whose Real Name Was Johann Muller, But Who Assumed That Of 1r.egiomontanus, In Allusion To The Place Of His Birth, Konigsberg (kings Mountain), Fran Conk: B. 6 June 1436; D. Rome, 6 July 1476. Having Received A Classical Education At Leip Zig, He Placed Himself Under Purbachius ...

Registration Of Property Titles
Registration Of Property Titles. The United States Leads The World In Its System — Which Is Practically The Same Everywhere Throughout The Union — Of Record Ing Property Transfers. The Possession Of A Deed Of Property Is Not Proof Of Title. The Title Rests Legally In The Person In Whose ...

Registration Of Voters
Registration Of Voters. Un Restricted And General Registration Of Voters Is Required By Law In 40 Of The American States, As A Check To Fraudulent Voting; In Two There Are No Registration Requirements; In The Others A Restricted Registration Is Required, As In Cities And Towns Of Specified Population, In ...

Regulus
Regulus, Rag'il-ifis, Marcus At'mut, Roman General Of The 3d Century B. C. He Was Made Consul In 267 B.c., And A Second Time About 256 B.c. With His Colleague, Manlius Vulso, He Commanded In The First War Against Carthage. With A Fleet Of 330 Ships Carrying 40,000 Men The Consuls ...

Reichenbach
Reichenbach, Rildnen-bint, Karl, Baton Vox, German Naturalist: B. Stuttgart, 12 Feb. 1788; D. Leipzig, 19 Jan. 1869. He Studied At Tfibingee, Where He Obtained The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy, And Was Denounced To The Napoleonic Police And Imprisoned For Hav Ing Organized An Association With The Fanciful Object Of ...

Reichsbank
Reichsbank, Deutsche, The Official Cen Tre Of The German Banking And Monetary Sys Tem, Was Inaugurated On 1 Jan. 1876, In Accord Ance With The German Banking Law Of 14 March 1875. While Established With Private Means And Forming A Corporate Body, It Is Under The Management And Supervision Of ...

Reid
Reid, Harry Fielding, American Geolo Gist: B. Baltimore, Md., 18 May 1859. He Was Educated At The Pennsylvania Military Academy And At The Johns Hopkins University, Later Studying In England And Germany In 1884-86. He Was Connected With The Faculty Of The Case School Of Applied Science, Cleveland, In 1886 ...

Reid_2
Reid, Stu Robert Gillespie, A Newfound Land Railway Contractor: B. Coupar-angus, Scotland, About 1842; D. Montreal, Canada, 3 June 1908. In 1865 He Went To Australia, Where He Took Part In Gold-mining And Public Works; In 1871 Came To America And Constructed Many Railways In The United States And Canada. ...

Reid_3
Reid, Thomas, Scottish Metaphysician: B. Strachan, Kincardineshire, 26 April 1710; D. Glasgow, 7 Oct. 1796. He Was Graduated At Marischal College, Aberdeen, In 1726, And In 1736 Presented To The Neighboring Living Of New Machar. It Was His Custom To Preach The Ser Mons Of Tillotson And Evans Rather Than ...

Reid_4
Reid, Whitelaw, American Diplomat: B. Xenia, Ohio, 27 Oct. 1837; D. London, England, 15 Dec. 1912. He Was Graduated From Miami University In 1856; And Began His Journalistic Career As Editor Of The Xenia News, In 1858-59. In 1860 He Became A Reporter For The Cincinnati Gazette, In 1861-62 Was ...

Reindeer
Reindeer, A Very Distinct Genus Rangi Fer, Of Cert.:ides, Unique In The Possession Of Antlers By Both Sexes, Though Those Of The Fe Male Are Somewhat Smaller. The Enro-asiatic Reindeer (rangifer Tarandus) Is The Only Domesticated Species Of The Family. It Extends Over The Boreal Regions Of The Eastern Hemi ...

Reisebilder
Reisebilder, Rrz6-10der. The 'pic Tures Of Travel) Belong To The First Period Of Heine's Literary Career And Made Him Famous As A Writer Of Prose. The First Volume (1826) And The Second (1827) Are Partly In Prose And Partly In Verse, While The Third (1830) And Fourth (1831) Contain Prose ...

Relapsing Fever
Relapsing Fever, A Disease So Called From The Fact That During Apparent Convales Cence A Relapse Of All The Symptoms Occurs; And This May Be Repeated More Than Once. It Is Also Called Famine Fever, Because It Has Oc Curred During Seasons Of Destitution Since 1739. Other Names For It ...

Relativity
Relativity, The Principle Of. The Principle Of Relativity Consists Essentially In The Hypothesis That It Is Impossible By Physical Ex Periment To Measure Or Detect The Absolute Mo Tion Of A Body Through Space. As A Conse Quence The Expressions "absolute Velocity" And "body At Rest" Have No Significance. Only ...