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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 23

Relics
Relics, The Mortal Remains Of Departed Saints; Objects Associated' In Memory With Them, Such.as Articles They Used In Life—clothes, Vestments, The Pectoral Cross Or The Pastoral Staff Of A Holy Bishop, Or The Like: Similar Re Minders Of The Life And Death Of Jesus Christ Are Also Relics; And The ...

Religio Medici
Religio Medici Was The First Of Sir Thomas Browne's Books And Has Always Been The One Most Generally Read. It Was First Printed In An Unauthorized Edition In 1642, Followed In The Next Year By An Edition Under Browne's Own Supervision. The Hook Was The Fruit Of Much Reading And ...

Religion
Religion, Established, Or State Re Ligion, That Form Of Religious Belief And Worship Which Is Recognized By The Government Or Constitution Of A Country As National And T*iiiitit &min Priinleges And Is Supported By The Treasury Or By Tithes. The Idea Of Complete Separation Of Civil Government And Religious Affairs ...

Religion
Religion Has Been Variously Defined Ac Cording To A Multitude Of Epistemological And Ethical Systems. The Pantheist Hegel Takes It To Be The Knowledge Acquired By The Finite Spirit Of Its Essence As Absolute Spirit.' Kant Makes Duty To Follow His Categoric Imperative Of The , Practical Reason; And Religion ...

Religious Education
Religious Education. The Phrase Greligious Education' Began To Take On A Definite And Technical Meaning Only In The 20tth Century. Up To That Time There Is' Scarcely Any Trace Of Its Use; To-day It Has A Recognized Place In Current Educational Coinage. Its Pri Mary Significance Is Not So Much ...

Religious Education Associa Tion
Religious Education Associa Tion, The, Was Organized In February 1903 At A Convention Called To Consider °the Improve Ment Of Moral And Religious Education?) The Movement Began Under The Inspiration Of Wil Liam Rainey Harper, Then President Of The Uni Versity Of Chicago, Who Organized A °council Of Seventy) First ...

Religious Sects
Religious Sects. From The Earliest Days Of The World's History Man Has Been More Or Less A Religious Creature. Almost In Variably He Has Had A God, Or Several Of Them, To Whom He Looked For Protection. At Times These Gods Have Been Crude Fetishes Of Whittled Wood Or Roughly ...

Religious Symbolism
Religious Symbolism Wolfgang Menzel (1854) Wrote ((the Picture Is Holy, Same As The Word. The Savior Spoke Pic Torially. The Picture Is As Powerful As The Word And More Penetrating Than Words. The . World Was More Pious While Christian Symbol Ism Was In Vogue; Laymen And Priests Were Bet ...

Reliques Of Ancient English
Reliques Of Ancient English Poetry, An Anthology Of Old English Bal Lads And Other Verse First Published In 1765 By Rev. Thomas Percy (q.v.), Vicar Of Easton Maudit, Northamptonshire, Who Later Became Bishop Of Dromore, Ireland. During A Visit At The House Of His Friend Humphrey Pitt At Shifnall, Shropshire, ...

Rembrandt
Rembrandt, Rem'brant Or -brint Mime Written Rembrandt Harmensz Van Kljn Or Ryn), Dutch Painter And Etcher: B. Leyden, 15 July 1607; D. Amsterdam, 8 Oct. 1669. He Was The Son Of A Miller Settled In Leyden; And An Early Shown Disposition Toward The Life Of An Artist Caused Him To ...

Remsen
Remsen; Ira, American Chemist And Edu Cator: B. New' York, 10 Feb. 1846. He Studied At The College Of The City Of New York, Was Graduated In 1867 From The Medical Department Of Columbia, Pursued' Chemical Courses At Munich And Gottingen, Arid In 1870-72 Was As-. Sistant To Prof. Rudolph ...

Remusat
Remusat, Rd-mii-zi„ Charles Francois Marie, 'costs Da, French Polhicioa And Man Of Letters, Son Of The Corntesse De Remusat (q.v.) : 13. Paris, 14 March 1797; .d. There, 6 June 1875. He Was Educated At The Lycee Napoleon And Entered Life As A Journalist And Lawyer. He Was A Member ...

Renaissance Painting
Renaissance Painting. In Central And Northern Italy, In The 14th Century, The Giotteschi, Or Scholars And Imitators Of Giotto, Soon Lost The Inspiration And Initiative Of His Art. His Great Principle Of The Direct Study' Of Nature Was Much Neglected; Portraiture, Which He Had Undertaken With Imperfect Knowledge, Became A ...

Renan
Renan, Ernest, French Historian, Philosopher, Dramatist And Essayist : B. Treguier, Cote-du-nord (brittany), 27 Feb. 1823; D. Paris, 2 Oct. 1892. The Priests Who Directed The School In Treguier Conducted His Education Up To His 16th Year. When He Was Chosen In 1838 By The Abbe Dupanloup For A Place ...

Reni
Reni, Guido, Oda Wire, Italian Painter: B. Bologna, Nov. 1575; D. There, 18 Aug. 1642. His First Instruction Was Received In Calvaert's Celebrated School At Bologna Where He Studied The Works Of Albrecht Diirer. When The School Of The Caracci, At Bologna, Began To Eclipse That Of Calvaert, Guido, Then ...

Rennell
Rennell, Ren'el, James, English Geog Grapher : B. Chudleigh, Devonshire, 3 Dec. 1742; D. London, 29 March 1830. At 13 He Entered The Navy As Midshipman And Was Present At The Siege Of Pondicherry. In 1763 He Entered The East India Company's Sea Service; The Next Year Was Appointed Surveyor-general ...

Rennie
Rennie, John, Scottish Civil Engineer: B. Phantassie, Haddingtonshire, 7 June 1761; D. London, 4 Oct. 1821. At An Early Age He Showed An Interest In Mechanics And Frequented The Shop Of The Millwright Andrew Mickle, Inventor Of The Threshing Machine. Later He Spent Three Years At The Edinburgh University, And ...

Renouf
Renouf, Snit Peter Le Page, English Egyptologist : B. Guernsey, 23 Aug. D. Lon Don, 14 Oct. 1897. He Was Educated At Eliza Beth College, Whence He Passed To Pembroke College, Oxford, Where He Came Under The In Fluence Of Newman And The Tractarians And In 1842 Entered The Roman ...

Rensselaer Polytechnic In Stitute
Rensselaer Polytechnic In. Stitute, Located At Troy, N. Y. It Was Founded By Stephen Van Rensselaer In 1824 As A School Of Practical Science, Being The First School Of Science And The First School Of Engi Neering To Be Established In Any English-speak Ing Country. It Was First Opened To ...

Rent
Rent. Rent Is Commonly Defined As The Income Received For The Use Of Land, Whether The Owner Uses It Himself Or Leases It To Some One Else. Land, However, Must Be Distinguished I From Real Estate Which Includes Not Simply The Land Itself, But The Improvements And The Fixtures On ...

Rent_2
Rent, Law Of. Rent Being The Sum, Duty Or Return Levied On The Occupants, Lessee Or User Of Land, Buildings, Apartments, Rooms, Machin Ery, Tools, Power, Heat, Artificial Light, Etc., For The Benefit Of The Owner It Follows That A Rela Tion Is Thereby Instituted From Which Many Legal Complications ...

Reorganized Church Of Jesus
Reorganized Church Of Jesus Christ Of Latter Day Saints, The, Organized 6 April 1860, At Amboy, Ill. On 27 June 1844 Joseph Smith, President Of The Church Of Jesus Christ Of Latter Day Saints And His Brother Hyrum, The Patriarch, Were Murdered By A Mob At Carthage, Ill. Following This ...

Reply To Hayne
Reply To Hayne, The The Reply Delivered By Daniel Webster Of Massachusetts In The United States Senate 26-27 Jan. 1830 (to Senator Robert Y. Mayne, Of South Carolina) Was The Culmination Of A Debate That Arose Over An Unimportant Resolution Regarding The Sale Of The Public Lands, And Grew To ...

Repousse
Repousse, Re-p455'sa.'. A Term Taken From The French, Meaning 'beaten Back.° It Is Used To Designate The Formation Of Raised (re Lief) Ornament In Metal On Flat Or Hollow Ware. In Its Stricter Interpretation The Term Refers To That Division Of Beaten Relief Work Which Is Performed By Hammering Or ...

Representative Government
Representative Government. Representative Government In The Modern Mean Ing Of The Term Was Unknown To The Ancients. Kings, Chiefs And Administrative Officers Were Often Elected By Popular Vote Or Acclamation, But Neither In Ancient Greece Nor Rome Did A Body Exist Even Remotely Resembling A Con Gress, A Parliament Or ...

Republic
Republic, A Word Signifying A State In Which The People Are The Source Of Power, The Degree Of Popular Sovereignty In Republics Has Varied Very Widely In The Past, Most Of The So. Called Republics Having Been Ruled By An Aris Tocracy Which Jealously Guarded Its Own Rights, But Treated ...

Republican Party
Republican Party, The The Re Publican Party Was An Inevitable Outgrowth Of The Conditions Which Prevailed About The Time Of The Repeal Of The Missouri Compromise In 1854. The Whigs, Incapable Of Grappling With New Problems, Were Rapidly Disintegrating; No One Of The Sporadic Parties Sprouting In The Political Confusion ...

Republics
Republics, Duration Of. It Is Not E To Set Down In Each Case Precisely The Length Of Years That The Various Republics Have Ex Isted. Among Historians There Are Differences, In Most Instances, As To The Dates Of Beginning And Ending. Some Authorities Date From The Physical Overthrow Of A ...

Republics
Republics, The History Of. The Word Republic Is Derived From The Latin Res, A Thing, And Publicus, Belonging To The People. The Word Is Frequently Applied To Any Group Of In Dividuals Having A Common Interest In Their Pursuits, As The Republic Of Letters. Its General Usage, However, Is As ...

Repudiation
Repudiation, A Term Signifying The Refusal Of A National Or State Government To Pay Pecuniary Obligations, Especially Bonds Or Other Evidences Of Borrowed Money. Nearly All Lead Ing Countries Have At Some Time In Their His Tory, Repudiated Indebtedness. England Has Never Repaid Money Borrowed For Public Uses From A ...

Resacade La Palma
Resaca..de La Palma. Da. 1i Pal'ma, Battle Of, In The Mexican War (qv.). After The Battle Of Palo Alto (q.v.), 8 May 1846, The Mexican General Mariano Artista Fell Back On The Road To Meta:mores And Took, Posi Tion In A Ravine Called Remelt De La Palma (palm Ravine) In ...

Rescission
Rescission, Re-sish'iin, A Legal Term Designating The Act Of Rescinding Or Abrogating A Voidable Contract, That Is, A 'contract In Force But Which Owing To Some Injustice, Infirmity Or Demand Of Justice Or Public Policy May Be An Nulled, And Refers To The Dissolution Of The Con-. Tract Through The ...

Reservations
Reservations, Indian. When The Settlers From Europe Came To Realize That The Indians Had Human Rights, And Ought Not To Be Enslaved Or Exterminated, The Rule Was Gener Ally Adopted Of Confining The Tribes To Reserva Tions, Both For Their Own Protection From Un Principled Whites And For The Security ...

Reserve
Reserve, In Military Affairs, Has Several Significations. In Battle The Reserve Consists Of Those Troops Not In Action, And Destined To Sup Ply Fresh Forces As They Are Needed, To Support Those Points Which Are Shaken And To Be Ready To Act At Decisive Moments. Napoleon's Guards, And His Disposition ...

Reservoir
Reservoir, A Large And Commodious Receptacle For Storing Water For Any Purpose, But More Commonly For Supplying Cities And Towns, Feeding Canals Driving Machinery And The Like. A Dam Differs From A Reservoir In That The Name Applies Only To The Artificial Structure That Holds Back The Water, While The ...

Resistance
Resistance, Electrical, That Property Of Electrical Conductors In Virtue Of Which The Passage Of A Current Of Electricity Through Them Is Necessarily Accompanied By The Dissipation Of A Part Of The Energy In The Form Of Heat. It Is Manifested Not Only In A Linear Conductor Like A Wire, But ...

Resolutions Of 96
Resolutions Of '96, The Designation Commonly Given To The Kentucky And Virginia Resolutions Of 1798, Defining The Relations Be Tween The State And Federal Governments, And Protesting Against Certain Acts Of Congress As Unconstitutional, And As Violating The Rights Re Served To The States. The Resolutions Offered In The Kentucky ...

Resorcin Resorcinol
Resorcinol, Resorcin, 1:3 Dihy Droxy Benzene, C41-14(oh),, Is Formed By The Fusion Of Certain Resins Or Gums With Caustic Alkalis. Aromatic Compounds Containing Two Side Chains, E.g., Benzene Chlorsulphonic Acids, Benzene Disulphonic Acids And Halogen Phenols, Will Also Yield Resorcin When Fused With Caustic Alkalis. On A Commercial Scale Resorcin ...

Respiration
Respiration. The Essential Process In Respiration Is The Taking In Of Oxygen And The Giving Out Of Carbon Dioxide By The Living Cells Of A Plant Or Animal. In Higher Animals Special Organs, The Lungs (q.v.), And A Special Tissue, The Blood (q.v.), Are The Main Factors In This Exchange; ...

Restip De La Bretonne
Restip De La Bretonne, Nicolas Edme, French Novelist And Reformer : B. Sacy, 1734; D. 1806. Bretonne, Though Unknown To The General Public, Holds A Remarkable Place In French Literature. The Son Of A Farmer, He Was Educated By The Jansenists, And On Their Ex Pulsion From France Became A ...

Restoration
Restoration, In Matters Of Fine Art, The Putting Of A Building, A Work Of Sculpture, A Painting Or Other Work Of Art Into What Is Thought To Have Been Its Original Perfect Con Dition. There Is, However, A Secondary Mean Ing Which Is Often Used In A Way To Cause ...

Restraint Of Trade
Restraint Of Trade, That Which Tends Unreasonably To Restrict Or Prevent Trade. By Common Law A Contract Which Deprives A Person Of The Right Freely To Engage In Lawful Business Is Void As Contrary To Public Policy. However, Contracts Which Are In Partial Re Straint Of Trade, For A Valuable ...

Resurrection
Resurrection, Generally Spoken Of As Resurrection Of The Dead, Or Of The Body ( Resurrectio Mortuorum, Resurrectio Carnil, Iivarracric Vexp6v) Is The Doctrine Of The Reunion Of The Soul And Body Of Man After Their Separation In Death. This Teaching Of Re Vealed Religion Should Be Distinguished From That Of ...

Retaining Wall
Retaining Wall, A Wall Usually Of Masonry, Erected For The Purpose Of Confining A Body Of Water In A Reservoir, Or For Resisting The Thrust Of The Ground Behind It. Without Such A Wall The Earth Would Slide, Or Lie At A Considerable Angle Off The Perpendicular. A Bank Of ...

Retardation Of Pupils
Retardation Of Pupils. This Term Is Popularly Used By Educators To Mean That A Pupil Is Old In Years For His Grade, On The Basis Of Being In The First Grade Of The Elementary School Course At The Age Of Six Or Seven Years. According To This General Plan. All ...

Return Of The Native
Return Of The Native, The (1878), One Of The Masterpieces Of Thomas Hardy And Perhaps The Best Of All His Earlier Novels, Deals With The People In The Very Centre Of His Favorite Land Of The Scene Never Leaves Egdon Heath, And On This Sombre Uniting Of Various Real Places ...

Retz
Retz, Jean Francois Paul De Gond*, Cardinal De, French Politician: B. Montmfrail, 19 Sept. 1613; D. Paris, 24 Aug. 1679. His In Structor Was The Celebrated Vincent De Paul. In 1643 He Received A Doctorate At The Sorbonne, And Was Appointed Coadjutor Of The .archbishop Of Paris: Although Preferring Military ...

Reuchlin
Reuchlin, Johann' (hellen. Ized Kama)), German Hebrew ' Scholar And Humanist: B. Pforzheim Baden, 22 Feb. 1455: D. Liebenzell, 30 June 1522. The Excellence Of His Singing Procured Him• A Place In The Chapel Bf The Margrave Of Baden, Who Appointed Him Crinkling Companion To His Son Frederick, After Ward ...

Reuss
Reuss, Germany, Two Central Principali Ties Belonging To An Older And A Younger Line, Somewhat Intermingled With And Lying Between Saxony, Bavaria And The Saxon Duchies. Total Area Of Both Principalities, 441 Square Miles, Mostly Mountainous. The Territory Of The Older Line, The Principality Of Reuss-grez, Consists Of The Lordships ...

Reuter
Reuter, Roi't4r, Fritz, .german Dialect Poet And Story Writer : B. Stavenhagen, Meck Lenburg-schwerin, 7 Nov. 1810; D. Eisenach, 12 July 1874. He Studied Law At The Universities Of Rostock And Jena, And In 1833 Was Con Demned To Death At Berlin For His Share In A Students' Democratic Society. ...

Revelation Of John
Revelation Of John. The Last Of The Canonical Books Of The New Testament. General Character.— The Book, As Its Name Implies, Purports To Be A Revelation (airmaavilgs, An ((uncovering))) Or Unveiling Of The Secrets Of The Divine Purpose In Reference To God's King Dom On Earth In Its Conflict With ...

Revenue Cutter Service
Revenue Cutter Service, United States. The Organization Of This Service In 1790 Was The Conception Of The First Secretary Of The Treasury Under The Constitution, Alex Ander Hamilton. In Emphasizing Its Importance Hamilton Recommended 'giving The Officers Military Or Naval Rank, Which Will Not Only In Duce Fit Men To ...

Revere
Revere (french, Rrvoraz), Paul, Ameri Can Patriot : B. Boston Mass., 1 Jan. 1735; D. There, 10 May 1818. He Was Trained As A Gold And Silver-smith And Was Sldlful In The Engrav Ing Of Designs For Silver Plate. In 1756 He Participated In The Expedition For The Capture Of ...