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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 23

Ritualism
Ritualism, A Term Designating The Prac Tices Of A Party In The Church Of England And The Episcopalian Church In The United States And Elsewhere, In Surrounding The 'public Wor Ship With A Variety Of Rites And Ceremonies, And In Resuscitating Certain Features And Usages Of The Catholic Church In ...

Rival
Rival. The., Not Long After His Mar Riage Sheridan Was Asked By The Manager Of Covent Garden Theatre To Write A Play For That Theatre. He Set To Work With Alacrity And Finished
Rivers
Rivers (fr., Rim Ilre; Span., Ribera; It., Rivicra; Lat., Riparius, From Ripa, Hank, Of Or Belonging To A Bank), Bodies Of Water Of Con Siderable Size Flowing With Perceptible Currents In Definite Channels, And Usually Without Cessa Tion During The Year. Some Watercourses Are Designated As Rivers, Although Their Beds ...

Rivington
Rivington, James, American Printer: B. London, About 1724; D. New York, 4 July 180z Early In Life He Was A Bookseller In London, But In 1760 Came To America And Opened A Shop In Philadelphia, Then In 1761 Established Himself In New York, And On 22 April 1773 Began The ...

Roads And Highways
Roads And Highways. Historical Review.— Road Building Requires Community Action Of A Fairly High Order. Savage:man Built No Roads Nor Had He Any Conscious Need For Them. His Wants Were Few Of An In Dividual Character. Gradually, However,, As He Mounted The Ladder Of Civilization His Wants Increased Both Individually ...

Roanoke Island
Roanoke Island, Battle Of. After The Ca Tore By Union Troops Of Fort Hatteras And Clark, At Hatteras Inlet (q.v.), 29 Aug. 1861, The Confederates Began To Erect Works On Roanoke Island, To Command The Narrow Chan Nel Connecting Albemarle And Pamlico Sounds, Considered As The Key To One-third Of ...

Robbery
Robbery, Is The Wrongful Taking, Without A Claim Of Right, Of A Thing Of Value From One's Person Against His Will, Or By Force, Or Through Placing Him In Fear. In The United States The Offense Is Regulated By The Statutes Of The Vari Ous Jurisdictions, In Some Of Which ...

Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard, Geekar, The Re Sourcenn., Norman-italian Soldier And Noble, B. Near Contances, Normandy , C. 1015: (1. Cepha Lonia, Greece, 15 July 1085. His Father Was Tancred Of Hauteville. His Brothers William Of The Iron Arm, Dgo And Hemphrey Having Gained Distinction In Italy, Robert Who Bad Developed Into ...

Roberts
Roberts, John Bingham, American Sur Geon And Author : B. Philadelphia, Pa., 29 Feb. 1852. He Was Graduated At The University Of Pennsylvania In 1871, Received The Degree Of A.m. In 1874, And That Of M.d. At Jefferson Medical College In 1874. He Was Formerly Attending Physician • And Lecturer ...

Roberts_2
Roberts, Morley, English Novelist And Journalist: B. London, 29 Dec. 1857. After Study At Owens College, Manchester, He Went, In 1874, To Australia, And There Worked On Railways In Victoria And As A Sheep And Cattle Rancher In The New South Wales Bush. Then He Was Be Fore The Mast ...

Robertson
. Robertson, Archibald Thomas, Amer Ican Baptist Theologian: B. Near Chatimm, Va., &nov. 1863. He Was Educated At The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary; Became Ass°+ Slated With Its Teaching Staff In 1888, And Since 1895 Has Been Professor Of Theological Inter There. Author Of 'syllabus Of New Testament •syntax) (1900) ...

Robertson_2
Robertson, James, American Pioneer: B. Brunswick. County, Va., 28 June 1742'; D. Ulidlaibw' Region, Tenn., 1 Sept. 1814. In 17w He Accompanied Daniel Boone. (q.v.) On The Latter's Third Exploration, And Stopping At Watauga (now Elisabcthton, Tenn.), Planted Corn. In 1770 He Returned Thither With• A Band Of North Carolinian ...

Robertson_3
Robertson, William Schenck, Edu Cator And Mission Superintendent: B. Hunting Ton, L. I., 11 Jan. 1820; D. 26 June 1881. He Was Fitted For College At Several Different Acade Mies And Graduated From Union College, Schenectady, In 1843. He Started To Study Medicine Hut, After Partially Completing His Course, Decided ...

Robin
Robin, A Name Originally Applied In Eng Land To The Red-breast (q.v.), A Bird So Familiar And So Dear To The English Heart That Loyal Colonists In Many Parts Of The World Have Felt Impelled To Transfer The Name To Native Species, Which Often Resemble The Original In Little But ...

Robin Hood Ballads
Robin Hood Ballads, The. Ballads And Tales Of The Outlaw Have Been Steady Favorites Of The People Of England. Soon After The Conquest, Rebels Of High Rank, Like Hereward And Fulke Fitz-warine, And Many A Humbler Hero Who °concealed His Life,' Were Said And Sung By The Popular Muse. Their ...

Robinson
Robinson, Charles, First Governor Of Kansas: B. Hardwick, Mass., 18 July 1818; D. Lawrence, Kan., 17 Aug. 1894. He Was Edu Cated At Ainherst And At The Berkshire Medical School, Taking His M.d. In 1843. He Was En Gaged In The Practice Of Medicine At Belcher Town, Springfield And Pittsfield, ...

Robinson Crusoe
Robinson Crusoe, The Best-known Work Of Daniel Defoe And One Of The Most Widely Read Of All Modern Books, Was Pub Lished At London, On Or About 25 April 1719, By William Taylor At The Sign Of The Ship In Pater Noster Row, In An Octavo Volume Some What Exceeding ...

Robinson_2
Robinson, Snit Hercules George Robert, 1st Baron Rosm.ead, British Colonial Governor : B. 19 Dee. 1824; D. London, 28 Oct 1897. He Was Educated At Sandhurst And Was Commi.v. Sinned In The 87th Regiment (irish Royal Fusiliers) In 1843. He Retired From The Army In 1846 And Became Commissioner Of ...

Robinson_3
Robinson, John, English Independent Clergyman: B. Lincolnshire, About 1576; D. Ley Den, Holland, 1 March 1625. It Has Been Widely Assumed That He Was Educated At Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. He Was, Say Certain Later Writers, Suspended From A Benefice In Norfolk. He Himself Mentions A Residence In Norwich, Where ...

Robusti
Robusti, Jacopo. See Tinto Retto. Roc, R6k, A Mythical Bird Of Enormous Size, Supposed To Have Been Able To Perform Won Derful Feats Of Strength And Ferocity. The Most Popular Accounts Of The Roc Are Given In 'the Arabian Nights' Entertainments,' Where The Bird Plays An Important Part In The ...

Rochambbau
Rochambbau, Ro-shail-b6, Jean Bap Tiste Donatien De Vimeur, Collis De, French Marshal: B. Vendome, 1 July 1725; D. Thore, 10 May 1807. He Was The Son Of The Governor Of His Native Town And Was Brought Up For The Church, But At 17 Entered The Army. He Fought With Distinction ...

Rochbfort
Rochbfort, Henri, 66-re Rash-for (victor Henri, Marquis De (ay), French Journalist And Politician: B. Paris, 30 Jan_ 1830; D. 1 July 1913. He Became Known As The Author Of Successful Vaudevilles And Farces And As A Contributor To Chorivari, Figaro And Other Parisian Periodicals, Wherein His Political Reviews Were Marked ...

Rochester
Rochester, Minn., City And County-seat Of Olmstead County, On The Ztimbro River, And On The Chicago And Northwestern And The Chicago Great Western Railroads, About 90 Miles Southeast Of Saint Paul And 49 Miles West Of Winona. It Was Settled In 1854 By James Bucidin And Mr. Proudfoot, And Incor ...

Rock Drills And Rock
Rock Drills And Rock Drill Ing. The Steam Or Rock Drill Is Known To-day As An American Invention And Its Inception Dates Back To The Excavation Of The Hoosac Tunnel In Massachusetts. This Enterprise Was Fathered During Its Period Of Construction By The State Of Massachusetts And Was Beset With ...

Rock Excavating Machinery
Rock-excavating Machinery. In Quarrying The Most Important Machines Are The Channeler, The Gadder, Rock Drill, Air Com Pressor, Etc. To Meet The Varying Requirements Of Different Classes Of Work Four Styles Of Track Channelers Are Manufactured. Upright Channeler.— This Consists Of A Truck Mounted On Four Flanged Wheels Running On ...

Rock Fish
Rock-fish, The Name Of Several Fishes Usually Found About Reefs And On Rocky Bottom. In The United States The Most Prominent One Is The Striped Or Rock Bass (see Bass) ; Another Is A Grouper (epinephelus Adcensionis) Of The West Indies, Called By English-speaking Fisher Men Grock-hind.* The Name Applies ...

Rock Island
Rock Island, Ill., City, County-seat Of Rock Island County, On The Mississippi River And On The Chicago, Rock Island And Pacific, The Chicago, Burlington And Quincy, Rock Island Southern And The Milwaukee And Saint Paul Railroads, )80 Miles West By South Of Chicago, Opposite Davenport,iowa, A Few Miles Below Moline ...

Rockefeller
Rockefeller, John Davison, Amer Ican Capitalist: B. Richford, Tioga County, N. Y., 8 July 1839. After An Education In The Public Schools Of Cleveland, He There Entered A Mercantile Establishment As Clerk, And Subse Quently Was Made Cashier And Bookkeeper. In 1858 He Became A Member Of The Firm Of ...

Rockefeller Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation. In March 1910 Mr. John D. Rockefeller Set On Foot A Scheme To Distribute A Large Amount Of His Wealth, For The Avowed Purpose Of Uplifting Humanity All Over The World, By Organizing His Philanthropic Work Through The United States Government. At His Request Senator Gallinger Introduced A ...

Rockefeller Institute For Medical
Rockefeller Institute For Medical Research. This Institution Was Incorporated 14 June 1901, With Dr. Wil Liam H. Welch, Of Baltimore, President; Dr. T. Mitchell Prudden, Of New York; Dr. Christian A. Hester (since Died In 1910) ; Dr. Theobold Smith, Of Boston; Dr. Hermann M. Briggs, Of New York; Dr. ...

Rockford
Rockford, Rok'ford, Ill., City, County. Seat Of Winnebago County, On The Rock River, And On The Chicago And Northwestern, The Chicago, Milwaukee And Saint Paul, Chicago, Burlington And Quincy And The Illinois Central Railroads, 81 Miles Northwest Of Chicago. It Was Settled In 1834, Being The First Settlement In The ...

Rockingham
Rockingham, Rok'ing-am, Charles Watson-wentworth, Marquis Of, English Statesman: B. 13 May 1730; D. 1 July 1782. He Was Educated At Westminster School And Saint John's College, Cambridge, And In 1750 Was Created An Irish Peer Under The Titles Of Baron And Earl Of Malton, Later In The Same Year Be ...

Rockland
Rockland, Me. City And County-seat Of K*ols C94,inty; Set Off Me.thomaston In 1848 And Incorporated A City In 1854. On A Harbor Which Is An Easterly Extension Of Penobscot Bay At Its Mouth; Is Very Commodious And Easily Accessible; Is Protected By A Breakwater Costing $500,000 And Two Lighthouses. Rockland ...

Rocks
Rocks. Regarded As A Whole, The Earth, So F As We Can Examine It First Baud And This Know It Intimately, Consists Of Three Envelopes: (1) An Outer Gaseous Envelope Called The At Mosphere; (2) A Middle Aqueous Envelope Called The Hydrosphere; (3) An Inner Solid Envelope Called The Lithosphere. ...

Rocky
Rocky •mountain Goat, A Telope (oreamnot Mostatiu4), Related To The Chamois And Serow, Which Inhabit *heights Of The Rocky Mountains And Cascade Be Tween The Forests And The Snow Line, From The 44th To The 65th Degree Of Latitude. It Is About The Size Common Goat, But Is Stouter, Hand ...

Rocky Gap
Rocky Gap, Engagement At. Oh 5 Aug. 1863 Gen. W. W. Averell, With A Brigade Of Cavalry And Mounted Infantry And A Six-gun Battery, Left Winchetser, Va., For A Raid Into West Virginia, Which Was To Be Continued To Lewisburg And The Virginia And Tennessee Railroad. He Moved By Way ...

Rocky Mountain Subregion
Rocky Mountain Subregion, A Rather Indefinite Zoogeographical Region Em Bracing The Elevated Area Occupied By The Rocky Mountains, Which Zoologically Presents Certain Peculiarities Very Noticeable-n:0 A Traveler From Either The Eastern Lowlands Or The Pacific Coast. The Resemblance In The Fauna Is, Indeed, Rather To The East Than To The ...

Rodin
Rodin, R6-daft, (francois) Auguste, Eminent French Sculptor : B. Paris, Novem Ber 1840; D. 17 Nov. 1917. After Working In A Subordinate Position In Several Studios He Exhibited For The First Time In The Salon In 1875, And Since Then Became Well Known As A Sculptor Utterly Beyond The Control ...

Rodman
Rodman, Hugh, American Naval Officer: H. Frankfort, Ky, 6 Jan. 1859. In 1880 He Was Graduated At The Naval Academy Of The United States And At The Naval War College In 1907. In 1883 He Was Promoted Ensign, Junior Grade; Became Ensign In The Following Year And Was Made Lieutenant, ...

Rodriguez
Rodriguez, Jose Ignacio, Cuban-amer Ican Lawyer And Author: B. Havana, Cuba, 11 Nov. 1831; D. Washington D. C., I Feb. 1907. He Was Educated At The University Of Havana And Studied American Law Under Caleb Cush Ing. In 1855 He Was Admitted To The Bar At Havana And In The ...

Rodriguez De Fonseca
Rodriguez De Fonseca, Juan. See Fonseca, Juan Rodriguf_z. Rodrfguez Galvan, Van', Ignacio, Mexican Poet And Dramatist : B. 1816; D. 1842. Although He Died At The Early Age Of 26 He Had Already Proved Himself One Of The Greatest Dramatic And Poetic Geniuses Of Mexico And One Of The Masters ...

Rodriguez_2
Rodriguez, Rod-re'ges, A Volcanic Island In The Indian Ocean, 19° 41' S. And 63° 23' E., About 345 Miles East By North Of Mauritius (q.v.), Of Which It Is A Dependency, And Con Nected By Cable Telegraph. It Is 13 Miles Long By Six Miles Wide, And The Altitude Is ...

Roger Il
Roger Il King Of Sicily: B. About 1095; D. February 1154, Second Son Of Roger I. His Elder Brother, Simon, Died In 1102, And During His Minority The Government Was Administered First By His Mother, Adelheid, A Daughter Of The Margrave Boniface Of Montserrat, And Then By Prince Robert Of ...

Rogers
Rogers, Howard Jason, American Edu Cator: B. Stertbsatowai N. V., 16 Nor 1861. His Early Education Was Obtained In Public Schools And At The Pittsfield. Mass., High School; After Graduation In 1880 He Entered Williams College, From Which He Was Graduated A.b. In 1884. He Was Admitted To The New ...

Rogers_2
Rogers, John, English Reformed Clew Man, First Martyr In The Persecution Under Queen Mary: B. Deritend, Aston Parish, Near Birmingham, About 1500; D. London, 4' Feb. 1555. Ile Obtained His Education At Cambridge In 1532-34, Was Rector Of Trinity And Less, Lon Don, And Then Went To Antwerp As Chaplain ...

Rogers_3
Rogers, Samna, English Poet: B. Stoke Newington, London, 30 July 1763; D. London, 18 Dec. 1855. After Attendance At Private School He Entered The Rogers Banking Estab Lishment As A Clerk, But His Favorite Pursuits Were Poetry And General Literature. In 1786 He Printed Anonymously 'an Ode To Superstition, Ry ...

Rogers_4
Rogers, William Augustus, American 'astronomer B. Waterford, Conn., 13 Nov. 1832; D. Waterville, Me., 1 March 1898. He Was Graduated From Brown University In 1857, En Gaged In Teaching At Alfred University And In 1858 Accepted Its Chair Of Mathematics And Astronomy. In 1864-65 He Served In The United States ...

Rogers_5
Rogers, William Barton, American Ge Ologist And Physicist: B. Philadelphia, 7 Dec. 1804• D. Boston, 30 May 1882. He Was Edu Cated At William And Mary College, Gave Scien Tific Lectures Before The Maryland Institute In 1827 And In 1828 Became Professor Of Natural Philosophy And Chemistry In His Alma ...

Rogersville
Rogersville, Engagements At On 5 Nov. 1863 Col. Israel Garrard, With The 7th Ohio Cavalry, 2d Tennessee Mounted Infantry, And A Battery Of Four Guns, Occupied Rogers= Ville, Tenn., Camping Near The Town. Durine Day Gen. W. E. Jones, With About 2,500 The 00 Confederate Cavalry, Crossed The Holston River ...

Rogier
Rogier, Rei-zhe-ft, Charles Latour, Bel Gian Statesman: B. Saint Quentin, 17 Aug. 1800; D.. Brussels, 27 May 1885. He Was Edu Cated At The University Of Liege And M The Outbreak Of The. Belgian Revolution In Septem Ber 1830 Hecame A Revolutionary Leader In B'rus Selsl On 24 September He ...

Rojas
Rojas, Fernando De, Spaniard, The Re Pnted Author Of The
Roland Song
Roland Song, The ((la Chanson De Roland)) Is The Chief French Chivalrous Epic And Almost The Oldest To Survive. Written Be Fore 1080, The Creation Of A Single Minstrel Who Was A True Poet, It Bears Internal Evidence Of A Legendary Ancestry Stretching Back Almost To The Days Of Charlemagne. ...

Rolling Mills
Rolling Mills Are Machines Employed To Convert Masses Of Metal Into Bars, Plates And Commercial Shapes. They Consist Of Rolls In Pairs, Driven In Opposite Directions At Nearly The Same Surface Speed, And Variously Grooved And Molded, Between Which The Metal Is Passed While Hot. In Successive Rollings By Passing ...

Romaic Literature
Romaic Literature. Already Some Centuries Before Ancient Greek Declined And Be Came Extinct There Existed A Dialect Among The Common People Which Gradually Replaced The Majestic Tongue Of Hellas. Until About The Middle Of The 18th Century This Dialect, Out Of Which Grew The Romaic Or Neo-hellenic, De Generated In ...

Roman De La Rose
Roman De La Rose, Le Ro Mance Of The Rose'), A Poem Of Nearly 23,000 Verses, Is The Most Notable And Was For 300 Years The Most Quoted And Discussed French Writing Of The 13th Century. More Than 200 Manuscripts Of It Have Been Classified; 18 Edi Tions Were Printed ...

Roman Nose
Roman Nose, A Cheyenne Indian Who Operated Along The Kansas Border From 1864 To 1868. He Was A Brave And Daring Leader Of A Resourceful Nature And Much Feared On That Account. In 1866 The Whites Began To Push Into The Country Of The Cheyenne And A Railway Was Being ...

Roman Religion
Roman Religion. From The Time That The Roman Religion Appears Within The Pale Of Traditional And Recorded History It Seems To Have Been Constantly And Progressively Sub Jected To Varying Influences, Both Internal And External, And To Have Passed Through Many Changes. For This Reason Different Writers Have Had Very ...

Romance
Romance, A Fictitious Narrative In Prose Or Verse, The Interest Of Which Turns Upon Inci Dents Either Marvelous Or Uncommon. The Name Is Derived From The Class Of Languages In Which Such Narratives In Modern Times Were First Widely Known And Circulated: These Were The French, Italian And Spanish, Called ...

Romance Languages
Romance Languages, The Languages Derived From The Latin Tongue. These Lan Guages Are Very Largely Latin In Vocabulary And Grammatical Structure. The Romance Lan Guages Had Their Being In The Territory Included Within The Roman Empire. But Not All Of This Territory Produced Latin Tongues For The Sim Ple Reason ...

Romancero Del Cid
Romancero Del Cid, A Collection Of Romances Or Ballads Which Sing Of The Mighty Deeds Of Ruy Diaz De Bivar, The Cid Campea Dor, The National Hero Of Spain. Curiously Enough There Exists No Single Romancero In Which Are Included All The Cid Ballads. This Is Due To The Fact ...

Romanes
Romanes, R6-man'ez, George John, Eng Lish Scientist: ,. Kingston, Canada, 20 May 1848; D. Oxford, 23 May 1894. He Was Gradu Ated In 1870 From Caius College, Cambridge, Studied In France, Germany And Italy And In 1874-76 Worked Under Burdon Sanderson In The Laboratory Of University College, London, And Carried ...

Romanesque Architecture
Romanesque Architecture. The Somewhat Misleading Name Romanesque Is Ap Plied To The Non-byzantine Architecture Of Chris Tian Europe Generally, From The Fall Of Rome (476) To The Rise Of Gothic Architecture In The 12th Century. Its Greatest Development Be Gan With The 11th Century And Continued Well Into The 12th. ...

Romans
Romans, Epistle To The. Authorship.— That The Apostle Paul Wrote The Epistle To The Romans Is Practically Undisputed, For The Very Few Critics Who Have Ever Denied It (scarcely More Than The Little °dutch School)) Of The Lat Ter Part Of The Last Century) Have Found No Recognition For Either ...

Romanticism
Romanticism. The Word *romantic* Is Derived From The Old Romanic Or Romance Languages, Which Were Formed By A Fusion Of Latin As Spoken By The Common People Of Italy With The Native Tongue Of The Northern Bar Barians Who Invaded That Country. This Ro Mance Speech Naturally Assumed A Variety ...

Romblon
Romblon, Rom-blon', Philippines. (1) A Province Consisting Of A Group Of Islands In The Visayan Sea, Lying East Of Mindoro And South Of Luzon; They Are Near The Centre Of The Archipelago, And The Most Northern Islands Of The Visayan Group; Area, 515 Square Miles. The Northern Islands Of The ...

Rome
Rome, The Capital Of The Roman Republic And Empire, The Holy See, And Of The Kingdom Of Italy Since 1871, Is In 41° 53' 54" N. Latitude (more Than A Degree Further North Than New York City) And 12° 28' 50" E. Longitude From Greenwich. Pop. About 539,000. Its Nearness ...

Romeo And Juliet
Romeo And Juliet. This The First Tragedy That Shakespeare Wrote, Was First Printed In 1597 As °a Garbled And Imperfect Rendering, Made Up Partly From Copies Of Por Tions Of The Original, Partly From Recollection And From Notes Taken During The Performance.'" The Second Quarto, A Revised Edition, °newly Corrected, ...