(i), (j), (k) Mousul, Kurd, Yuruk. Strictly these three grades do not belong to the Turkish family of rugs, yet neither could they be classi fied under the Persian group, and since the provinces in which they are made fall under Turkish rule it is proper to call them Turkish.
In design, in texture, in workmanship, these are the •lleavy-weights* in rugs. There is coarseness, boldness and a wild strength in these rugs, which indicate the mountain, the desert and the ravine; usually made of good wool and of good coloring (often exceptionally good), they lack the refinement of a Herati or the exquisiteness of a Ghiordez.
The Kurd and the Yuruk, especially, show an utter disregard for regularity of design or texture; sometimes long and shaggy like the matted wool of a sheep, they defy any ac cepted school of rug making.
(1) Anatolian.— There are several other grades made in Turkey, especially small mats, which are covered by this name. The Ana tolian rug is usually of heavy quality and not very fine, but in coloring surpasses many others. The wool is exceedingly 'soft, and the colors frequently of primary dyes, and when mellowed by age, it develops a sheen which rivals silk productions.
Cateraeian Raga— In Caucasian ruffs, the geometrical ornamentation is carried to its per fection. All conceivable in line are employed with great profusion and bewildering effect Generally there is one principal color to which all other colors are subjected in dear cut designs, sometimes without shading, giving the effect of inlaid stonework In texture Caucasian rugs are medium, al though there are sonic exceedingly fine speci mens made, but these are exceptional.
In size these rugs are not very large, some times they are made long and narrow, but mostly of medium size.
In designing they show star shapes, circles, fretwork insect shapes, diamonds, triangles, various Torres of the Swastika, squares, medal lions, dragons designs, etc.
These are the following principal well known kinds of rugs made in Caucasia: (a) Daghestan; (b) Kabistan (Kuba) ; (c) Shire van; (d) Darbent ; (e) Karabagh; (f) Kazak; (e) Chichi; (h) Circassian; (i) Kashmir (Sotunalc).
The Daghestan, the Kahietaa and the Shir van are rugs made on similar lines. Their colors, designs and texture are not different from each other, except the Kahistan, which is usually of finer construction. The geometrical elongated star and the Swastika and other lineal decorations are common to all, with beautifully vivid colors attractively arranged.
The Darbent rug shows a strong, barbaric nature like that of the Kurd and Yurtik, only in the Darbent there is more uniformity of design, and the texture is not so coarse.
The Karabagh rug shows more of the Per sian mode of designing than any other Caucas ian rug. Upon its black or brown field are strewn, at regular distances, magnificent delineations of leaf and flower patterns in various shades of tan and old magenta colors— but this is the Karabagh of olden times. The modern product is a mixture of homely designs, crude dyes and coarse weaving, showing a careless haste in workmanship.
The Kazak rugs are the heaviest of all Cau casians and different in floriation. It appears that the makers of these rugs have endeavored to develop the gruesome in design, for on their products are shown various grotesque shapes of the dragon and other creeping creatures with startling effect. One distinguishing point of Kasalts is in their size which is nearer square than any other Caucasian prdduct; another is in the peculiar quality of the twisted yarn, which, when untwisted after years of usage, is divided into hundreds of fine ends making the surface of the rug like a smooth velvety lawn.
Chichi rugs are made fine usually, and differ from other Caucasians in ornamentation. On a dark or light colored field are distributed reg ular patterns in cut squares or rectangular forms, giving the appearance of a latticed panel.
Circassian rugs depart entirely from Cau casian model of ornamentation. These are among the choicest, if not the choicest products of this region. A favorite design consists in a pattern of superb flowers in full bloom, or foliage artistically clustered and connected one with the other by graceful long lines.