Kashmir (Sumak Slianutltha) rugs are devoid of nap; they are made in what is com monly known as the flat stitch style like the old Kashmir shawls of India from which they derive the name. In design they are typical Caucasians, and by reason of the absence of the nap they show their designs in bold relief, clear cut and prominent. The long ends of the yarn, 'left on the back, give weight and softness of texture.
Turkoman Rugs.—There are two divisions of the Turkoman rugs: Western and Eastern. In the Western Turkoman rugs the chief color, universally employed, is red with all its shades and kindred colorings, and the principal design, the octagonal or Bokhara; embracing the fol lowing well-known specimens: (1) ,(2) Afghan, or Khiva; (3) Yomud; (4) (5) Beluchistan.
Of these, Bokhara rugs are the finest and most valuable. It is impossible to mistake the .Bokhara after once seen. The octagonal device, in shades of blues, ivory and reds, is stamped on every Bokhara upon a field of some shade of red. The octagonal pattern is divided into four, with the diagonal sections resembling each other. They are the finest of all Turkomans in texture and sometimes so fine that they rival the best production of Persia.
The prayer-rug of this class preserves the general characteristic color of red. It, how ever, shows no octagonal device; there is the usual dome pattern in a more pointed shape near the top; and the whole rug, usually about tow feet •by five, is divided into four section% decorated with highly conventionalised devices of the Swastika, Afghan or Khiva rugs, made of coarser text ure and of larger size, adhere to the Turkoman red and octagonal pattern most faithfully—in the large regularly arranged octagon is often seen clover leaf and sometimes a portion of dragon designs. Rich in coloring, heavy in pile, these rugs frequently mellow into lustrous and velvety fabrics.
The Yomud rugs are of darker shades of the maroon; and the detached regular octagon is transformed into an elongated diamond de sign fringed with dragon claws or Swastika devices. The Yomud usually is of very fine texture and is made in large size.
I3ushir rugs classed herein are Turkoman only in colormg and texture. They show no octagonal pattern; often being decorated with palm devices; sometime with Herati designs, and with ornamentations generally found in Caucasians. Made in rather longish sizes, loose
texture, strong, silky and desirable.
Beluchistan rugs are another class of the Turkomans which bear no resemblance to the Bokhara. Generally small in size, they de viate from the red shades often, and show sub dued shades of maroon, ivory, camels' hair and, rarely, green. In design they employ the floral as well as geometrical forms. The general effect of Beluchistans is dark.
Eastern Turkoman rugs may be subdivided into: (1) Ganji or Genghis; (2) Samarkand; (3) Kashghar; (4) Yarkhand.
The Ganji rugs are made by Turkoman nomads, of goats' hair or wool with long silky texture, the principal color being white or yellow, on which are spread at regular distances rather crudegeometrical devices.
Samarkand rugs reveal Chinese character istics in coloring and design — usually of yel low, tan or red and blue, they have several round figures intersected with strange floral designs and geometrical patterns.
The fret decoration is pronounced on their borders. Heavy and rather coarse in construc .tion these rugs are attractive by• reason of their simplicity of designing and uniqueness of coloring.
Kashghar rugs, coarse in texture, are stolid in design and simple in coloring. Often only three different colors appear — a solid color for the field, another solid color for the simple geometrical design and a third to separate the lines and to mark the borders. These and the Yarkhand rugs similar to these rarely leave their native places, the easternmott part of Turkestan.
Indian Rugs.— Strictly spealdne India Sends out only large carpets, the manufacture of which is in the hands of European and Atneri can firms, who have established great centres of production in the Punjab, Kashmir and Mad. ran districts, commonly known as Agra, Lahor, .Amritzar, Mirzapur, Kandahar, Ardahan, etc. Arbitrary names these last, given by the manse• facturers themselves without regard to location.
These American and .European houses. not only control the output of rugs but also their ornamentation and coloring; they make rugs to order, according to the colors selected •and patterns required by • their customers. Thus individuality and character is altogether• wane ing in these productions, albeit they are made to endure, being heavy, closely woven and of attractive colorings.