Mr. Ruskin sums up the deteriorating effect of European control on the Indian rugs in the following manner: "Modern commercialism has laid its poisonous trade upon this useful. in dustry since the days when I was a young man and to-day it is almost ruined as an art? It may be added that to-day "this useful industry . . . as an arts is altogether ruined with no hope of its revival.
Chinese Rugs.— It is a matter for the his torian to decide whether or not the Chinese are the original rug makers of the world; it is evident, however, that rugs were made in China a r ry long time ago and some of them of surpassing beauty ; thus the white silk rug taken to Mecca as a covering for the holy shrine of Kaaba antedated by hundreds of years the appearance of the great prophet of Arabia.
Chinese rugs form a distinct type, their de signs consist of all kinds of odd geometrical devices, all imaginable curves and angles and many quaint configurations of the Swastika or the lotus flower which are distributed with unique formations on fields of yellow, blue, red, fawn, gold and tan in all their exquisite shades marvelously blended.
The Chinese mode of ornamentation may be called the kaleidoscope of texture. Generally of long, soft wool or silk or camel's hair these rugs while not made as fine as some Persian rugs, still reveal masterly skill in texture with irridescent sunset colors and magnificent sheen. They are among the most valuable of all Oriental rugs and among the rarest on the European or American market; and they mand the highest prices.
Kilims.— !Glints, while products of the Orient, are not rugs, for 'they possess no pile and their mode of construction is different.
Kilims resemble the Kashmir or Shemakha rugs and are made in the• same tnanner, that is on plan, with this difference, however, that while the loose ends of the yarn •ate left oti•he back of Kashmir rugs, in Kilims they are wound around the woof, and in chang ing -the yarn to change the color also a sepa rate warp thread is taken up, thus leaving a small oblong open spate between the two stitches. • Kilims thus made present the open work effect in texture.
Kilims are of lighter weight, often both .sides 'being .alike and are not appropriate for .floor coverings. They are the tapestries of the Orion, and m whatever district made they follow the usual rug pattern of that district The finest Kilims are made in Selina, where the finest rugs are made, in Persia; and a in Bokhara. Small Kilims made in Turkey are
viten called Kiz-Kilim; woven by the hands of Turkish maidens. for purposes of dowry or devotion, or for presents to their marriageable friends and relations, they are, therefore, highly decorative and often with unusually beautiful designs. Kilims are made also in Caucasia and -Kurdistan known as Shirvan and Kurd Kihms respectively.
In the Orient their use is manifold—as rugs, banging both for doors and walls, and for tents, as mantles by day time and cover ing by night for travelers; made for bags and covering for bags, and also for covering of the person; they serve for other conveniences entirely unknown in civilized communities. See PRAYER Rua Bibliography,— Bode, Dr. W. (Vorderasia tische Knupfteppiche aus ilterer Zeit' (Leipzig 1901) ; Cligord, C. R., (Rugs of the Orient' (New York 1911) ; Ellwasger, W. De L., (The Oriental Rug; a monograph on Eastern Rugs and Carpets' (New York 1903) • Frehse, E., 'Was muss man von Orient-Teppichen wissen?' (_Berlin 1907); Frohlich, W. (Orientalische Teppiche (Berlin 1896) ; Hawley, W. A, Rugs, antique and modern) (New York 1913) • Hendley, T. H., 'Asian Carpets; 16th and 17th Century Designs from the Jaipur Palaces' (London 1905) ; Humphries, S., (Ori ental Carpets, Runners and Rugs' (London 1910) ; Kulczycki, W., (Beitrage zur Kenntnis der orientalischen Gebetteppiche' ( 1914) ; Langton, M. B., "How to Know Rugs' (New York 1904) • Lessing, J., 'Oriental Carpet Patterns, after Pictures and Origuisib of the 15th and 17th Centuries' (London 1879); Lewis, G. G., 'The Practical Book of Oriental Rugs' (Philadelphia 1911) ; Martin, F. R, 'A History of Oriental Carperts before .Lon don 1906) ; Mumford, J. K., 'Oriental RugS! (New York 1915) ; Neugebatier, R. and Brandi, J., der orientalischen (Leipzig 1909) ; Oettingen, R. von, ' Meister stOcke orientalischer Kniipfkunst) (Berlin 1914) ; Ropers, H., 'Auslcunftsbuch Eller Mor genlandische Teppiche' (Hamburg 1913) ; Stoll, C., Tapis, Ptoffes et (Ber lin 1907) ; Winters, L., 'Rugs and Carpets from the Orient' (New York 1899).