Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25 >> Simbirsk to Smallpdx

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25

Simbirsk
Simbirsk, Sim-bersk', Russia, (1) Capi Tal Of A Government Of That Name, On The Volga, 576 Miles By Rail Southeast Of Moscow, Is A Well-built Town. The Chief Buildings Occupy An Eminence Overlooking The River; The Business Portion Is Lower Down, And Still Farther Are The Quarters Of The Poor. ...

Simla
Simla, India, The Chief Town Of A District Of The Same In The Punjab, The Most Im Portant Of The Hill-resorts And The Summer Capi Tal Of The Indian Government, About 98 Miles North-northeast Of Ambala, 7,156 Feet Above The Sea And Since 1903 Connected By A Moun Tain Railway ...

Simmons College
Simmons College, Located At Bos Ton, Mass. It Was Founded In Accordance With The Will Of John Simmons, For The Purpose Of Providing Education For Women In Such Branches As Will Enable Them To Earn Their Livelihood. It Was Chartered In 1899 And Opened In 1902. The _departments Of Study ...

Simms
Simms, Simz, William Gilmore, American Novelist : B. Charleston, S. C., 17 April 1806; D. There, 11 June 1870. He Received A Secondary Education At Charleston, Was A Clerk In A Chem Ical House, But Turned First To The Law, Then To Literature, Published A Volume Of 'lyrical And Other ...

Simon
Simon, Jules (jules Francois Simon Suisse), French Philosopher And. States Man: B. Lorient, Department Of Morbihan, 27 Dec. 1814; D. Paris, 8 June 1896. He Was Educated At The College Of His Native Town, At Vannes, And In The Ecole Normale, Paris. In 1839 He Succeeded Cousin As Professor Of ...

Simon_2
Simon Maccab/eus, Si'mon Mdwits, Jewish Prince And High Priest: D. 135 B.c. He Was The Second Of The Five Sons Of The High Priest Mattathias, All Of Whom Became Famous In Their Struggle To Free The Jews From Syrian Domination. When Dying Attathias Exhorted His Sons To Heed The Advice ...

Simonides
Simonides, Si-mon'l-dez, Greek Lyric Poet: B. Island Of Ceos, 556; D. About 468 B.c. Invited By Hipparchus, Tyrant Of Athens, To Visit That City, He There Met Anacreon And Lasus, Pin Dais Master. After The Death Of Hipparchus He Proceeded To Thessaly, Where He Won The Favor Of The Aleuads ...

Simony
Simony (from Magus,' Acts Viii), A Transaction By Which Something Sacred Or Spiritual Is Given, Or Received For A Pecuni Ary Compensation, Or A Temporal Benefit. The Nature Of Simony Is Clearly Illustrated In The Case Of Simon Magus, When It Was Committed For The First Time. Simon Was A ...

Simoom
Simoom, Sr-motim', Simoon, Or Sa Mun (arabic, Summa, °hoe And A Noxious Hot Wind Which Blows At The Period Of The Equinoxes In Most Countries Bordering On Sandy Deserts, Especially In Certain Parts Of Asia And Africa, Where Its Temperature Has Been 1mown To Reach As High As 130°. The ...

Simpson
Simpson, Matthew, American Methodist Bishop And Educator : B. Cadiz, Ohio, 21 June 1811; D. Philadelphia, Pa., 18 June 1884. He Studied Medicine And Was Admitted To Its Prac Tice In 1833, But In 1834 Closed His Office And Set Out As A Methodist Itinerant, Filling 33 Ap Pointments In ...

Simpson College
Simpson College, Coeducational In Stitution Of Higher Education Located At Indian Ola, Iowa. It Was Founded In 1867 By The Des Moines Conference Of The Methodist Episcopal Church, From Which It Derives Most Of Its Sup Port And Patronage. Its Organization Includes Seven Departments: (1) College Of Liberal Arts; (2) ...

Sims
Sims, James Marion, American Surgeon: B. Lancaster County, S. C,, 25 Jan. 1813; D. New York, 13 Nov. 1883. He Was Graduated From South Carolina College In 1832; Studied Medicine At Charleston And At Philadelphia, And In 1835 Began To Practise. He Was Settled At Montgomery, Ala., During 1840-53, Where ...

Sims_2
Sims, William Snowden, American Vice Admiral: B. Port Hope, Canada, 15 Oct. 1858. He Was Graduated At The United States Naval Academy In 1880, And Was Promoted Through The Various Grades To Captain In 1911, Rear Admiral 5 Jan. 1917 And Vice-admiral 28 May 1917. He Served On The North ...

Sinaloa
Sinaloa, Se-na-ltli'a, Mexico, A State Bounded On The North By Sonora And Chihuahua, On The East By Chihuahua And Durango, On The South By The Territory Of Tepic And The Pacific Ocean And On The West By The Gulf Of Cali Fornia. Area, 33,671 Square Miles. From The Gulf, The ...

Sindh Sind
Sind, Sindh, Or Scinde From Sindhu, A Collection Of Waters), British India, An Ex Tensive Territory And Division Of The Province Of Bombay, Comprising The Lower Course And Delta Of The Indus, And Bounded On The West And Northwest By Baluchistan; Northeast By The Punjab; East By Rajputana; And South ...

Singhalese Singhales
Singhales, Singhalese Lez'), Language And Literature. Singhalese Is The Speech Of 70 Per Cent Of The Native Inhabitants Of Ceylon. It Is An Aryan Tongue And Nearly Allied To Pali, But It Con Tains Many Foreign Words. For This Reason There Has Been Much Dispute As To Its Classifica Tion. ...

Singletax
Singletax, The, Is A Name For The So Cial Reform Which Henry George Proposed In 'progress And Poverty.' This Book Was First Published In 1879, But The Social Reform It Pro Poses Had Been Foreshadowed By Its Author In His Monograph 'our Land And Land Published In 18'1. He Had ...

Sinn Fein
Sinn Fein (shin Fane, Aourselves”, An Irish Party Founded About 1905, Whose Policy May Be Described As At Once The Most Extreme And The Most Moderate Form Of Nationalism. It Is The Most Moderate Because It Aims At Uniting Irishmen Of All Creeds And Classes On A Common Platform, Or ...

Sinus
Sinus, In Anatomy, A Cavity Of Bone Or Other Tissue, Especially An Air Cavity Of Some Size, Such As Those In The Interior Of Certain Bones, The Frontal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Temporal, Superior Maxillary, Etc. The Frontal Sinuses Are Two Irregular Cavities Extending Upward And Outward From Their Openings On Each ...

Siouan
Siouan, Soo'in, A Designation Derived Ro The Word And Applied To The Lin Guistic Stock Or Family To Which The Sioux In Dians Belong. The Sioux Call Themselves Da Kota, Or Lakota, And The Name Usioux,'' Given To Diem •by The Whites, Is Said To Be Derived From An Algonquin ...

Sioux
Sioux (soo) City, Iowa, County-seat Of Woodbury County, On The Missouri River At The Mouth Of The Big Sioux, And On The Chi Cago And Northwestern; Chicago, Minneapolis And Saint Paul; Illinois Central; Chicago, Mil Waukee, Saint Paul And Omaha; Chicago, Bur Lington And Quincy, And Great Northern Rail Ways, ...

Sir Gawain And The
Sir Gawain And The Green Knight, Generally Regarded As The Finest Of The Metrical Romances In Middle English. It Is Usually Held To Be The Work Of The Author Of 'the Pearl) (q.v.), Though Absolute Proof Of This Is Impossible. It Was Written In The West Midland Dialect About 1370, ...

Sir Simpson
Simpson, Sir James Young, Scottish Ob Stetrician And Developer Of Anaesthesia: B. Bath Gate, Linlithgow, 7 June 1811; D. Edinburgh, 6 May 1870. He Entered Edinburgh University At 14 Years Of Age And Took His M.d. There In 1832. His Brilliant Graduation Thesis Won Him The Immediate Appointment Of Assistant ...

Sir Stanford
Stanford, Sir Charles Vii Liers, English Composer: B. Dublin, 30 Sept. 1852. He Was Educated At Cambridge, And Continued His Musical Studies At Leipzig And Berlin. In 1877 A Festival Overture In B Flat By Him Was Performed At The Gloucester Festival, And A Symphony At The Crystal Palace. Since ...

Sir Steele
Steele, Sir Richard, British Author: B. Dublin, March 1672; D. Carmarthen, Wales, 1 Sept. 1729. He Left Oxford Without Taking A Degree, For Some Time Rode As A Private Trooper In The Dragoon Guards, Obtained An En Signcy In The Foot Guards, And Wrote As His First Comedy, The Or ...

Sir Stephen
Stephen, Sir Leslie, English Biographer And Essayist: B. London, 28 Nov. 1832; D. There, 22 Feb. 1904. He Was Educated At Eton And Cambridge, And In 1883-84 Was Clark Lecturer On English Literature At Cambridge. He Edited The Cornhill Magazine 1871-82, And In The Last-named Year Became Editor Of
Sir Stokes
Stokes, Sir George Gabriel, British Mathematician And Physicist: B. Skreen, County Sligo, Ireland, 13 Aug. 1819; D. 1903. He Was Graduated At Cambridge In 1841, In The Same Year Was Elected A Fellow Of Pembroke Col Lege And Was Elected Lucasian Professor Of Mathematics At Cambridge In 1849. In 1885 ...

Sir Sturdee
Sturdee, Sir Frederick Charles Dove Ton, English Admiral: B. 1859. He Entered The Navy In 1871 And Served In The Egyptian War Of 1882; Assistant To The Director Of Naval Ord Nance, 1893-97; Became Captain In 1899 And Com Manded The British Force In Samoa In That Year ; Rear-admiral ...

Sisal Hemp
Sisal Hemp, Agave Fourcroyoides And Sisalana. Thegrowing Plants Resemble The Century Plant, Though The Leaves Are More Slender And Spear-like; They Measure Three And One-half To Five Feet Long, And Four To Five Inches Wide, The General Average Being Four To Four And One-half Inches. The Prod Uct Is A ...

Sismondi
Sismondi, Es-men'di (fr. Ses-m'en-de), Jean Charles Leonard Simonde De, Swiss His Torian And Political Economist : B. Geneva, 9 May 1773; D. Near There, 25 June 1842. He Had Scarcely Completed A Careful Education At The College And The Auditoire Of Geneva When The Overthrow Of The Constitution Of His ...

Sitka
Sitka (formerly New Archangel), Alaska City, Port Of Entry, Capital Of The Terri Tory, On The West Coast Of Baranof Island, 57° 3(1' N. Lat., About 1,500 Miles North Of San Francisco. It Was Founded In 1799-1800 By Alexander Baranov, The Then Russian Manager Of Russian America. For A Time ...

Siva
Siva, Se'va, The Third Deity In The Great Triad Of Hindu Gods. His Name Signifies In Sanskrit "happy,"of Good Omen,d And He Typi Fies Both Destruction And Reproduction, But Is Generally Regarded As The Deity In The Character Of Destroyer. His Worshippers Are Called Saivas, And They Assign To Him ...

Sivas
Sivas, Se-vas, Or Rhum, Asia Minor, (1) Capital Of The Vilayet Of That Name On The Kizil Hank, 170 Miles Southwest Of Trebizond, On The Site Of The Ancient Sebastia. It Contains Some Fine Ruins Of Seljuk Art, Chief Of Which Are The Nsedresses, Or Colleges Of The 13th Cen ...

Six Nations Of The
Six Nations Of The Iroquois, The. The Five Iroquois Tribes — The Mohawk The Seneca, The Onondaga, The Oneida And The Cayuga— Speak Dialects Of The Iroquoian Stock Of Languages. This Stock Is Merely One Of Nearly 50 Such Linguistic Groups On The Ameri Can Continent North Of This Linguis ...

Sixteenth Century
Sixteenth Century. This Centuryt Is One Of The Most Important In Modern History, First As The Terminal Phase Of The Renaissance, And, Second, As The Beginning Of The Religious Upheaval Called The Reformation, Or More Re Cently Uthe Religious Revolt In Germany." The Still Living Spirit Of The Renaissance Made ...

Sixth Century
Sixth Century. This Century Was A Time Of Sad Confusion And Distress, But In The Midst Of It The First Hints Of The Beginnings Of Modern Europe As We Know It May Be Traced. The Franks Succeeded In Establishing Them Selves Under Clovis In A Kingdom Which Em Braced A ...

Sixtus
Sixtus V (feux Pzarrn, Faleks Pa Reete) : B. Near Montalto, 13 Dec. 1521; D. Rome, 27 Aug. 1590. His Boyhood Was Spent As A Swineherd; But, Giving Early Indications Of An Aspiring Disposition, He Was Admitted To The Franciscan Order In 1534, And Received The Usual Strict Education And ...

Skates And Skating
Skates And Skating. Ice Skates Are Made In Many Forms, The Most Common Having A Metal Blade Or Runner, Longer Than The Foot, With Some Sort Of Frame Or Mechanism For At Taching To The Shoe. The Object Is To Provide A Support On Which Each Foot Of The Wearer ...

Skeat
Skeat, Sket, Walter William, English Scholar And Philologist: B. London, 21 Nov. 1835; D. 7 Oct. 1912. He Was Graduated From Christ College, Cambridge, In 1858, And Two Years Later Became A Fellow Of His College And Curate Of East Dereham, In Norfolk In 1862 Be Went To Godaltning, In ...

Skeleton
Skeleton, The More Or Less Hard Struc Tures, Mainly Of Bony Nature, Which Form The In Ternal Axis Of Support Of The Soft Parts In The Higher Or Vertebrate Animals. The Term Is Used In Comparative Anatomy To Designate Support Ing Parts Not Only Of Internal, But Also Of Ex ...

Sketch Book
Sketch Book, The. 'the Sketch Book Of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent,' The .work By Which Washington Irving Is Best Known, Was Published At New York In Seven Numbers Dur Ing 1819 And 1820. The Collected Edition Brought Out In 1820 In London Contained Two Earlier Essays— 'traits Of Indian Character> And ...

Sketchley
Sketchley, Slach'll, Arthur. See Rosa, George. Ski, Or Skee, A Wooden Snow-shoe, Or Runner Of Wood, From Five To 10 Feet Long, Five Inches Wide And An Inch Or More Thick At The Middle, But Thinner Toward The Ends, And Curved Up At The Front; A Ridge Or More Frequently ...

Skin And Skin Diseases
Skin And Skin Diseases. The Skin Is The Group Of Organs Which Form The Outer Covering Of The Body. It May Be Regarded As An Extensive, Complex, Uninterrupted Mem Brane, Actively Functionating, And Merging Into The Mucous Membranes At The Natural Orifices Of The Body. Beneath It Stands In The ...

Skink
Skink, A Genus (sciscus) Of Lizards Of The Cosmopolitan Family Scincidee, Characterized By A Conical Head, With Well-developed Eyelids, And Covered With Symmetrical Shields. The Body Is Protected By Bony Plates Underlying The Scales. No Thigh Pores Exist And In Some Genera The Limbs May Be Hidden Beneath The Skin. ...

Skull
Skull, The Skeleton Of The Head; The Bony Or Cartilaginous Framework Of The Head In Vertebrates; A Superior Expansion Of The Verte Bral Column. Its Shape Differs In Various Ani Mals. In Man It Is Somewhat Ovoid, The Larger Portion Being At The Top (the Dome) ; And The Whole ...

Skunk
Skunk, A Representative Of Several Genera Of Small Carnivorous Mammals Of The Weasel Family (lifystelidcr), Of Which They, With The Badgers, Constitute The Sub-family Melina., Characterized By Having Elongated Toes With Blunt Non-retractile Claws And No Webs. The True Skunks Are Notorious For The Large Size Of The Anal Glands, ...

Sky Korsokoff Rubinstein Arenski
Sky-korsokoff ; Rubinstein ; Arensk I ; Ta Nevem?. For Poland See Chopin ; Mosz Kow Sk I ; Paderewskl For Bohemia See Smetana ; Dvolili . Panslavism.— This Name Was Originally Given To The Agitation Carried On By A Great Party In Russia With The Object Of Uniting The ...

Skylark
Skylark, A European Lark (aland° Ar Vensis), One Of The Most Popular European Cage Birds From The Variety And Power, Rather Than The Quality, Of Its Song, And The Ease With Which Its Health Is Preserved In Captivity. It Inhabits All Of Europe, Many Migrating South In Winter. The Adult ...

Sladen
Sladen, Douglas (bawls Wheelton), Ao-australian Author: B. London, 5 Feb. 1856. He Was Graduated At Trinity Col Lege, Oxford, And Became Professor Of History In The University Of Sidney. He Traveled Extensively In Egypt, Sudan, Japan, China, Australia, Canada, United States And Southern Europe. He Won The Spencer Cup For ...

Slander
Slander, A False And Malicious Oral Defamation Which Tends To Injure Or Disgrace The Person So Defamed. The Chief Difference Between Slander And Libel Is That The Latter Refers To Malicious Defamation Expressed By Writing, Printing Or Illustration. The Law Draws A Wide Distinction Between The Two Ac Tions. Words ...

Slang
Slang (probably Of Cognate Origin With The Norwegian Word Slengya, Meaning Ato Aire), A Mode Of Speaking Or Writing Peculiar To Some Particular Place Or Calling. The Slang Of The English Tongue Corresponds To The French Argot And The German Saiiversprache Or Rotwelsch. The Word Slang Is Itself Slang In ...

Slate
Slate, A Clay Rock Which Has Been Sub Jected To Compression During Mountain-making Processes In The Earth's Crust, And Which As A Result Splits Readily Into Thin Sheets Or Cleavage Lamina In A Direction At Right Angles To The Direction Of Compression. According To Sorby, Cleavage Is Produced In Such ...

Slaughter House By Prod Ucts
Slaughter-house By-prod Ucts. From The Viewpoint Of The General Public, Fresh Meats Are Perhaps The Most Im Portant Item In The Whole Range Of Commodities Which The Individual Is Ever Called Upon To Buy. Yet, From The Viewpoint Of Packers' Profits, The By-products Of Meat Packing Long Ago Out Stripped ...

Slavery
Slavery, An Institution, State Or Condi Tion By Which Certain Persons (slaves) Are Held As The Property Of Other Persons (slaveholders) ; Also The Condition Of A Human Being Who Is Held As The Property Or Chattel Of Another, Who Is Absolute Master Of His Body And Service, Sub Jecting ...

Slavic Languages
Slavic Languages. The Slavic Languages Form A Separate Group Of The Indo European Languages And Are More Nearly Re Lated To The Lettish, Lithuanian And Prussian, With Which They Are Frequently Mentioned As The Balto-slavic Languages. Their Original Habitat Before The Period Of Migration In The 4th Century And The ...

Slavic Mythology
Slavic Mythology. Of Slavic Mythology We Cannot Obtain A Distinct Picture, Owing To Very Defective Traditions Among The Peoples Of Slav Race And Perhaps Still More Be Cause Of A Great Scarcity Of Records. The Early History Of This Whole Race Is, In Fact, Shrouded In Darkness, And We Do ...

Slavonia
Slavonia, A Former Territory Of Aus Tria-hungary Which, With Croatia, Constituted The Provinces Of Croatia And Slavonia, Forming Part Of The Possessions Of The Hungarian Crown. It Is Bounded On The Northeast By Hungary. On The South By Bosnia And Part Of Serbia And On The West By Croatia And ...

Slavs
Slavs, Slavz, The General Designation For A Group Of Peoples Inhabiting Eastern And Cen Tral Europe And Forming One Of The Most Im Portant Branches Of The Indo-european Family Of Nations. The Name Is Derived From The Native Term Slovenia, The Origin Of Which Is Obscure, Some Connecting Is With ...

Sleep
Sleep, A State Of Rest For Both Body And Mind, During Which There Is Partial Abeyance Of Volition And Consciousness, With A Relaxed Condition Of The Body And A Lessened Activity Of Certain Of The Vital Functions. The Muscles Do Less Work In The Way Of Voluntary Contrac Tions, And ...

Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty, The, A Fairy Tale, Probably Founded On Nature's Long Sleep In Winter. The Earth-goddess Falls Into A Deep Sleep, From Which She Is Aroused By The Prince, The Sun. We May Compare Demeter's Search For Her Lost Daughter, Proserpine, In The Greek Myth; And The Sleep Of Brynhild, ...

Sloth
Sloth, An Edentate Mammal Of The Family Bradypodidce. (see Edentata). The Best Known Are The Unau Or Two-toed Sloth (choice Pus Didactylus) Of Brazil And The Ai Or Three Toed Sloth (bradypus Tridactylus) Of Northern South America. This Family Is Distinguished By The Flat Short Head, And The Elongated Legs, ...

Small Arms
Small Arms. Included Under This Title Are The Various Types Of Firearms That From Their Portable Form May Be Classed As Hand Weapons, As Distinguished From Ordnance. In Their Earliest Forms, Small Arms Do Not Differ From Cannon Except In Size. These Weapons, Dating From The 14th Century, Were Suspended ...

Smallpdx
Smallpdx. The Date Of The Origin Of Smallpox, As Is The Case With Other Similar Dis Eases, Has Not Been Definitely Established. The Probabilities Are That It Made Its First Appear Ance In The Orient And Was Thence Introduced Into Western Europe. A Severe Epidemic Of Smallpox Is Said To ...