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Teachers

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TEACHERS, Professional Training of Richard Mulcaster of London advocated the professional training of teachers as early as 1561 and suggested that a teachers' college be organized as a department in a university. Nothing definite or permanent appears to have come from this suggestion. The first genuine effort for. the professional training of teachers undertaken in the world was undoubtedly by Jean-Baptiste de La Salle at Rheims in 1681. Three years later the institution which he founded at Rheims became known as the "In stitute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.' He later established a similar school at Paris. In this school he organized a regu lar, systematic course of instruction for the preparation of teachers for their professional work. Augustus Hermann Francke conducted an orphans' school at Halle and in 1697 he selected certain poor students. in attendance upon this school and organized them into a "teachers' class.' The members of this class gave instruction to the other pupils in the orphans' school, and for this service Francke allowed them free tuition and board. Twelve years later Francke selected 12 students from the pupils in his orphan asylum to be trained as teachers. These students were selected upon "their piety, knowledge, and aptness to teach.° Francke called this institution a "Teachers' Seminary." Hecker — a pupil of Francke has the honor of establishing the first regularly organized institution devoted to the special work of training teachers. This school was established at Pomerania, Prussia, in 1735 and Hecker gave to it the name used by Francke and called it a teachers' seminary. Hecker es tablished a second school of this type at Berlin in 1748. Frederick the Great gave .official en dorsement to the effort to provide special training for those who were to be employed as teachers in the schools, by raising Hecker's school at Berlin to the rank of a royal primary school for the purpose of training parish clerks and teachers. He gave this school further royal favor by directing that all parish clerks and all teachers appointed by the Crown should be selected from its students. Little progress was made in the establishment of institutions of this kind or in the training of teachers in Europe until after the French Revolution. At the be ginning of the 19th century, the development of institutions to train teachers took on new life and the Prussian system of normal schools was firmly established. Six normal schools had been organized in that country.

It was about this time that the subject of preparing teachers for public schools began to receive attention in America. Men inter ested in public education began to discuss the subject. The manner in which these men first treated the subject does not indicate that they were familiar with what had been done in Europe in the training of teachers or with the of normal schools which Prussia had established. The papers prepared by 'these men reveal a consciousness of the necessity of es tablishing adequate educational facilities in America and of preparing teachers to take charge of such schools as should be estab lished. The papers written by these men indi cate that these writers were speaking from the experiences and needs of the nation and not from historical knowledge of what had taken place in other countries. Among the numerous articles which appeared at this time and which exerted great influence in developing the idea that teachers should be professionally trained were the address of Denison Olmstead in 1816 on the °State of Education in Connecticut,' the pamphlet issued in 1823 by William Russell, principal of the New Haven Academy, on the subject of "Suggestions on Education,' the publication entitled "Lectures on School-keep in' issued in 1829 by Samuel R. Hall who founded a school for training teachers at Con cord, Vt., in 1823, the articles published by James G. Carter in the Boston Patriot in the winter of 1824-25, the paper of Rev. Thomas H. Gallaudet in 1825 on a "Plan of a Seminary for the Education of the Instructors of Youth,' the pamphlet of Walter R. Johnson of German town, Pa., issued in 1825, on "Observations of the Improvement of Seminaries of Learning in the United States, with suggestions for its Accomplishment;' and many others. These articles gave to the public much valuable litera ture on the subject of education in general as well as upon the importance of special training for those who were to teach. The democracy of the nation was developing and with this de velopment came a demand for schools. In the beginning of the 19th century 15 States established systems of schools or reorganized existing systems. New York provided for State supervision of her schools in 1812 and 11 other States soon followed in making similar provision. The expansion, enlargement and im provement of educational facilities has always been coupled with a demand for better teachers.

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