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Value of Product 1890 1900 1905

mills, wool, manufacture, cotton, american, processes, machinery, grew, woolen and variety

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1890 1900 1905 Frill River $24,925.000 $29.286,000 $32,538,000 New Bedford 8,185.000 16,748,000 22,412,000 Idoemffl 19,789,000 17.046,000 19,384,000 Manchester— 10,957,000 11,723,000 14,366,000 Pawtucket 3,955,000 5,635,000 10,099,000 Lawrence 6,047.000 8,151,000 5,745.000 Taunton 2,748,000 4,593,000 6,141,000 New England_ $181,112,000 $191.690,000 $224,072.000 The number of establishments in the South ern States in 1860 was 165; by 1900, 550 and of much larger size; and the table following shows the extraordinary growth to 1910: Other .interesting figures are: The cotton consumption in the textile mills in pounds: 1914 2 679,934,778 1909 2 465,225,572 1904 1 981,804,446 1899 1 923,704,600 Cotton manufactures in 1914 were valued at $701,300,933; in 1909 at $628,391,813; 1904 at $450,467,704; 1899, $339,200,320. The equip ment of spindles producing the above output was in 1914, 30,887,489; 1909, 27,425,608; 1904, 23,195,143; 1899, 19.050,952. These were used on the following number of looms (all classes): 1914, 676,661; 1909, 665,049; 1904, 559,296; 1899, 455,752.

.Inwroved The improvements in spinning have been so rapid since 1870 that most of our large corporations have teen com pelled to replace their spinning-frames two or three times in that interval. A similar state ment can be made regarding no other branch of textile manufacture; and it is probably true that if the American woolen mills had been forced, as the cotton mills have been, to abandon machinery as soon as it became in any degree obsolete, their ability to face foreign competition would be more nearly in keeping with that shown by our cotton manufacturers.

Large The conditions here narrated have thrown the cotton manufacture more and more into the hands of large cor porations, which now almost universally con duct it. The wool manufacture, on the other hand, while it numbers some of the greatest corporations in the land, is still largely in the hands of individuals and partnerships, and the bulk of the mills are comparatively small in The product of the Southern mills has been chiefly coarse yarn and cloth while the North has maintained its hold on the finer goods, and it still produces great output of coarse goods.

capacity. The more recent tendency in the wool manufacture, tor obvious reasons, is strongly in the direction of the corporate form of management.

Fine The quantity of fine cotton goods made in American mills continues to be very small in comparison with the whole pro duction, and in the bulk of our consumption of this class of cottons is still imported. So there is ample room remaining for further develop ment of the American cotton manufacture. Into this field we are entering with character istic Yankee energy. Within comparatively few years mills have been successfully estab lished in New England which spin yarns as fine as Nos. 150 or 200; and there are mills at New Bedford, Taunton and elsewhere which make, in wonderful variety, fabrics as delicate in texture and as artistic in design and coloring as any which reach this country from the machine-using nations of Europe.

Wool.— The range of products made in American wool factories is as wide as the multiform uses to which this most valuable of all the fibres is put. They divide themselves naturally into four great groups, leaving the hosiery and knit goods out of the classification: woolen mills, worsted mills, carpet mills and felting mills. There are the various sub classifications of spinning, weaving, dyeing and finishing mills, although, as a rule, all these separate processes of the manufacture of wool continue to be carried on jointly in this coun try, as the related parts of the one operation of manufacturing.

men who find the ultimate market for all the specialists who have been thus employed upon the goods. In this specialization of the dif ferent branches of the work exists the char acteristic distinction between the American and the foreign textile mills of to-day. In vestigation appears to show that the English method is far superior to the American, and that ultimately we must gravitate into the former, if we are to cut any figure in com petition for the world's market. The manufac

turer who devotes his whole energies to one particular thing, and studies to do that one thing as cheaply and as well as it can be done, can do it better and more cheaply than the manufacturer who is doing half a dozen differ ent things at the same time. This is not a theoretical deduction, but an axiom founded upon prolonged experiment and experience. Bradford manufacturers who have tried both methods say there is always a gain in economy when the weaver buys his yarns, instead of spinning them himself. Obviously the English method requires a smaller investment in plant, secures a simpler and more perfect autonomy in operation, involves less waste and avoids the accumulation of superfluous raw material. The American woolen mill was evolved from conditions which rendered specialization orig inally impossible. It was situated in some isolated spot, drawn thither by a superior water power, with no railroad to facilitate quick transportation, and was necessarily a com plete mechanical entity, however crude its machinery. In a word, it must perform under In the wool manufacture, as in the cotton and silk manufacture, we have many establishments which, in completeness of structure, in perfection of machinery, in all the details of mechanical equipment, and in sagac ity of management, are nowhere in the world surpassed. Indeed, it is only in this country that we find, on a very large scale, textile mills in which are performed all the separate processes for the manufacture of great varie ties of goods. Elsewhere they have learned that the greatest economy and the best practical results are secured by specializing the processes. Thus in Bradford, are enormous es tablishments which do nothing but comb wool into tops, either on commission or for sale. Other great mills do nothing but spin tops into yarn, and generally they confine their opera tions to a limited variety of yarns. Still others, buying their yarn, devote themselves exclusively to weaving. And, finally, a fourth class of establishments take the woven goods and dye and finish them for the merchants, who are the one roof all the processes necessary to convert the greasy wool into the finished cloth ready for the market. Thus there sprang up all over the copntry little woolen mills, each one inde pendent in itself ; as the country grew some of these little mills became large mills; other large mills grew up beside them; gradually grew centres in which the wool manufacture predominated; but conditions were long in ap pearing which tended to that specialization of processes which has marked the English method from the very introduction of automatic machinery. It followed that the American mill owner, even of a small mill, was compelled to make a variety of goods, in order to use up advantageously all the grades of material which grew out of the sorting of his wool. Naturally he could not produce a variety of products as cheaply and as successfully as he could have manufactured one particular line upon which his whole attention was centred. These habits of manufacturing, forced upon us originally by the logic of the situation, are tenacious. We have been slowly breaking away from them, but it will be years yet before it is possible fully to outgrow them. In Philadelphia, which is the largest centre of wool manufacture, the progress of the evolution is very perceptible. There they have top-makers. yarn-makers, dyers and finishers, who do nothing else. And the result is apparent in the large number of the home market, and of which their production has been enormous. Many of these goods are woven upon a cotton warp, and into some of them enters more or less of the revamped wool known as °shoddy?' We have much to learn, however, in the handling of this class of materials, before we shall equal the ex pertness of foreign manufacturers.

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