United States

war, time, authorities, force, american, troops, york, grande, rio and insurgents

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Fenian after the close of the Civil War (q.v.) in the United States, lead ers in the long continued struggle for the eman cipation of Ireland undertook to make the United States the base of operations against England by the invasion of her Canadian pos sessions. There was an organization of formid able numerical strength, largely composed of a military body known as the °Fenian Brother hood.* During the excitement large sums of money were raised, bodies of soldiers were organized and drilled and war material was gathered together at convenient points. The first actual attempt at invasion was made in April 1866, when an iron steamship was pur chased in New York and manned to carry arms and munitions of war to Eastport, Me., from whence a descent was to be made upon the island of Campobello, belonging to New Brunswick, and the breakwater between East port Harbor and the Bay of Fundy. Pending the arrival of the steamer some 500 Fenians had gathered at Eastport, but the boat did not sail, the order for her departure having been countermanded by the leaders of the move ment in New York. The intending invaders, however, remained at Eastport, to which point a schooner was dispatched with 750 stand of arms sent from Portland, but on representations made by the British consul these were seized by the United States authorities, and while the Canadian troops were sent to the frontier from Saint John and a British warship was stationed outside the island of Campobello, there was also an American force on hand under com mand of Captain Meade. Later, in May of the same year, the Fenians made a more pretentious demonstration, under the direction of General Sweeney, but before anything was accomplished in the way of getting upon Canadian soil the United States authorities seized 1,000 stand of arms at Rouse's Point, N. Y. Several other seizures afterward occurred and, in the mean time, the entire volunteer force of Canada was ordered out. On 1 June between 1,200 and 1,500 Fenians crossed the Niagara River at Buffalo in canal boats. They were under command of Captain O'Neil, a graduate of West Point. A skirmish took place the following day, when it was reported that nine Canadians had been killed and a number wounded. At this time Gen. U. S. Grant was in command of the United States troops sent to the frontier and he not only prevented any reinforcement of the in vaders, but arrested the entire Fenian army upon its return, placing all members of the party under parole to keep the international peace. On 7 June another expedition entered Canada, going from Saint Albans, Vt., and Malone, N. Y. This force numbered nearly 2,000 men. It advanced upon Saint Armand, which the Canadians had evacuated, but on the 9th, the Canadian force returning, were driven back, with a loss of 15 prisoners.

Walker's The violation of the neutrality laws was always the excuse for the United States' interference with William Walker's various filibustering expeditions. In 1853 this famous American adventurer invaded Lower California, where, his plans failing, he surrendered to the United States authorities at San Diego. Having escaped conviction, two years later he invaded Nicaragua, where, for a time, he was successful. In 1857 he fell, how ever, and on 1 May he surrendered to Commo dore Charles H. Davis of the United States sloop-of-war Mary. Taken to New Orleans, he not only escaped trial, but, evading the govern ment authorities who were watching him, he organized another expedition and landed at Greytown on 14 Nov. 1857. Shortly after land ing, however, he was again compelled to sur render to Commodore Paulding of the United States frigate Wabash. Although the United States authorities had no further trouble with Walker, his next expedition was a fatal one for, having invaded and captured a part of Honduras, he was himself captured by the com mander of the British man-of-war Icarus, by whom he was delivered to the Honduran offi cials, and was shot, 12 Oct. 1860.

The Draft The necessity of rein forcing the Union army by means of conscrip tion resulted in the development of a strong spirit of opposition to the government, a senti ment which, in New York and Boston, cul minated in uprisings that were suppressed with great difficulty. In New York City the outbreak occurred on 13 July 1863; in Boston, a day later, but while the Boston riot was suppressed by the militia within 24 hours and at the cost of only one life, in New York order was not restored until the 16th. During this period of disturbance property to the value of more than $2,000,000 was destroyed and it was estimated that fully 1,000 of the rioters fell in the various battles between the troops and the people.

Tin Horn Ku-Klux (q.v.) dis turbances in the South; the later and still fruit less Fenian demonstration on the Manitoba frontier ; the insurrection against Governor Kel logg in Louisiana; the race riots and massacres in several of the Southern States; the troubles arising from the opening of Oklahoma and the Cherokee Strip, and the Chinese labor riots in the West, were events which, like several of the labor uprisings of later days, have required the attention of United States troops or State militias for their suppression. Of more conse quence, however, was the °Tin Horn War,* the last affair of importance with which the United States had to deal prior to the War with Spain and the later insurrection of the Philippine Islanders. The °Tin Horn War* was in reality a series of outbreaks against the Mexican government, beginning in the autumn of 1891 and continuing intermittently into the early part of 1894. In each of these outbreaks the insurgents operated along the Rio Grande, and evidently relied upon the contingency of the United States for safety in case of defeat.

Catarino Garza, who had conducted a number of periodicals opposed to the administration of President Diaz, inaugurated the first of this series of troubles in September 1891. He was at that time living on his cattle ranch in Texas, near Palito Blanco, at which place he collected his band of revolutionists. Issuing a manifesto, in which he proclaimed the overthow of Diaz, he crossed the Rio Grande with less than 100 wen, who were reinforced from time to time by sympathizers in the movement. There were many brushes with the Mexican troops and, lit tle by little, the insurrectionary spirit extended. The fact that the insurgents took refuge on American soil when worsted made it necessary for the United States authorities to act, and two companies of infantry, with two of cavalry, did effective work in preventing the violation of American neutrality. The Mexican government sent a strong force to the scene of trouble and the fighting degenerated into guerrilla warfare. During the latter part of 1892 there was an other gathering of insurgents, under leaders named Pacheco and Perez, the scene of opera tion being several hundred miles above that of Garza's war. The rebels captured Ascension and Corralitos, driving out the American set tlers who crossed the Rio Grande into New Mexico. The Indians along the Yaqui River joined in this uprising, while another band of rebels, under the leadership of a man named Amalla, added to the complications. During this period General McCook had maintained a force on the American side of the Rio Grande and it was largely through his efforts that, in 1893, the insurgents were dispersed. The last outbreak occurred in January 1894, when two filibusters named Ochoa and Lugan attempted to revive the insurrection. They were unsuccessful, how ever, being dispersed after two somewhat sharp engagements.

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