The Colorado War.— Disturbances resem bling in intensity and bitterness the Pullman Car Company strike and the mining troubles at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, occurred during the win ter and spring of 1903-04 in the Cripple Creek mining district, Colorado. In the summer of 1903 a strike was ordered and several thousand miners went out. Three weeks after the inaugu ration of the strike, an assault on two miners resulted in the ordering of State militia to the region. The presence of the soldiers was re sented and rioting followed. Martial law was declared, °bull pens" established and the leaders of the strikers arrested on various charges. Later on, prominent strikers were deported by order of the military. A state of almost civil war existed, which increased as the spring ad vanced.
Boxer War.— In 1900 for the first time since the Revolutionary War soldiers of the United States fought in company with troops of the European nations in Peking during the Boxer Rebellion (q.v.).
Pacification of Cuba.— In 1906-09 United States troops were in occupation of Havana and other parts of Cuba, remaining until order was restored between the two rival parties in Cuba.
Vera Cruz Affair.— In 1914 friction devel oped with Mexico over the capture of United States sailors in a Mexican harbor. The Amer ican admiral demanded reparation and a salute to the American flag. This not being forth coming Vera Cruz was taken by American troops in April.
Mexican Border 'Imbroglio.— From 1911 to 1916 and even later conditions bordering on anarchy prevailed along the Mexican front; several raids were made on American border towns and in March 1916 Major John Pershing was sent into Mexico as commander of a puni tive expedition to pursue the bandit, Francisco Villa. After many weary weeks the troops were withdrawn, their object unattained.
War with Germany and Austria.—As a result of Germany's submarine policy in the World War the United States was drawn into the great conflict in April 1917. Men and mu nitions in ever-increasing numbers. and quantity were dispatched to the fighting fronts, resulting in the collapse of the Central Powers in the closing months of 191& The following is a practically complete list of the wars and minor engagements or disturb ances in which the United States has partici pated since 1775: 1775-1783 War of the Revolution, 19 April 1775 to 11 April 1783.
1782-1787 Wyoming Valley Massacres, Pennsylvania. 1786-1787 Shays' Rebellion, Massachusetts. 1790-1795 War with Northwest Indians.
1792-1794 Whisky Insurrection, Pennsylvania. 1798-1800 War with France.
1799 Fries' Insurrection, Pennsylvania.
1801-1803 War with Tripoli.
1806 Burr Conspiracy.
Sabine Expedition, Louisiana. 1807 Chesapeake Bay Naval battle. 1808-1809 LakeChamplain embargo. 1811-1813 War with Northwest Indians.
1811 Slave Insurrection, Louisiana. 1812-1815 War with Great Britain.
1812 Seminole War, Florida.
1813 Peoria Indian War, Illinois.
1813-1814 Creek Indian War, Alabama. 1817-1818 Seminole War, Florida.
1819 Yellowstone expedition.
1823 Upper Missouri River campaign against Black feet and other Indian tribes.
1827 Le Fevre Indian War, Wisconsin.
1831 Turner's Rebellion, Virginia.
Sac and Fox troubles. Illinois.
1832 Black Hawk War.
1832-1833 Nullification disturbances, South Carolina. 1833-1839 Cherokee disturbances.
1834 Pawnee Expedition, Indian Territory.
1835-1836 Toledo War, between Michigan and Ohio. 1835-1842 Seminole War, Florida.
1836-1837 Sabine disturbances. Southwestern frontier. Creek disturbances, Alabama.
1837 Osage Indian troubles. Missouri.
Riots. Alton, Ill.
1838 Heatherly Indian disturbances. Missouri and Iowa.
Mormon disturbances, Missouri.
Maine boundary trouble.
1838-1839 Patriot War, Canadian frontier disturbances. 1840-1842 Dorr War. Rhode Island.
1841-1846 Anti-Rent Riots. New York.
1846-1847 Doniphan's expedition from New Mexico to Mexico.
1846-1848 Mexican War.
New Mexico Revolt.
1848 Cayuse War, Oregon.
1849-1861 Navajo troubles, New Mexico.
1849 Astor Place Riot, New York.
Continuous disturbances with Indians. Texas. 1850 Pitt River expedition. California.
1850-1860 Know-Nothing disturbances.
1851-1852 Yuma expedition, California.
1851-1853 Utah Indian troubles.
1851-1856 Indian wars in Oregon and Washington.
1855 Rendition of Anthony Burns, Massachusetts.
Yakima Indian expedition, Washington Ter ritory.
Winnas Expedition against Snake Indians, Oregon.
1856 Attack on Canton forts. China.
1855-1856 Cheyenne and Arapaho troubles.
Seminole War, Florida.
1855-1860 Walker's expedition.
1856-1858 Kansas border troubles.
1857 Gila expedition, New Mexico.
11157 Sioux Indian troublesMinnesota and Iowa.
M Mountain Meadow Massacre, Utah.
1857-1858 Utah expedition.
1858 Puget Sound expedition, Washington Ter ntory.