banks, mining, schools, academy, students, lake, mines, college and gold

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The mountains of Utah abound in game — bear, deer, elk, antelope, grouse, prairie chickens, etc.; the fresh lakes and streams are well stocked with fish in numerous varieties, and lake and river margins are the haunts of wild geese and ducks in abundance. Fish can not live in the Salt Lake, owing to the intense salinity of its waters. They were once sup posed to have no life, but a small brine shrimp and three kinds of insects have been found therein. These waters are eight times brinier, and consequently far more buoyant, than those of the ocean. Saltair, on the eastern shore, is one of the largest bathing pavilions in the world.

Though primarily an agricultural State, with manufacture and stock-raising as strong subsidiary features, Utah in recent years has forged to the fore and taken a rightful place among the great mining commonwealths of the nation. Her mining history began virtu ally with the advent of the railroad 1)869-70), prior to which period, though mines had been discovered and opened, little headway had been made, owing to a lack of transportation facili ties. The existence of valuable ore bodies was known to the earliest settlers, hut their leaders did not encourage mining. c'We cannot eat gold and silver,* said the State founder, Brig ham Young; °neither do we desire to bring into our peaceful settlements the rough element com monly found among inhabitants of mining camps, to vitiate the morals of our youth, over whelm us by numbers and drive us again from our hard-earned homes.* For these reasons he discouraged mining and advised the people to turn their attention to agriculture, stock-raising, manufacture and kindred pursuits. Most of his people — the Mormons — followed his advice, but some joined with the Gentiles in exploiting the mines. The honor of pioneering this im portant industry is given to Gen. P. E. Con nor, the founder of Fort Douglas, a military post on the foothills east of Salt Lake City. In the latter part of 1863 Connor prospected in Bingham Canyon and located the Jordan mine. He afterward organized the West Mountain mining district and established a paper, The Union Vedette, heralding through its columns the opening of the Utah mines. In 1915 the mineral products of the State aggregated $61,081,633, as set forth in the following table: Utah produces more sugar beets and barley to the acre than any other State; she is tied with two other States for first place in the yield of potatoes to the acre, and is second among the States in the yield of wheat per acre.

Banking.— There are about 22 national banks, about 75 State banks, about 15 private banks and a few loan and trust companies. The national banks- have deposits aggregating $22, 000,000, capital $3,500,000 and surplus $1,600,000.

The 75 State banks have deposits aggregat ing $23,000,000, capital $4,500,000 and surplus $1,100,000. From 1860 to 1870 private banks de veloped. In 1872 the first national bank was established and in 1873 savings banks began their activities.

The assessed valuation is esti mated as $675,000,000. In 1919 the bonded debt of the State was $3,435,000. The State treasury report for 1917-18 shows the following condi tions of the State's finances: Utah ranks second among the States in the production of silver, third in lead, fourth in copper and sixth in gold. The known metal product of Utah for gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc alone, according to the United States Geological Survey, is valued at $691,301,832. The known dividends paid by the Utah metallif erous mining companies is $131,000,000. The estimated contents of Utah's coal fields, by the United States Geological Survey, is 196,000,000, 000 short tons.

Agriculture.— The Utah soils are said to be the deepest and richest in the United States, extending in some instances to a depth of 40 feet. The following table shows her agricul tural production for 1915: Religion and Utah is the home of °Mormonism)) and the Latter-day Saints form about 75 per cent of the church membership of the State. There are Catholics, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, Christian Scientists and Congregationalists in small num bers. The percentage of illiterates in the popu lation at the time of the last census was only 2.5, the number being 6,821, of whom 3,636 were foreign-born. Throughout the State school attendance is compulsory on all from 8 to 18 years for 30 weeks annually, unless lawfully excused to go into employment, in which case they must be in school at least 144 hours a year. There are 642 elementary schools with 2,707 teachers and 100,096 enrolled pupils; 45 public high schools with 742 teachers and 10,097 pupils. The State University had an enrolment in 1918 of 3,431 students distributed in its schools of Arts and Science, Mines and Engineering, Edu cation, Medicine, Law, Commerce and Finance and Extension Division. The Utah Agricul tural College in 1918 had an enrolment of 2,523 students. In addition to these public institu tions, the Latter-Day Saints' Church operates a system comprising The Brigham Young Uni versity at Provo, with 1,184 students; four normal colleges with 1,958 students and five high schools with 2,845 students. Nine other private schools are maintained as follows: All Hallows College, Westminster College, Saint Mary's Academy and Rowland Hall, at Salt Lake; Sacred Heart Academy, Ogden; New Jer sey Academy, Logan; Proctor Academy, Provo; New West Academy, Vernal ; Wasatch Acad emy, Mount Pleasant.

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