The constitution, ratified by popular vote, 5 Nov. 1895, provides that the right of conscience shall never be infringed; that no public money or property shall be ap propriated for the support of any ecclesiastical establishment; that the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate; that no law shall be passed granting irrevocably any franchise, priv ilege or immunity, and that all laws of a gen eral nature shall have uniform operation. Per fect toleration of religious sentiment is guar anteed and polygamous or plural marriages are forever prohibited. Article IV declares that both male and female citizens snail enjoy equally all civil, political and religious rights and priv ileges, and that every citizen of the United States of the age of 21 and upward, who shall have been a citizen for 90 days, and shall have resided in the State one year, four months in the county and 60 days in the precinct prior to an election, shall be entitled to vote thereat, excepting idiots, insane persons and unpardoned persons convicted of treason or crime.
Legislative.— The legislative power is vested in a senate and house of representatives with biennial sessions in odd years, senators to be elected for four years and representatives for two years and all to be at least 25 years old. Till otherwise provided the senate will consist of 18 members and the house of representatives of 45 members; but the senators shall never ex ceed 30 in number and the representatives shall never be less than twice nor greater than three times the number of senators.
Executive.— The executive department in cludes a governor, secretary of State, State auditor, State treasurer, attorney-general and superintendent of public instruction. A candi date for the office of governor or secretary of State must be at least 30 years of age and have been a resident of Utah for the five years pre ceding the election. The State auditor and State treasurer are ineligible to election as their own successors. The governor is vested with au thority to veto objectionable items in a bill ap propriating moneys, while approving other por tions, and to veto any measure passed by the legislature, which veto, however, may be over come by a two-thirds vote of both houses. In case of his death, impeachment, removal from office or inability to perform the duties of his office, they devolve upon the secretary of State.
Judiciary.— The judicial power is vested in the senate sitting as a court of impeachment, in a Supreme Court of five judges, in District Courts, in justices of the peace and other in ferior courts. Supreme Court judges are elected by popular vote for 10-year terms, judges of District Courts are elected for four-year terms.
Municipal and County.— The county is the unit of local government. Biennial elections for the election of local officials are held in even years for county and in odd years for municipal officials.
many thriving in dustries may be mentioned the Provo Woolen Mills, the beet-sugar factories at Lehi, Ogden, Logan, Garland, Layton, West Jordan, Elsinore, Payson and Brigham; also the Inland Crystal Salt Works, the International and Highland Boy Smelters in Salt Lake and Tooele val leys and the electric-power plants at Salt Lake, Ogden, Provo and other places.
The region of the Great Salt Lake was originally settled by emigration from the East. The pioneers were Latter-Day Saints or *Mormons," whose leader, Brigham Young (q.v.), led a company of 143 men, three women and two children from the Missouri River to Salt Lake Valley in the spring and summer of 1847. Prior to that time these people, owing to religious and political differences between them and their neighbors, had migrated from sev eral States, including Illinois, where their prophet, Joseph Smith, was killed by a mob in June 1844. He was a native of Vermont and of Revolutionary ancestry, as was his successor, Brigham Young, the second president of the Latter-Day Church. Leaving the main body of his followers living in wagons and log huts upon and near the Indian lands in western Iowa, President Young conducted his pioneer company across the great plains and mountains, the journey beginning at Winter Quarters (now Florence, Neb.) early in April and ending in Salt Lake Valley 24 July 1847. This journey would have been undertaken a year earlier, but for a call made by the Federal government upon the expatriated people— a call promptly met — for a battalion of 500 men, to assist in the war against Mexico. The pioneers were well armed and equipped and carried with them, in covered wagons drawn by ox and mule teams, plows and other implements, a surveying ap paratus, seed-grain and a year's supply of pro visions.
The great West, now teeming with populous cities and thriving villages, connected by rail road, telegraph and telephone, was then a wil derness, almost unknown, not only to the people of the East, who had heard of it through ro mantic tales or imperfect reports from Span ish and American explorers, but also to the straggling fur hunters roaming over its im mense solitudes, baiting the bear, trapping the beaver, trading and consorting with the sav ages and acting as guides for the occasional emigrant train or chance traveler to or from the Western Ocean. Every schoolboy familiar with the map of North America knew some thing about The Great American Desert," as this region was popularly termed. One of the fur hunters, Col. James Bridger, living in a lonely log fort near the headwaters of Green River, met President Young and his party just after they passed the Rocky Mountains, and endeavored to dissuade them from settling in Salt Lake Valley. Bridger remarked pessimis tically that he would give a thousand dollars if he knew an ear of corn could ripen here. Nothing daunted, the pioneers pursued their way, and reaching the alkaline shores of °America's Dead Sea," they laid out Salt Lake City, the parent of numerous towns and ham lets that have since arisen from the waste, as Utah's gift to civilization.