city, column, bazaars, covered, byzantium, passage, bc, yildiz and museum

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Monuments, Among other historic monuments of Constantinople are the magnifi cent tombs of the sultans Selim II, Mahmud II, Suleiman thc Great and Mohammed II; the obelisk of Theodosius, the Serpent Column, the Colossus in the Hippodrome, the Porphyry or Burnt Column, Marcian's Column, the Column of Theodosius II in the Seraglio and the Column of Arcadius; the Philoxenos and the Basilica water cisterns; the China Pavilion; the Hippodrome (''At-MaidanD ----- Race Course), originally laid out by Scptimius Sevcrus on the rnodel of the Circus Maximus in Rome, 1,300 feet long and 600 feet wide; the aqueduct of Valens; the fountain of Sultan Ahmed; and the fire towers of Galata and Stamboul. The Imperial Museum of Antiquities contains a mag nificent collection of treasures; of minor im portance is the Museum of Ancient Costumes.

Palaces.— Besides the smaller palaces al ready mentioned, there are the Old Seraglio, the Dolma Bagtcheh and Yildiz Kiosk. The first of these, situated on the promontory named Seraglio Point, at the junction of the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmora, was for centuries the residence of the Byzantine emperors and Turk ish sultans. It now contains the Treasury, the Imperial College of Medicine, the Mint, an art school and the Museum of Antiquities. The beautiful Dolma Bagtcheh Palace (q.v.) lies on the Bosporus, while Yildiz Kiosk, the resi dence of the sultan, is a collection of palaces and other buildings. (See YILDIZ KIOSK and HAREM ). The Cheragan Palace, also on the Bosporus, was destroyed by fire in 1910. It was built by. Abdul Aziz, and here he committed suicide in 1876.

Bridges, Bazaars, Two iron pontoon bridges span the Golden Horn and connect Galata with Stamboul. They have each a draw to allow the passage of vessels. The bazaars are numerous; some are covered, others open. The covered bazaars have a somewhat mean appearance, resembling a row of booths at a fair, but the arrangement and manner of ex posing the gay and glittering wares is suffi ciently attractive. The principal or Great Bazaar consists of long avenues covered over with lofty arches of brick, lighted by apertures in the roof and branching off in different direc tions. The ceilings of the vaults, and various parts of the walls, are ornamented with painted flowers and devices. On each side of the passage are counters and stalls, with a wide passage between them, and on each counter sits the merchant, generally smoking his pipe or chibouk, with his crossed legs drawn under him. The bazaars, both the open and covered, are severally allotted to particular trades and mer chandise; they are generally so crowded that it is difficult to pass through them. The numerous public baths in the city are mostly of marble, of plain exterior, but handsome and commodious within, with every accommodation and appli ance requisite. They are divided into a number of circular rooms, lighted from above, and suffi ciently spacious to admit a number of bathers at the same time. There are a vast number of

coffee-houses and lodging-houses, called Ithans, dispersed throughout the city. The latter re semble immense stone barracks or closed squares. They are intended for the use of strangers dunng their temporary sojourn in the city, who may have an apartment here, with command of the key. Considerable modern im provements have been made in the commercial section of the city. Electric cars and telephones have been introduced. French and German waterworks companies provide water from res ervoirs in the forest of Belgrade.

The few manufactures of Con stantinople are chiefly confined to articles in morocco leather, saddlery, tobacco-pipes, fez caps, arms, perfumes, gold and silver em broideries, etc.; but its foreign commence is considerable. The Golden Horn is deep, com modious, well sheltered and capable of contain ing 1,200 large ships, which may load and unload alongside the quays. It is usually crowded with vessels and light boats, and presents a lively, bustling scene. Among the imports are corn, iron, timber, tallow and furs from the Black Sea and Russia; cotton stuffs and yarn, woolens, silks, watches, furniture, jewelry, coffee, sugar, pepper and spices, spirits, etc. The exports consist of silks, carpets, hides, wool, goats' hair, madder, valonia, etc. In 1914 a tonnage of nearly 12,000,000 entered and cleared the port in 14,761 vessels.

History.— The city was founded, according to tradition, by a band of settlers from Megara under the leadership of Byzas, in 658 a.c., and received the name of Byzantium. It was in turn attacked by the Thracians, Bithynians, and even the Gauls; it was repeatedly invested by the Persians, who, during the campaign of Darius against the Scythians, compelled the town to surrender to Otanes, one of Darius's generals, and subsequently burnt it. After the battle of Plata (479 a.c.) the Lacedwmonians under Pausanias took Byzantium from the Persians, and refounded the colony. Seven years later the town was captured by the Athenians; within 30 years it revolted and returned to its former allegiance. It was again besieged and taken by Alcibiades in 408 B.C. The Athenians remained in possession for three years when they lost the town again to the Spartans under Lysander. A few years later Xenophon with his 10,000 passed through it on their march from Persia. In 390 B.C. it was once more brought under the sway of Athens. Philip of Macedon laid siege to the city in 340 B.C., but the Athenians, roused by the fiery eloquence of Demosthenes against the Macedonian conqueror, came to the rescue. After repelling Philip of Macedon, Byzantium had to submit, some years later, to Alexander, who passed it on to his successors. On the death of Lysimachus the city regained— and maintained — its independence for a century, until the mighty power of Rome invaded the region of Thrace and the Hellespont.

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