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Constantinople

qv, village, bosporus, galata, ancient, pasha, situated, keui, miles and built

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CONSTANTINOPLE, Turkey (othe city of Constantine), called Istambol try the Turks (corrupted into Stamboul), from the Greek eis tin polin, to the city; in official Turkish always oConstantiniehp: capital of the Ottoman Empire, situated at the junction of the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmora, in lat. 40° 0' 16" N., long. 28° 59' 14" E. It is practically an ag glomeration of three towns, Stamboul, Galata Pera and Slcutariz besides a number of suburbs scattered for a distance of 12 miles along both sides of the Bosporus. The two first-named are on the European shore, divided by the Golden Horn an inlet of the Bosporus about 500 yards wide and nearly six miles long.

Stamboul, or Constantinople proper, occupies the site of ancient Byzantium, built, like ancient Rome, on seven hills. The peninsula on which the city stands has the form almost of a triangle or, more correctly, of a trapezium, sur rounded on all sides by water excepting the west, with a total waterfront of some 12 miles in extent. The eastern side projects into the Bosporus; the western forms a lofty double wall of five miles in length, stretching across the promontory from the Sea of Marmora to the Golden Horn; on the opposite side of the latter, also occupying the extremity of a promontory, sometimes called the Peninsula of Pera, are the extensive suburbs of Galata, Pera, Top Haneh and •Kassim Pasha. Galata (for merly Sykae = fig-trees) received its name from the Gauls who formed a settlement there. It is now the district where the banks, shipping agencies, stock exchange and offices of the rep resentatives of European firms are established. Pera, adjoining Galata, is situated on the heights immediately above it, and is called the European or (FranIcishp quarter. Here the Europeans, Levantines and most of the Greek and Armenian population live, and all the hotels, embassies and consulates are situated. Kassim Pasha is a dirty, insalubrious district around the docicyard, near which the Turkish fleet generally lies at anchor. Prominent on a plot of land stretching into the Golden Horn is the Admiralty, a fine marble building, and close by are the graving-docics, slips, building sheds and workshops. Directly above is the Naval Hospital. Opposite Kassim Pasha, on the Stamboul side, lies Phanar, a grimy suburb, inhabited mainly by Greeks. It is the seat of the patriarch and contains the Greek Cathedral of Saint George. Just beyond lies Balata, noted for its filthy condition, almost exclusively in habited by Jews; the better class Jews live at Haskeui, on a hill opposite Balata, with a large percentage of Armenians. Farther up, on the opposite shore again, lies the village of Ayub (Eyoub), exclusively inhabited by Moslems; no Christians are allowed to hold property here. The spot is deeply revered by the faithful on account of the mosque built by Mohammed II, the Conqueror, in which each succeeding sultan is girded with the sword of Othman at the coronation ceremony. The adjoining burial ground contains the mausoleums and graves of numerous high personages. Skutari, properly uUskiidar,D over the Bosporus, stands on the site of ancient Chrysopolis; population, about 50,000. Its main objects of interest are the British and Turlcish cemeteries and the con vent of Howling Dervishes. The British Cem etery is the finest in Constantinople, and is situated at the Marmora end of Skutari, near Haidar Pasha. In it arc buried many British soldiers who died during the Crimean War; one part was reserved for the interment of Brit ish residents. Adjoining the cemetery is the

Slcutari Hospital, once the scene of the devoted labors of Miss Florence Nightingale (q.v.) and her staff of British nurses. The Turlcish Cem etery is the largest in Constantinople —a vast city of the dead —a wilderness of tombs — thickly planted with the funereal cypress. On a submerged rock off Skutari is the square lighthouse known as Leander's Tower, a name given to it by the Crusaders, though it has no connection with the legendary hero of that name. The Turks call it Kiz Kulch, or the Maiden's Tower. It was first built as a mauso leum in 340 B.c., subsequently became a wooden lighthouse and was gradually replaced by a mas sive stone tower 90 feet hight. Skutari has sev eral theological colleges, schools, baths and a large Turkish printing-press, founded 1723. Hai dar Pasha and Kadikeui, farther south, face the Sea of Marmora; the former is the terminal of the Constantinople and Angora Railway and a favorite Moslem picnic resort; the latter, standing on the site of ancient Chalcedon, is largely a European residential district, having all-day steamer communication with Galata. The other suburbs on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus above Skutari are, next, Kuzgunjik, a Jewish village where the Chief Rabbi re sides; Beylerbey, exclusively Turkish, with a fine mosque and a white marble palace; the latter formerly contained the private menagerie of Abdul Aziz ; Chengel Keui, a village; Ku lehli, or Kulch Bagtcheh (Garden Tower), where some 25 years ago Roman and Byzantine tombs, columns and marbles were unearthed; Vani Keui, founded 1665; Kandili, on the site of ancient Perirrhous; Anadoli Hissar (q.v.) ; Kanlija (bloody village), so named from the color of the rocks; Chibukli, where Saint Mar cellus founded the monastery of the Order of Vigilants in 420 A.D. ; Pasha Bagtcheh, notable for its fine mosque built in 1763; lastly, Bcikos, the largest village on the Bosporus, with 'exten sive vineyards and a palace built by Mehemet Ali Pasha of Egypt Crossing over to the Euro pean shore again and starting from Galata up the Bosporus, the following suburbs and places of interest included with Constantinople are Top Haneh (cannon building, i.e., g.un foundry) ; Kaba Tash; Beshik Tash (°cradle-stone"), the tomb of Ghazi Khaireddin, °the terror of the Christians); Orta Keui a large village the ancient Saint Phocas, containing great market gardens, the Yeni Valideh Mosque, and resi dences of state ministers; near by is the im perial residence, Yildiz Kiosk (q.v.) ; Kuru Chesmeh, a dirty village inhabited by Armeni ans and Jews, formerly the residence of Wal lachian Hospodars; Arnaut Keui (q.v.), the Byzantine Michaelion; Bebek (q.v.), where the famous Robert College (q.v.) is situated; Ru meli Hissar (q.v.), the °Citadel of Europe"; Balta Liman, where the treaties of 1838, 1841 and 1849, relating to the Danubian tributary states, were signed; Boyaji Keui, a village; Emirgluan, site of the ancient Kyparodis, famous for its cypress grove, mosque, marble fountain, college, summer residences and pal aces; Stenia (q.v.) ; Yeni Keui, containing ambassadorial summer residences and magnifi cent villas of wealthy Levantines; Therapia (q.v.), the famous health resort; and Buyuk dereh (eGreat Valley)), also a summer resort for the wealthy, situated 11 miles from Galata.

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