london, turkey, city and war

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The more important historic events which have taken place in Constantinople since then may be briefly summarized. Peace was con cluded there between Turkey on the one side and Venice, Spain and the Pope on the other, in 1540; another peace treaty between Turkey and Russia in 1700; and an abortive alliance between Prussia and Turkey against the am bitions of Russia and Austria. In 1821 a massacre of Greeks took place, in which the Greek Patriarch was hanged. The rising of the Janissaries and their complete annihilation oc curred in 1826. In the same year 6,000 houses and many palaces were destroyed, whilst other serious conflagrations, as well as earthquakes, worked their havoc upon the city in 1714, 1755, 1808, 1883, 1890, 1893, 1894, 1908 and 1910. The most disastrous fire for a century broke out 31 May 1918 and in two days covered 2/2 miles of old Stamboul, destroying over 5,000 houses, 20 baths, a dozen bazaars and as many mosques. Over 200,000 were left homeless.

It was in Constantinople, too, that the alli ance between Great Britain, France and Turkey against Russia was concluded— a few weeks before the Crimean War broke out. In the winter of 1876-77 the Great Powers held a futile conference here with a view to settling the Eastern Question, but could not prevent the Russo-Turkish war which followed. In Febru ary 1878 the Russian army reached almost to the gates of the 'city, and forced the Treaty of San Stefano upon the Porte, while British war ships lay at hand to prevent the capture of Constantinople. In 1909 Sultan Abdul Hamid II

was deposed, and Shevket Pasha entered the city at the head of the Macedonian army and the new regime was announced. During the Balkan Wars of 1912-13 the Balkan Allies almost reached the walls of the city, and again in 1915 the French and British attempted to capture Constantinople by forcing the Darden elles. See WAR, EUROPEAN.

Guide books of Baedeker, Macmillan and Murray; Amicis, E. de, 'Con stantinople' (Philadelphia 1896) ; Barker, B. G., 'The Walls of Constantinople' (London 1910); Coolidge, A. C., 'Claimants to Constantinople)) (Cambridge, Mass., 1917); Dwight, H. G., Old and New' (London 1915) Dwight, H. 0., 'Constantinople and Its Prob lems' (New York 1901) ; Elliott, F., 'Diary of an Idle Woman in Constantinople' (London 1893) ; Essad, Djelal, 'Constantinople de By zanz a StambuP (Paris 1910) • Hutton, W. H., 'Constantinople' (London 1906) ; Pears, Sir E., 'Forty Years in Constantinople) (London 1915; New York 1916) ; Ramsay, Sir W. M., 'The Revolution in Constantinople and Turkey) London 1909): Son% W. i. 1.. 'Life on the Bosphorus: Turkey Past and Present> (London 1895) Van Milligen, A., 'Constantinople' (Lon don 1906). See also TURKEY.

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