DEMOCRATIC PARTY, The, one of the chief political organizations in the United States. To Thomas Jefferson belongs the honor of being the founder, and for a third of a century the undisputed leader, of the Demo cratic party. Scarcely had the present Consti tution been adopted before there appeared a line more or less distinct dividing those who, like Jefferson (q.v.), believed the people fully capable of self-government and trusted them, and those who, like Hamilton (q.v.), thought that the masses needed to be under the control of a strong and centralized government. This fundamental difference of opinion manifested itself in the treatment of every important ques tion, and party organizations were soon per fected.
As Jefferson himself has described the birth of parties in the United States, his opinion can be accepted as authoritative. In a letter writ ten in June 1823, near the close of his life, to William Johnson, he said: At the formation of our government, many had formed their political opinions on European writings and practices, believing the experience of old countries, and especially of England abusive as it was, to be a safer guide than mere theory. The doctrines of Europe were that men in numerous associations cannot be restrained within the limits of order and justice, but by forces physical and moral, wielded over them by authorities independent of their will. Hence their organization of kings. hereditary nobles, and priests. Still further to constrain the brute force of the people, they deem it necessary to keep them down by hard labor, poverty and ignorance, and to take from them as from bees, so much of their earnings, as that unremitting labor shall be necessary to obtain a sufficient surplus barely to sustain a scanty and miserable life. And these earnings they apply to maintain their privileged orders in splendor and idleness, to fascinate the eyes of the people, and excite in them an humble adoration and submission, as to an order of superior beings. Although few among us had gone all these lengths of opinion, yet had advanced, some more, some less, on the way. And in the convention which formed our government, they endeavored to draw the cords of power as tight as they could obtain them, to lessen the dependence of the general functionaries on their constitu ents, to subject to them those of the States, and to weaken their means of maintaining the steady equilibrium which the majority of the convention had deemed salutary for both branches, general and local. To recover, therefore, in prac
tice the powers which the nation had refused and to warp to their own wishes those actually given, was the steady object of the Federal party. Ours, on the contrary, was to maintain the will of the majority of the convention and of the people themselves. We believed, with them, that man was a rational animal endowed by nature with rights and with an innate sense of justice; and that he could be restrained from wrong and protected in right,. by moderate powers confided to persons of his own choice, and held to their duties by dependence on his own will. We believe that the complicated organization of kings, nobles, and priests, was not the wisest nor best to effect the happi ness of associated man; that wisdom and virtue were not hereditary; that the trappings of such a machinery, con sumed by their expense, those earnings of industry they were meant to protect, and, by the inequalities they pro duced, exposed liberty to sufferance. We believe that men, enjoying in ease and security the full fruits of their own industry, enlisted by all their interests on the side of law and order, habituated to think of themselves and to follow their reason as their guide, would be more easily and safely governed, than with minds nourished in error and vitiated and debased, as in Europe, by ignorance, indigence, and oppression. The cherishment of the people then was our principle, the fear and distrust of them that of the other party. Composed, as we were, of the landed and laboring Interests of the country, we could not be less anxious for a government of law and order than were the inhabitants of the cities, the strongholds of federalism. And whether our efforts to save the principles and form of our Constitution have not been salutary, let the present republican freedom, order, and prosperity of our country determine.