URINE, PATHOLOGY OF, AND 310RtID STATES OF. The normal constituents of urine are treated of in the article URINE, in the NATURAL HISTORY DIVISION of this Cyclopredia. We shall here speak of the urine in states of disease, and more particularly of its abnormal constituents. These latter may be divided, first, into those substances which are dissolved in the urine ; and, second, those substances which are thrown down as sediments.
J. Substances which are dissolved in the urine, or precipitated only under special conditions.
Haanefin, or blood-pigment, appears in the urine in two states, either in the blood-cella or independent of them. When the latter occurs, the blood is of a more or lees brown or black colour. Such a condition does not indicate the rupture of blood-vessels, but a state of the blood produced by such diseases as typhus fever, yellow fever, scarlatina malign, scurvy, pywmia, and other diseases in which the blood-cells are, as it were, broken up.
Albumen is frequently present in the blood, but by not characterised by any particular physical appearance : it often is of a natural colour, sometimes a little paler, at other times it ie obviously tinged with blood. For the most part albuminous urine is transparent at the instant it is voided, but on cooling it becomes turbid : its odour is ordinarily lees urinous than the urine of health. The testa for detect ing albumen are various. Nitric acid is one of the best ; for if a few drops be added to the urine containing albumen, a precipitate is formed, which we cannot re-dissolve by an excess of the acid, but which is readily dissolved by the addition of a sufficient quantity of alkali. Heat, from its property of quickly coagulating albumen, is an excellent twat for recogniamg this principle, as it has the advantage of not coagulating the other elements of urine. Albuminous urine, on being exposed to a temperature of about 150% becomes opaque, and deposits the principle in a coagulated state. The precipitate varies considerably in appearance in different instances, being sometimes firm and similar to that formed by the serum of the blood, from which it may then be supposed to be derived ; while at other times it is deli rate, fragile, and somewhat resembling curd, when it may bo supposed to be of chylous origin.
Albumen Is generally indicative of disease of the kidneys. [KIDNEYS, Disr..sEs or.] This form of disease may come on in many diseases, such as intermittent fever, typhoid fever, measles, small pox, Inflam mation of the lungs, phthisia, rheumatism, chloroale, and disease of the heart. It has also been observed In temporary derangement of the digestive organs, and even in health after eating albuminous food, such as eggs. Dr. Parkes found, on examining indiscriminately all cases admitted under his care, that about 25 per cent. had albumen in the urine, and that of these 12 per cent. were temporary, and 13 per cent. were permanent.
In some cases the albumen in the urine is of a modified character, so that although not precipitated by heat or nitric acid alone, nitric acid will cause a precipitate when it is heated.
Xamthie (Uric) Oxide was first described by Dr. Marcet, and subse quently by Professor Stromeyer. It is said by Liebig to differ from uric acid by containing one proportion less of oxygen. The characters of urine containing this substance are not known, as the urine of the persons from whom the xanthio oxide calculi hitherto met with were taken was not analysed.
Cystic Oxide does not exist in healthy urine, but is occasionally found in certain states of disease. It contains a considerable propor tion of sulphur, no less than two atoms being present in each equiva lent of the oxide. This substance, when present in the urine, is always in a white crystallised state, never being found amorphous. When urine which contains a deposit of this kind ie mixed with hydrochloric acid it is not rendered clear ; on the application of heat, however, the eystine slowly dissolves.