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Ural-Japanese Peoples

chinese, plate, mongolians, tribes, races and name

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CiaSSifiCatiOn.—The Ural-Japanese peoples are divided into several groups: t. TheJapanese, with the nearly-related Islanders, the Athos, and the 0»rairs. To the Ainos belong the Sal/taws or Gllyaks, and the .Vaikis on the lower Amoor, whither they probably emigrated from the west coast of the island of Saglialin, which is also occupied by Gilyaks and Natkis.

2. According to Castren, the whose proper home is Man chooria, whence many of their tribes emigrated to East Siberia, and whence the Manehoos in 16.1.1 A. D. invaded China. The latter are men tioned in Chinese annals in earlier centuries as a very rude people, but under other names (Sntehin, eleventh century B. C. ; the closely-related Ylen, Ylin, third century A. D. ; the Kliitan, sixth century A. D.). They are a highly gifted and warlike race, and have now entirely adopted Chinese manners. Plate 59 3) gives an idea of their domestic comfort: the elevated plat form covered with mats serves as a sleeping-place for the whole family, and the room is warmed by a small stove (on our plate in the middle of the rear wall before the platform), in which are burning coals, and from which the heated air is conveyed in pipes under the floor of the room.

Among the other tribes of 'funguses may be mentioned the Sea Tiniguses and the Laimites (lann!, the sea), on the Sea of Okhotsk; also the Tehapogirs on the middle Yenisei; others dwell in the extreme north, on the K hatanga River. From the lands bordering on the Anwor they progressed as far as the island of Saghalin, whose north end is in their possession; for the Orotskos belong, as their name far more their exterior and customs prove, to the as also do the Smerenkurs, who closely resemble them, and who occupy the north-west of the island (pl. 67, jig.. 6). l'late GS (Jis. 2, 3) shows 'funguses from Eastern Siberia; Plate 68 (firs. ,1, 5), from Central Siberia.

Many of the Tunguses are nomadic (p/. 6S, figs. 4. 51, and the Man choos call them possessors of reindeer." But most of them

are hunters, brave, skilful, of joyous temperament, fond of ornament, and often tattooed on their faces and hands. Their costume may be seen on the plates referred to, also on Plate 68 (figs. 6-9). Figure 8 is a breast ornament, Figure 7 a collar. People of this race who have settled down are rare, but now, owing to Russian influences, their settlements are becoming more numerous.

3. The Mongolians in a more restricted sense, with four divisions: (r) the East Mongolians, in Mongolia, whose northern tribes are the Khalka Mongolians, and southern the Schanz Mongolians; (2) the Burials around the Lake of Baikal; and (3) the Calmucks, who call themselves Oeloel (the "separated ones") or "the four united" (Durban-Oirad), for they consist of four races. Coining originally from Dzungaria (Dzungar is the name of one of the four races), they settled on the west border of the Gobi region and westward from the Lake of Baikal; some, too, wandered into the steppes between the Volga and Ural, where they have been Russian sub jects since 1630 A. D. (4) This division includes the pastoral races of the ilaLyires, Timuris, Teimanis, etc. in North Afghanistan, which are also comprised in the name Aimak ("hordes "). To this day a few of these Mongolian-looking tribes, who are bigoted Mohammedans, speak Mon golian dialects.

4. The Turkish race, often also called the Tartars. The name of Turks is older (about 600 A. D. in the Chinese annals) than that of Tar tars, which only appears about 88o A. D. In the earlier centuries these races formed the powerful kingdom of Hiongnu, north-westerly from China to the Selenga River, from the ruins of which the kingdom of the Tu-kin (Turks) was afterward developed. It was destroyed in 745 A. D. by the as the Chinese call them, a branch of the Erigurs. These latter, first men tioned in the Chinese annals in 478 A. D., are a Turkish, but a highly and anciently civilized people ; their nearest relatives are the Uzbecks, Seljuks, and Osinans.

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