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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 1

Ammonia
Ammo'nia (gk. Anyurtak6v, Ammoniakon, Rock-salt), A Colorless, Pungent, Gaseous Compound Of Nitrogen And Hydrogen. It Was Known To The Ancients As Volatile Alkali, And Is Said To Have Been Called Vehement Odor By Pliny. Its Name Is Believed To Be Derived From Zeus Ammon, Near Whose Temple In Libya, Upper ...

Ammonites
Ammonites. A People Allied To The Mo Ahites, And Also (though In A Minor Degree) To The Hebrews, Whose Settlements Were On The Edge Of The Syrian Desert. According To Genesis (xix : 3s) They Were Descendants Of Ben-anuni, The Son Of Lot, And While This Account Is Fanciful, There ...

Ammunition
Am'muni'tion (fr. Amunition, Probably By Wrong Division Of Hi Munition Into ('am-uni Tioe; From Lat. ?unwire, To Fortify, Defend). A Term Which Embraces All The Ordnance Stores Used In The Actual Firing Of Guns Of Every Sort And Calibre, And Which Includes Gunpowder, Pro Jectiles, Primers, And Their Accessories. When ...

Among Plants
Among Plants. Alternation Of Generations Is Found In All Forms Of Plants Excepting The Low Est. Though It Is Not Very Evident In The Highest Plants. One May Get Some Coneeption Of Alter Nation Of Generation. In Plants By Comparing It With The Very Different Alternation Of Forms Which Occurs ...

Amorites
Am'orites. The Name Of A People Of Canaan (ii. Samuel Xxi : 12; Amos Ii : 9, 10). The Name Is Known Outside Of Biblical Literature, Occurring On Both The Assyrian And Egyptian Inscriptions. The Egyptian Documents Speak Of A People Called The Amar. In The Assyrian Monttnrents Nebuchadnezzar I. ...

Amoy
Amoy, A-moi' (the Local Pronunciation Of Ilai-mun, Or Gallery Gate). A Third-class Chi Nese City On An Island Of The Sanie Name, In N. Let. 24° 28', E. Long. 118° 4', At The Mouth Of The Pei-chi Or Dragon River, In The Province Of Fu Kien (map: China, E 5). ...

Ampere
Ampere, 5n-par' (derived From The Name Of Ampere). The Practical Unit, Employed In Measuring The Intensity Of An Electric Current, And Technically Defined As One-tenth Of The C.g.s. Electromagnetic Unit (see Electrical Units) Of Current. By Intensity Of Current Is Meant The Quantity Of Electricity Which Passes Any Cross Section ...

Ampere_2
Ampere' Fin'par', Andre Marie (1775 1830). A Distinguished French Physicist, Ematician, And Naturalist, Born At Lyons. The Death Of His Father Under The Guillotine In 1793 Made A Deep And Melancholy Impression On The. Mind Of The Young Man, And He Sought Solace In The Study Of Nature And The ...

Amphibole
Amphibole (gk. Apcpipoaoc, Ancphibolos, Doubtful, Ambiguous; Alluding To Its Being Easily Confounded With Augite). An Important Group Of Rock-making Minerals Closely Allied To The Pyroxene (q.v.) Group. The Amphiboles Are Metasilieates, Principally Of Calcium, Magnesium, Or Iron, And Sometimes Also Of Manganese, So Dium, And Potassium. The Group Is Subdivided ...

Amphictyonic Council
Amphic'tyon'ic Council (from Am Phietyon; See Below). A Celebrated Religious Congress Of The Confederated Tribes Of Ancient Greece, Which Met Twice Every Year, In Spring And In Autunm, At Both Delphi And Thermopylx. The Meetings At Delphi Took Place In The Temple Of Apollo. Those At Therrnopyhe In The Temple ...

Amphioxius
Am'phioxius (gk. Afirpi, On Both Sides + U.rys, Sharp). A Small, Bilateral, Translucent, Marine Animal. About Two Or Three Inches Long, Thought By Some To Be An Offshoot Of The Primitive Vertebrate Stock, And By Others To Be A Degenerate, Primitive Vertebrate. The Amphioxus Or "lancelet." Has No Well-defined Brain, ...

Amphipolis
Amphip'olis ( Gk. 'aligillro2,cc). A City Of Ancient Macedonia, Situated In A Deep Bend Of The Strymon, About Three Miles From The Sea (slap: Turkey In Europe, D 4). Its Position Made It Important As The Port Of Entry For The Fertile Strymon Valley And Thrace; And The Neighborhood Yielded ...

Amphitheatre
Am'phithe'atre ( Gk. Cilicpthiarpor, Amphitheatron, A Double Theatre, From Apoi, Amphi, On Both Sides + Etarpor, Theatron, Theatre). An Architectural Structure Invented By The Romans For Exhibiting Gladiatorial Combats, Fights Of Wild Beasts, And Other Spectacles. These Contests Were At First Given In The Roman Forum, Within Hastily Contrived Wooden ...

Amputation
Am'puta'tion (lat. Aanputare, To Lop Off, Cut Around). The Cutting Off Of A Part Which, By Its Condition, Endangers The Safety, Health Or Comfort Of The Patient. Injury, Gangrene, And Malignant Growths Are The Most Frequent Causes For Amputation. The Amputation Of A Limb Was In Ancient Times Attended With ...

Amulet
Amulet (lat. Anittletion, From Ar. Flame Let, That Which Is Suspended). Any Object Worn As A Charm, Or Sometimes Placed In A Building To Ward Oti Evil. Amulets Originated At An Early Date In The Orient, And Regard For Them Is Among The Earliest Superstitions Of The Babylonians And Egyptians. ...

Amur
Amur. A River Of Asia, Formed By The Junc Tion Of The Shilka And Argun Rivers, Near The Russian Village Of Ust-strielka, At The North End Of The Khingan Mountains, Lat. 53° 20' N. And Long. 121° 25' E. (map: Asia, N 4). From The Point Of Junction Of The ...

Amyl Alcohol
Amyl Alcohol. A Name Applied To Eight Alcohols Having The Same Molecular Compo Sition But More Or Less Different Chemical And Physical Properties. Seven Of These Alcohols Have Actually Been Prepared ; The Possibility Of The Existence Of The Eighth Is Indi Cated By The Structural Theory Of Compounds. The ...

Amyl Nitrite
Amyl Ni'trite. An Extremely Volatile, Pale Yellow, Oily Liquid, With An Aromatic Taste And An Odor Resembling Bananas. It Is Formed By The Action Of Nitric Acid Upon Amyl Alcohol (fusel Oil). As It Rapidly Deteriorates, It Is Necessarily Kept In "small, Dark, Amber-colored And Glass-stoppered Vials, In A Cool ...

Amyraut
Amyraut, Moise. (1506-1664). Afrench Protestant Theologian And Metaphysician. He Was Born At Neabourr•ueil• •rtours. His Father Set Him To Study Law, And He Made Rapid Progress In The University Of Poitiers. He Became A Licentiate In Law (1616). But The Reading Of Calvin's Institutes Induced Him To Leave Law For ...

Anabaptists
An'abap'tists (gk. Dvai3a7r-rie,'etv, Anabap Tizcin, To Rebaptize). A Term Applied Generally In Reformation Times To Those Christians Who Rejected Infant. Baptism And Administered The Rite Only To Adults; So That When A New Member Joined Them, He Or She Was Baptized, The Rite As Administered In Infancy Being Considered No ...

Anacardiace2e
An'acar'dia'ce2e (gk. 'ova, Ono, [like] Unto Eapdia, Kardia, Heart), Sumach Family. An Order Of Dicotyledonous Plants Consisting Mostly Of Trees And Shrubs, With Acrid, Resinous, Or Milky Sap, In Some Instances Very Irritating And Poisonous. The Leaves Are Usually Alternate, Rarely Opposite; Flowers Small, Polygamous, Dice %ions Or Perfect: Calyx ...

Anagram
Anagram ( Gk. Tivel, Ana, Backward 4- Yooki 'ua, Gra Mma, Writing). The Transposition Of The Letters Of A Word, Phrase, Or Short Sentence, So As To Form A New Word Or Sentence. It Originally Signified A Simple Reversal Of The Order Of Letters, But Has Long Borne The Sense ...

Analogy
Analogy (gk. Ima2o)ia, Anal-ogia, Equality Of Ratios). In General, An Agreement Or Corres Pondence In Certain Respects Between Things In Other Respects Different. Euclid Employed It To Signify Proportion, Or The Equality Of Ratios, And It Has Retained This Sense In Mathematics; But It Is A Term Little Used In ...

Analysis
Analysis (gk. A Resolution Into Parts, From Dud, Ana, Up + Lycin, To Loosen). A Term Frequently Employed In General Philosophy And In The Sciences, As The Opposite Of The Term Synthesis. In Philosophy The Term Analysis Is Generally Applied To The Mental Act Of Distinguishing Within A Given Object ...

Analysis Of Gases
Analysis Of Gases. The Analysis Of Gases Differs From That Of Solids And Liquids In That It Is More Easy To Measure Than To Weigh Gases, And Hence The Results Are Usually Given In Per Centages By Volume. For Many Gases Reagents Are Known Which Absorb The Gas Readily And ...

Analytic Geometry
An'alyt'ic Geometry. Geometry Treat Ed By Means Of Algebra. Geometric Conditions Are Expressed By Equations Which, After Certain Transformations, Are Interpreted Again In Geo Metric Concepts. The Powerful Algebraic Method Is Thus Made Use Of For Discovering And Demon Strating In A Simple And Easy Manner The Most Complicated Relations ...

Anatolia
An'ato'lia (gk. 'anaroxii, Anatole, A Rising, East, I.e., From Constantinople: From Aim, Ana, Up + Rirlecr, Talein, To Make To Arise, To Rise). The Modern Name For Asia Minor: Turkish, Anadoli. It Embraces The Western Peninsula Of Asia, Bounded By The Armenian Highlands On The East, The Mediterranean On The ...

Anatomy
Anatomy. The Science That Treats Of The Structure Of Organic Forms: So Called From Dis Section (gk. Avii, Anti, Apart + Ripmv, Tetnnein, To Cut), Formerly The Sole Method Of Investiga Tion. It Is Distinguished As Human, Animal, Or Plantanatomy,according To The Organisms Under Consideration; As Normal Or Pathological Anato ...

Anaxagoras
An'axag'oras (gk. 'arcieny6pac) (c. 500 435 B.e.). The Last Great Philosopher Of The Ionian School. He Was Born Between 500 And 496 B.c. At Clazomeme, In Ionia, The Son Of Liege Sibulus. Ills Family Was Wealthy And Distin Guished, So That The Young Anaxagoras Was Able To Devote Himself To ...

Anaximander
Anax'iman'der (gk. 'a Ra.vpar6poc, .to Aximandros) (610-546 N.e.). A Creek Mathe Matician, Astronomer. And Philosopher. Ile Was Born At Miletus, The Son Of L'raxiades, And Was A Disciple And Friend Of Thales, Whom He Suc Ceeded As The Head Of The Ionian School. Be Is Said To Have Discovered The ...

Ancestry
Ancestry. The Amphibia Have Doubtless Sprung From Fish-like Ancestors, And The Link With That Ancestry Is Found In The Fossil Group Of Stegoeephalia, Whose Head Carries Great Plates. The Piscine Group From Which The Amphibia Arose Must Have Been Either The Dipnoi, Which Are To-day Largely Air Breathers, Or The ...

Anchor
Anchor (lat. Ancora, Brova, Ankyra, Akin To Engl. Angle; Literal Meaning, "something Crooked. Hooked"). A Heavy Instrument Designed To Rest On The Sea Bottom, And, By Means Of A Cable Or Rope, Hold A Vessel, Buoy, Or Other Float Ing Object In A Desired Position. Anchors For Buoys Frequently Consist ...

Ancient American Architecture
Architecture, Ancient American. No Historical Sketch Of Aboriginal American Archi Tecture Is Possible With Our Lack Of Reliable Data As To The History Of The American Races And Their Relation To Each Other. The Tribes Whom We Are Ac Customed To Group Under Such Heads As "mound Builders" And "cliff ...

Ancona
Ancona, An-k6'titl (the Name Alludes To Its Situation At The Bend Of The Sea-coast; Gk. Ayta3v, Ankcin, Angle, Corner). The Capital Of The Province Of Ancona, In Central Italy, In The Division Called The Marches. 132 Miles Northeast Of Rome. Lat. 43° 37' N. And Long. 13° 31' E. It ...

Andalusia
Andalusia, (sp. Anda Lucia For Vandalusia, The Land Of The Van Dals). A Region In The Southern Part Of Spain, A Part Of The Old Roman Province Of L3t,ica, Which Comprises The Present Provinces Of Granada. Almeria, :malaga, Cadiz, Huelva, Seville, Cordova, And Jaen (nap: Spain, C 4). Its Area ...

Andamans
Andamans, :ilea-ma/1z. A Chain Of Is Lands Politically Attached To British India, Situ Ated Toward The East Side Of The Bay Of Bengal, Between 10° And 14° N. Lat. And About 93° E. Long., 680 Miles South. Of The Mouth Of The Ganges (map: Asia, J 7). The Group Covers ...

Andersen
Andersen, Iin'difr-srn, Itans Christian (1805-75). A Celebrated Danish Writer, Styled The "children's Poet," Whose Best Poetry Is His Prose. He Was Born At Odense, Denmark, April 2, 1805. The Child Of Poor And Shiftless Parents, He Had Little Instruction And Few Associates, Hut His Dramatic Instinct Was Stimulated By La ...

Andersonville
An'dersonville. A Village In Sumter Co., Ga., 62 Miles South Of Macon, Notable As The Site Of A Confederate Military Prison During The Civil War. When Established In November, 1863, The Prison Was An Unsheltered Inclosure Occupying About Twenty-two Acres, And Crossed By A Small Stream About Five Feet Wide ...

Andes
Andes, Fin'dez (deriv. Uncertain, Usually Ex Plained As Copper Mountains. From The Peruvian Word Anti, Copper; Cf. In Germany Erz-gebirgc, Ore-mountains, And Blci-berg, Lead-mountain). The Great Mountain Chain Of South America, Extending Closely Parallel With The Pacific Coast, And Nowhere Far From It, From Cape Horn To The Northwest Coast ...

Andorra
Andorra, An-dor'•a. A Republic In The Ley Of The Same Name In The Eastern Pyrenees. Between The French Department Of And Catalonia, In Spain (map: Spain, F 1). The Valley Is Inclosed By Mountains, Through Which Its River, The Balira, Breaks To Join The Segre At And Its Inaccessibility Naturally ...

Andre
Andre, Fin'dret Or An'dri, John (1751-80). An English Soldier In The American Revolution Who Met His Death Under Circumstances Which Have Given His Name A Place In History. He Was Born In London Of Genes-one And French Parentage, Entered The English Army At The Age Of Twenty, And In 1774 ...

Andronicus
An'droni'cus. The Name Of Four Byzan Tine Emperors.—ammonteus 1. (1110-s5) Was The Son Of Isaac Comnenus. This Life Was Full Of Vicissitudes. During Part Of His Youth He Was A Prisoner Of The Turks In Asia Minor. He After Ward Spent Some Time At The Court Of His Cousin, The ...

Andropogon
An'dropo'gon (called So From The Barbed Male Flowers, From The Gk. (iviip, (timer, Man + And Iav, Pogon, Beard ) . A Cosmopolitan Genus Of Grasses, Inclinling About 150 Species, The Rela Tive Merits Of Which Vary Widely. Some Are High Ly Prized For Hay And Pasturage, As Andropogon Halcpcnse, ...

Andros
Andros, Sin Edmund ( 1637-1714). A Colonial Governor In America, The Son Of An Of Ficer In The English Royal Household. In 1674 He Was Sent To America As Governor Of The Colony Of New York, And To Him Sir Anthony Colve, The Governor During The Temporary Dutch Supremacy, Surrendered ...

Anemometer
An'emom'eter (gk. Iiveenc, Enemas, Wind -1- Metron, Measure). An Instrument Used To Measure The Velocity Of The Wind, Its Pressure, Or Other Effects Produced By It. The First Instrument Of This Kind Is Commonly Known As Ilooke's Pendulum Anemometer, And Is Men Tioned As Early As 1667. It Is, However, ...

Anemone
Anemone, Let. Iiife-mo'nr.-; Engl. I-nan'o Ne ((:k. The Wind-flower, From Enemas, Wind), Or Wind-flower. A Genus Of Plants Of The Order Ranunculaceme, Having An Involncre Of Three Divided Leaves, More Or Less Remote From The Flower: A Petaloid Ealyx, Scarcely Distinguishable From The Corolla, And Soft, Woolly Achenia (see Acnene), ...

Aneroid
Aneroid (containing No Liquid, From Gk. 6. A, Priv. Wip6c, Oros, Liquid + Eldos, Eidos, Form). A Barometer First Made In Serviceable Forum By M. Vidi. Of Paris, In 1848, :n Which Tile Pressure Of The Air Is Measured By The Change Of Form Undergone By An Exhausted Me Box ...

Aneurism
Aneurism (gk. Ancurysma, A Dilatation. From Api, Ana, Up + Eurys, Wide). A Pulsating Tumor, Consisting Of A Sac Or Pouch Into Which Blood Flows Through An Open Ing In An Artery. The Sac Of An Arterial An Eurism May Be Formed In The First Instance By One Or More ...

Angel
Angel (gk. 4y.yeaoc, Angelos, Messenger). The English Word Denotes A Superhuman Being Intermediate Between God And Man. But The Original Meaning Was Simply That Of A "messen Ger," Either Human Or Superhuman. It Is Doubt Ful Whether The Word Was Used At All In Pre Exilic Times As A Designation ...

Angelica
Angelica ( Lat. Angelic, I.e., Plant Or Herb. In Allusion To Its Medicinal Qualities). A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Umbelliferte. By Some Botanists Divided Into Two, Angelica And Archangeliea. The Species Are Mostly Herbaceous And Perennial, Natives Of The Temperate And Colder Regions Of The Nm Them ...

Anger
Anger (icel. Angr, Grief, Straits; 0. H. G. August: Ger. Angst, Anxiety; Lat. Augur, A Chok Ing, Strangling, Anguish, From The Root Ang, Seen In Lat. August Us, Narrow, Close; Gk. Anchti, Near; Ger. Cng, Narrow, Close; A. S. Ange. Onge, Narrow. Strait, Troubled). An Emotion (q.v.) Characterized By A ...

Angers
Angers, (the Ancient Andes, Capital Of A Gallic Tribe, Known Under The Lat. Form Andecari). Formerly The Capital Of The Duchy Of Anjou, And Now Of The French Department Of Maine-et-loire, Situated On Both Sides Of The Navigable River Mayenne, Not Far From The Junc Tion Of The Sarthe With ...

Angina Pectoris
Angina Pectoris (lat. Tightening Of The Chest Or Heart), Or Heart-stroke. It Is Characterized By Intense Pain And Sense Of Con Striction, Which Occur In Paroxysms Begin Ning Oier The Region Of The Heart, Or Deep In The Chest, And Extending Toward The Left Shoulder. The Attacks Are Apt To ...

Angiosperms
Angiosperms, Iin'ji-tespi;rmz (gk. (1) Yeiov, Anyeion, Vessel ± Arippa, Spernaa, Seed). A Name Applied To The Greatest Group Of Seed Plants, Spermatophytes, As Distinguished From The Other Group, Gymnosperms, In Which The "seeds Are Naked." The Two Great Divisions Of Angiosperms Are The Monocotyledons And Di Cotyledons, Once Called The ...

Angle
An'gle (lat. Angulus. A Corner, Gk. Ard7.oc, Ankylos. Bent). One Of The Common Geometric Concepts. If Two Lines Meet, They Are Said To Form On Angle, The Lines Being Called The Arms, Sides, Or Legs, And The Point Of Meet Ing The Vertex Of The Angle. The Size Of The ...

Angling A S
Angling (a. S. Angel, Fish-hook, Akin To Engl. Angle, A Corner, Bend). The Term Angling Has, By Common Understanding, Become Re Stricted To The Catching Of Fish As A Source Of Recreation, While The Word Fishing Expresses It As A Commercial Enterprise. The Term "angle" And Its Cognate Words In ...

Anglo Saxon Art
An'glo-sax'on Art. A Term Used To Describe Whatever Works Of Art Were Produced In England During The Period Of About Six Cen Turies Between The Time Of The Conquest By The Angles, Saxons, And Other Germanic Tribes And The Time Of The Norman Conquest In The Eleventh Century. They Found ...

Anglo Saxon Language And Lit
Anglo-saxon Language And Lit Erature. The Term Anglo-saxon Is Employ Ed, In Popular Speech And To Some Extent Among Scholars, To Designate The Language Of The Ger Manic Peoples In England Before The Coming Of The Normans (1066). Such, However, Was Not The Usage Of Those Who Wrote In The ...

Anglo Saxon Law
An'glo-sax'on Law. The Body Of Law Of The Anglo-saxons. It Was Not Until The Close Of The Nineteenth Century That Historical Inves Tigation Enabled One To Form Even A Tolerably Clear Conception Of The Legal System That Pre Vailed In England Prior To The Norman Conquest. The Earliest. Written Records ...

Anglo Saxons
Anglo-saxons. The Collective Name Erally Given By Historians To The Various Tonic Or German Tribes Which Settled In England, In The Fifth Century, And Founded The Kingdoms Which Were Ultimately Eombined Into The English Monarchy And Nation. Various Groups Of Them Were Known As Angles, Saxons, And Jutes. The Traditional ...

Anglomania A
An'gloma'nia (a Hybrid Formation From Anglo, English Gk. Porn:, Mania, Madness. Frenzy. Enthusiasm). A Term Which Designates, In America And Other Countries, A Weak Imitation Of English Manners, Customs, Etc., Or An Indis Criminate Admiration Of English Institutions. In German Literature, An Anglornania Was Especi Ally Prevalent In The Eighteenth ...

Angola
Angola, An-go/la (portug. For The Native Name A Portuguese Colony In West Af Rica, Extending Front 6° To 17° S. Lat. Aml From 12° To About 25° E. Long. (slap: Africa, F 6). It Is Bounded By German Southwest Africa On The South, British Central Africa On Time East, And ...

Angora
Angora (ancient Gk. "a)apa, Inkyra; Lat. Incyra; Turk. Enguri). The Capital Of The Turkish Vilayet Of The Same Name, In The Moun Tainous Interior Of Asia Minor, And Distant From Constantinople About 220 Miles. The City Is Fabled To Have Been Built By Midas, The Son Of The Phrygian Gordius. ...

Anhalt
Anhalt, Iin'hfilt. A Duchy Of The German Empire, Inclosed Within Prussian Territory (provinces Of Saxony And Brandenburg) Avith An Area Of 906 Square Miles (slap: Germany, E 3). The Western Part, Adjacent To Brunswick, Par Takes Of The Mountainous Character Of The Bartz Region, And Inclines Gradually Toward The Valley ...

Aniesthetic
An'iesthet'ic (for Derivation, See An Zestuesia ) Any Remedy Used To Relieve Pain Or Other Hypertesthetie Conditions Of The Sensory Nerves. Those That Relieve Pain Alone Are Fre Quently Termed Analgesics. The Broader Term Is Used Indiscriminately, Including Two Great Groups Of Anaesthetics: (1) Local Anesthetics, Affecting A Restricted Area; ...

Aniline
An'iline (from Anil, Ar. An-nil, For Al, The + Nil, From Skr. Pill, Indigo), A M Tdo-ben Zene, Or Phenyl-a Mi Ne, A Liquid Organic Substance Extensively Used In The Manu Facture Of Dyes. Pure Aniline Is Colorless, Has A Faint, Somewhat Disagreeable Odor. And Boils At 183° C. When ...

Animal
Animal I Lat. A Living Being, From Anima, Current Of Air, Breath Of Life, Soul, Animus. Soul, Mind; From The Skr. Root No, To Breathe). A Representative Of One Of The Two Great Groups Of Organisms. The Other Including Plants. The Distinction Between Animal And Plant Is Hard To Draw ...

Animal Heat
Animal Heat. Heat Generated In Animal Bodies By Certain Of The Changes Constantly Taking Place Within Them. A Certain Amount Of Heat Is Necessary To The Proper Performance Of The Functions Of The Body, And Any Material Increase Or Decrease Of It From The Standard Endangers Health. The Air And ...

Animal Psychology
Animal Psychology. That Depart Ment Of Psychology (q.v.) Which Has For Its Sub Ject Matter The Composition And Functions Of Mind As It Is Found In Animals Below Man. As Regards Its Problem, One Cannot Question The Propriety Of The Title; But As Regards The Methods Which It Employs, Animal ...

Anise
Anise (let. Anisum, Anethmn, Gk. Nfter, An [n]eth On , Anise, Dill), ( Pim Pinella Anisum). An Annual Plant Of The Natural Order Umbellifene. The Genus Pimpinella, Which Em Braces About 75 Species, Found In Nearly All Lands But Australia, Has Compound Umbels Usually Without Involucres. Two Species Are Natives ...

Anna Ivanovna
Anna Ivanovna, E-clifnov-ra ( 1693 1740 ). Empress Of Russia. She Was The Second Daughter Of Ivan, The Elder Brother Of Peter The Great. She Was Married In 1710 To The Duke Of Courland, The Last Of His Race. Who Died In The Following Year. The Throne Of Russia Was ...

Annam
Annam, (nhan-nam, Peace Of The South). The Central Division Of French Indo China And Formerly The Designation Of An Inde Pendent Empire, Which Included The Provinces Of Annam. Tongking And Cochin China. It Em Braces The Greater Part Of The East Coast Of Indo China (washed By The South China ...

Annapolis
Annapolis. The Capital Of Maryland, Port Of Entry, And County Seat Of Anne Arundel Coun Ty, On The Severn River. About 2 Miles From Ches Apeake Bay, 26 Miles South By East Of Baltimore And 37 Miles By Rail From Washington, D. C. It Is On The Annapolis And Baltimore ...

Annealing
Annealing (from M. Engl. Anclen, 0. F. Necler, Fr. Nieller, To Enamel, From Lat. Nigel Lus, Blackish). The Process By Which Glass And Certain Metals Arc Heated And Then Slowly Cooled To Make Them More Tenacious And Less Brittle. The Rationale Of Annealing Has Been Most Studied, Perhaps, In Connection ...

Annexation
An'nexa'tion (lat. Anac.cus, A Tying Or Binding To, From Ad, To Secure, To Tie). The Acquisition By A State Of Territory Previously In Dependent Or In The Possession Of Another Power. Though Strictly Applicable, Perhaps, Only To The Extension Of A State's Sovereignty Over Ad Joining Territory (as In The ...

Annihilationism
Anni'hila'tionism (from Lat. Ad, To Nothing). The Theory Of The Utter Extinc Tion Of Man's Being. Both Bodily And Spiritual, Either At Geath Or At Some Later Period. Little Was Heard Of The Doctrine Until In The Eighteenth Century, When Taylor. Of Norwich, England, Mc Knight. And A Few' Others ...

Annuity
Annuity (from Lat. Annus, Year). .\ Sum Of Money Paid Annually. If Perpetual, The Right To Receive The Payment Passes From The Annui Tant To His Heirs. Such Perpetual Annuities Are Less Frequent Than Life Annuities, Which May As Sume The Most Varied Forms. In The Simplest Phase Of The ...

Annularia
An'nula'ria (lat. Annulus, A Small Ring) . Ageims Of Fossil Plants Found In Rocks Of De Vonian, Carboniferous, And Permian Ages, Allied To The Modern Equisetacea, Or Scouring-rushes, And Consisting Of Fluted Annulated Stems Bear Ing Numerous Narrow Leaves Arranged In Whorls At The Ring-like Joints. .annularim, For So Long ...

Annunciade
Annunciade, Rin-ufm'shi-3d. Or Anun Ciada, ( Sp. Anun Cid Da, Annun Ciation). The Name Of Several Religions Or Ders. (1) The Religious Order Of The Heavenly Annunciation, Or Of The Nuns Of The Annuncia Tion Of Mary, Was Instituted By Maria Victoria Fornari At Genoa In 1602, After A Very ...

Annunzio
Annunzio, Ganriele (1864—). An Italian Novelist And Poet, More Widely Discussed. Both At Home And Abroad, Than Any Other Writer Of His Country. He Was Born At Francavilla Al Mare. Near Pescara. In His Fifteenth Year, While A Student At Prato, He Pub Lished His First (collection Of Verse, Primo ...

Anointing
Anointing (lat. Inunctio, From In, In + Unguerc, To Smear, Anoint). The Custom Of Pour Ing Oil On The Head, Or Of Applying Unguents To One's Body. Anointing Was Widespread In The Ancient Orient For Secular As Well As For Religious Purposes. In The Old Testament, Where The Custom Is ...