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Music of

vibrations, string, tone, sound, ear, strings, length and vibrating

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MUSIC (OF.. Fr. musique. from Lat. musica, from Gk. oodardsh, mousa-e', sic. from panumos, mousikos, relating to the Alike., from 31oka, Nouse, Muse). °mass. Music- is a mule of motion. It is a modification by art of aerial vibrations, whose impact upon the auditory nerve makes mental varying image. Sound, the raw material from which mosie is fashioned. is pro duced by motion.

Matter is the stimulus: sensation is the result. "The kind of motion, however. that goes to produce soninl is not that of matter pnwisely, but rather of the moleenies or ultimate particles of willed, mat ter is (111111111,011. When t he state of equilibrium of an elastic body is disturbed by a chock or IT friction. it tends to regain its condition of equilibrium. but does so only after a greater or less number of vibrations. or oscillat ing movements, of the molecules of while]] the mass of the body is Thus A. Zahm, a profound investigator in acoustics and a follower of the great lichnleillz. whose mas terly tonal researches are set. forth in his Lehr,. eon den Tonempfimittnqca. The nature of sound. laird 13acon observes. "in general hath been sum-Oki:Illy observed. It is one of the subt Hest picees of Nature." The nineteenth cen tury has endeavored to (ripe away flacon's re proach, fur the studies and experimenting: of such men as Helmholtz. lindolf KVatig, and others have lifted into light the darkest problems ref The latest researches teach us that sound vibrations—vibrations audible to the ear— have a rapidity which ranges frden 16 to 36.300 per second. Heat vibrations begin at 134 tril lions per second; light vibrations, visible to the eye, at 483 trillions. The gamut of the rainbow has its velocity measurements. Chemical vibra tions. "shown only by certain reactions in pre pared photographic plates," are beyond our sense perceptions. Sonorous vibrations, then, are really the slowest of all. Dr. William Ramsay asserts in 16s Essay on Smell, that the sense of smell is excited by vibrations of a lower period than light, and heat. Sounds of a musical character rarely extend beyond a minimum of 16 and a maximum of 4138 vibrations, respectively the rates of vibration of the lowest tone of an organ with a pipe of thirty-two feet and the top note of a piccolo. The production of sound, its trans mission, and its aural perception may all be demonstrated with a long piece of stretched string. In its position of equilibrium it repre sents a straight line; pluck it and its elasticity Will cause it to return. This is a simple vibra tion. But the string also goes in the opposite direction, and this is a double vibration. Like a pendulum, the vibrations of the string are iso chronous, each occupytng exactly the same length of time. By shortening the string or increasing

its tension we get vibrations of various velocities, and the ear perceives various pitches from 16 vibrations to the second up to 4224 vibrations, Increase the tension beyond this point, shrillness results, below 1(1 a dull unmusical whirring. The same results acoustically may be produced with pipes of varying lengths. The vibrations are, as in the case with strings, isoehronous; they vary in rapidity according to the length of the pipe; subdivide them and harmonies are pro duced. Nodes and vibrating segments are the oriole material of music; pitch, force, or loudness, and timbre or quality of tone. All these quali ties depend upon the rapidity of the vibrations. It is demonstrated: that the number of vibrations of strings is inversely proportional to their length: that the number of vibrations of strings is in inverse ratio to their diameter; that ex perimenting with two wires at tension. but of differing density, we get the rule that the number of vibrations of a string is inversely proportional to the square root of their density; finally, as Helmholtz shows by varying the stretching weight. that the number of vibrations of strings is dinptly proportional to the square root of their stretching weights. Thus the longer, thicker, heavier n string is. the slower are its vibrations; the deeper is its tone. The shorter, finer, lighter, tenser it is. the more rapid are its vibrations; the higher is its tone. Now the sound produced by a string vibrating its entire length is its funda mental or natural tone. It can produce many other sounds at the same time, subdividing them as it vibrates; there ore the overtones or har monies, partial and concomitant sounds. The series of harmonies theoretically amity be divided infinitely, but for musical purposes they are nundPered ill accordance with the number of vibrating segments or loops. The nodes exceed 11,v one in number the loops—taking the ends of the tense string es nodes. The fundamental vi brating with 11110 100p is the first harmonic of the tone, and the harmonies on the numerical order are constantly nearer and nearer together, the sueeessive intervals being an octave, fifth, fourth, third. second. We are at the very beginnings of the scale. The clay is ready for the musical sculptor. Alersenne's law is that the loudness of sound varies inversely as the square of the distance of the sonorous body from the ear. So the range of audition is over eleven octaves, but this is for an exceptional ear.

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