school, masters, german, italian, composers, roman, style, church and instrumental

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V. The School of Venice ( 1527-1612 ) .—Wil laert brought the musical art of the Netherlands to Venice. where he settled in 1527. Under the influence of the more impressionable Italian musicians, he gradually acquired a new style. In the style of the Netherlands each voice was practically independent, and its relation to a definite chord was not strongly pronounced. The Venetian masters established the chord as their basis, and, instead of simultaneous progressions of voices, we find, rather, progressions of chords. The independence of the separate voices was restricted, but not abolished. The custom of writing for a double chorus was introduced, the madrigal was perfected, and for the first time vocal works with instrumental accompani ment appear. The great composers of this school are: Willaert„ A. Gabrieli, Van Gore, Zarlino, Mend°, Donati, G. Gabrieli.

VI. The School of Home (1535-1671).—The founder of this school was Gondimel, who settled in Borne about 1535. While the Venetian School regarded the chord as a basis. and gained their effects largely by means of modulation, the Ro man masters restored greater freedom to the individual voices, and subordinated technique to art. The introduction of secular themes into sacred works had led to serious abuses, but the Ronan masters, especially Palestrina, proved that the contrapuntal style is not antagonistic to the dignity proper to church music. To the Roman School also belongs the honor of having originated the oratorio (Onrissimi ) and a dis tinct instrumental style (Frescobabli). Morello in Venice had done much to develop the toccata, but not until Frescobaldi appeared did instru mental music become entirely free from the influence of vocal nitisic. The greatest masters are: Gottdimel, Festa, Aniumecia, Palestrina, Nanini, Anerio, Allegri, Freseobahli, Ca rissinii.

VII. The Spanish School (1540-160g).—Spain at no time succeeded in establishing an original school. During the sixteenth century several Spanish composers lived in Rome, and returning to their native land. carried with them the art of the Roman School. so that in reality the Spanish School forms only a part of the Roman School. The most prominent Spanish masters arc Da Vittoria and Morales. The Portuguese composer a Goes shows the influence of Com bert. which can be accounted for by the fact that this Flemish musician spent sonic years in Spa in.

V111. The German Polyphonic School (1500 16251.—This school divides itself into two periods. the former showing Flemish, the latter Venetia n. influences, but in the frequent and bOld of dissonances the German toasters go beyond their predecessors. The chief composers showing Flemish influences are: Isaak. H. Finck, Scnill, Hermann Muck. Those showing Italian in fluences (almost all pupils of G. (abrieli) are:

Gallus, Gumpeltzhaimer, Hasler, .Aichinger, IX. Thr School of Protestant Church .]lassie ( 1540-1072 ) ( A ) In Germany. t he Reformation popularized church music by the introduction of congregational singing. For untrained voices simple musie was needed, and this need gave rise to the chorale, which originated in the sing ing of sacred words to popular folk-songs. The musicians whose importance rests chiefly upon their chorales are: Luther, Walther, Eecard, Calvisius, Franck, Schein. (11) From the earliest times it had been customary in the Catholic Church to recite during Holy Week the Pas sion of Our Lord according to the Gospels. Luther desired to preserve this custom for the Reformed Church. Ile translated the text and had various composers furnish the music. Thus arose the "Passion," to the cultivation of which many German masters devoted their best energies. Along this line vocal polyphonic mu sic steadily developed until, in the works of Schutz, German music reached an originality that places it on a level with the famous Italian schools. The German School combines the beauty of the Roman School with the massiveness of the Venetian. In addition, there is a tenderness and a subjective, passionate element quite dis tinct from the colorless solemnity of the early Italian music. The important masters are Schiitz, J. C. Bach, J. M. Bach.

N. Thr School of Organists (1620 17221.—(A) Mile vocal music was steadily ad vancing, instrumental music, although of later date, was not neglected. Swcelinck had founded a great school in the Netherlands, which trained many Germans, who tarried the art into their native land. There the cities of Hamburg and Ulbeck became the centres of a new instrumental school whose 'oasis was the chorale. The prin cipal forms cultivated were the toccata, einconna, fugue, and, toward the end of the period, the sonata. The great North German were: Scheidt, Scheidemann, Reinken, Buxtehude, Nuhnan. (11) While the North German masters developed the style of Sweelinek. a group of composers in the middle and smith of Germany worked along similar lines, but under the influ ences of Freseobaldi and the Roman Sehool. The authority of the Italian sonata writers had by this time extended to Germany, and the forms of the sonata (la chicsa and the sonata da ra taco, were eultivated. Nor was the fugue neg lected. All the great composers used the Italian forms, hut infused their own individuality into them, and thus prepared the way for J. `.Bach, who wrested the leadership in musical affairs from Italy and transferred it to Germany. The German masters who aided in this great work are Kerl. Froberger, Pachelbel, Moffat, Iliber.

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