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MUSIC. SellooLs or COMPOSITION. In order to make possible a general view of line numerous eomposers that have contributed to the erection of the structure of musical historians have agreed to classify various composers into schools. The composers thus classed together under a certain school show common influences or tendencies, but dividing lines between the vari ous schools are often imperfectly marked.

1. The Old French School (c.1100-1350).—The principal merits of this school are the invention of the Fauxbourdon (a progression of voices in sixths and thirds) and the Discoid (contrary motion of voices). This contrary motion led to counterpoint, and this again to the establish ment of a system of notation in which the different values of the notes in regard to time were definitely fixed. (See MENSURABLE Music.) After a diseant was once set in contrary motion to a mails firrnus composers soon conceived the idea of adding a third and even a fourth voice. But the masters of the Old French School did not stop here; they succeeded also in im parting complete independence to the individual voices. Three art-forms were developed: the rondellus (rondeau), and conduct us (con duit). In all these forms are found well-defined passages of writing which to-day we call 'canon' and 'imitation.' The prominent masters are: Lconin, Perotin, De Garlande, Franko of Paris, De Vitry, De Machault, De Muds.

II. The Oatlo-Ifelgie School (c.1350-1500).— The masters of this school began to feel the emptiness of consecutive fourths and fifths, and so used sixths and thirds more freely. Greater attention was given to the leading of the voices, and technique made great strides. Occasionally the compositions rise above the level of mere technicality. The principal masters are: De Zeelandia, Faug,ues, Dufay, Binchois, Busnois, Regis.

lid. The School of the Netherlands ( c.1-150 1600).—This school divides itself into four dis tinct periods: (A) Okeghem developed the art of canonic writing to such an extent that it became merely ingenious trickery. Instead of unified forms, the works of this school present a conglomeration of detached details. Okeghem's successors were: Hobrecht, Tinetor, Jannequin, Brumel, Compere. (B) The leader of the second period is Josquin Depres. a pupil of Okeghem. lie and his contemporaries strove to make their skill subservient to artistic purposes by em phasizing the symmetry of form and by paying attention to the development of their themes.

The leading composers are, besides Depres, Agric ola and Mouton. (C) The extreme artificiality of the two preceding periods led to a reaction in favor of a more simple and natural style. The mas ters started from Josquin's principle of symmetry. They also developed the purity of harmonic writ ing, and insisted upon definite melodic phrases. Several of them carried this style to Italy, where they became the founders of new schools. These composers were: Gombert, Willaert, Goudimel, Arcadelt, Van Bore. (D) The fourth period shows the influences which the Italian schools had begun to exert over the mother school. Whereas the importance of the earlier schools rests entirely upon the vocal works, the fourth period marks the rise of instrumental music (organ) in the works of Sweelinek, who prac tically became the founder of the famous school of the North German organists. The whole school of the Netherlands reached its culmina tion in the works of Orlando di Lasso, a master scarcely inferior to the great Palestrina. The great musicians of this period are: Sweelinek, Lasso, Di Monte, Pevernage.

IV. The Old English School (c.P220-1600).— (A) England possesses the oldest known speci men of polyphonic writing, the famous canon "Sumer is icumen in." As long as the school of the Netherlands was regarded as the oldest, this manuscript puzzled musical historians. Coussemaker in 1865 proved the existence of the still older French School (I), and so this canon is 110W assigned to the year 1226. During the fifteenth century a school showing the same general characteristics as the Old French School must have existed in England, if we may judge from a few preserved compositions by John of Dunstable. (B) The reign of llenry VIII. wit nessed a considerable musical activity, but no new style was created. The representative com posers, Redford, Johnson, Merbecke, and Tye, show the influence of the School of the .;`,(ether lands. (C) These men really prepared the way for the next generation, when the style of the School of Venice predominated. Of this period numerous large choral works and madrigals have been preserved. The chief composers are: Farrant, Tallis, Byrd, Gibbons.

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