school, opera, sonata, style, principal, masters, french, drama and composers

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Xi. The School of Fleirence (1594-1676).— While the earlier Italian composers cultivated almost exclusively the polyphonic style of vocal, a school with widely different tendencies sprang up in Florence. The revival of the learn ing of Greece led to an attempt to reconstruct the ancient drama. Thus arose the monodic style, in which one voice sings while instruments furnish the accompaniment. In 1594 Peri set an entire drama. Dafne, to music in this man ner. Crude as the attempt was, it found favor, and in less than half a century the new style had conquered all Europe. Its development was not confined to Florence; in fact, its greatest exponent, Monteverde, was a native of Cremona, although he lived chiefly in INIantua and Venice. But as the style originated in Florence, it seems advisable to classify all composers identified with its development under the Florentine School. This school first dispensed with the preparation of dissonances. and greatly developed the or chestra. establishing the strings as its founda tion. The works of this school were first desig nated by the title Dramma per musica. About 1650 we find Opera per musica, which soon after wards became simply Opera. The principal names of this division are: Teri, Caccini, Monte verdi., Cavalli. See OPERA.

XII. The School of Naples (1675-1757).—As early as 1475 a Flemish master, Tinctor, settled in Naples, but not until two hundred years later did a distinct school arise. From Rome and Venice the Neapolitans adopted the polyphonic church style, from Rome the oratorio, and from Florence the musical drama. The new school paid more attention to the melodic outline of the highest voice. perfected the form of the aria (q.v.), and introduced it into their dramatic works. Whereas the Florentine musical drama consisted of continuous recitative by a single voice, the Neapolitans introduced not only the aria, but also choruses, duets, trios, etc. The Florentines had emphasized the dramatic, the Neapol it a ns emphasized the of usiealelement . They also cultivated the form of the concert overture. (See ovERTuRE.) Transferring, the form of the sonata da chiesa to compositions for the clavi chord, and introducing-, a secondary against a principal subject. they prepared the way for the modern sonata. The principal masters are: Stra della. A. Scarlatti, Durante, Logroseino, Leo, D. Searlatti.

XIII. The Early School of French Opera. Xiii. The Early School of French Opera. (16(5-1764).—After the Old French School had been supplanted My that of the Netherlands. we have no more records of music in France until 1645, when a work of the Florentine monodic style was produced in Paris. The rise of the French drama through the works of Corneille, Raeine, and Mnliere turned the general atten tion to the stage. Lully heeame the founder of a distinct school of French opera. The charac

teristics of this school are better dramatic char acterization and the raising of the chorus to an active participation in the dramatic develop ment. The orchestra also is inereased by the addition of kettledrums and trumpets, and the of the wood-wind is recognized. The important names are: Cambert, Lolly, Marais, I :a lova u.

N I V. The Later School of Venire ( 1650-1739 ). —The German Protestant masters had intro dueeol a ,nbjeetive and emotional element into their church music. This became the keynote of the later Venetian masters. A distinctive feature is the development of some particular theme which begins in a lower register and gradually rises higher and higher, leading to an effective climax. The growth of the orches tra also gave the composers an opportunity to heighten the effect of their vocal polyphonic works. The chief masters of this school are: Legrenzi. Lotti, Caldara, 31arcello.

XV. The English School of the Restoration (1660-04).—After the death of Gibbons in 1625 music declined rapidly in England. This decline is due to the unsettled state of affairs during the reign of Charles T. and the fanaticism of the Puritans, who objected to the cultivation of music, and destroyed many valuable manu scripts. When, at his accession in 1660, Charles II. attempted a restoration of music, practically a new start had to be made. In spite of many drawbacks, however, music soon attained its former importance. Purcell. the greatest mu sical genius England has ever produced, now appeared, and under his inspiration English music rose to such a height that for a short time England boasted a national school of opera. The principal composers of the Restoration are: Humfrey. Wise, Blow, Purcell.

XVI. The School of Italian Sonatists (1620 1S00).—Up to the seventeenth century the organ was the great means of developing instrumental music (toccata, rieercare, fugue). By the be ginning of that century the violin had been considerably perfected and attracted a number of musicians in Northern Italy. These composers prepared the way for our highest musical art form, the sonata. About 1650 a distinction began to he made between sonata do chicsa and sonata da camera; the former consisted of sev eral movements of contrapuntal writing, the lat ter employed various dance-forms. Great atten tion was paid to thematic development. The instrumental concerto was introduced and the concerto grosso was cultivated. The principle of musical dualism, first announced by Sear latti, was strongly emphasized. ‘Vhile in the eighteenth century all the art-forms in Italy declined, this school of sonata writers was the only one that made progress in the art. The principal masters are: Legrenzi. Bassani, Torelli, Veraeini, Corelli, Tartini, Boccherini.

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