YALE UNIVERSITY. One of the leading institutions of learning in the United States, situated in New Haven, Conn. The plans of the first settlers of New Haven in 1638 included the establishment of a college, but Massachusetts objected, because there was at that time not enough population in the colonies to support the college already founded at Canihridge, and for sixty the people of Connecticut sent their sons to Harvard. In 1700-1701 ten of the prin cipal ministers of the colony, all but one of whom were graduates of Harva rd. at a meeting at Branford, formally founded a collegiate insti tution by a gift of books for a library, and on October 9, 1701. the Colonial Assembly granted a charter pin king the ten ministers and their successors trustees of the Collegiate School of Connecticut. The trustees tdected one of their own number, Alwaham Pierson, of Killingworth, rector of the school, and, in order to secure the support of the towns on the Connectieut River, voted to establish it at Saybrook. "as the most convenient town for the present." Until the death of Eveli. Pierson, however, the students and the one tutor lived at Killingworth, prob ably in the house of the rector. Under the second rector, Samuel And ( 171/7.19 ) the .mine were instructed by him at Milford. the other (lasses by two tutors at Saybrook. In 1716, in the face of much dissatisfaction, the school was to New and nently loeated there. .‘ wooden building was erected where Osborn Hall now stands, and was formally opened at eommencement in 171 g' when - . en the name of Yale College was adopted in honor of Elihu Yale (q.v.), who had made large gifts to the school. This building, besides chambers for students and a library, contained a kitchen and dining hall, and for more than 120 years from this time students were required to board together in commons. Timothy Cutler (q.v.) was rector from 1719 to 1722, when, on account of a change in his religions views, he was re moved by the trustees. Elisha Williams served from 1726 to 1739, and was succeeded by Thomas Clap (q.v.), who had greater business qualifications than any of his predecessors. Ile drew up and published in Latin the first eode of laws, catalogued the library, and drafted a new eharter whieh was approved by the Gen eral Assembly in 1745. By this act the former trustees were incorporated under the name of 'the President and Fellows of Yale College in New Haven.' Clap erected Connecticut Ball (South Middle), then 'the best building in the colony,' and a chapel (the ..-ktherneum). Presi
dent Clap also successfully defended the college against attempted interference in its manage ment by the Legislature. Naplitali Daggett, professor of divinity, served as president from 1766 to 1777, when he was succeeded by Ezra Stiles (q.v.). President Stiles succeeded in over coming the opposition to the college which had long existed in the Legislature, and in 1792, by joint aetion of the Legislature and corporation, certain State funds, valued at $30,000, were ap plied to the improvement of the college, and the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor. and six senior Senators heeame members of the corporation.
The administration of Timothy Dwight (q.v.) from 1795 to 1817, begins a new era in the history of the institution. At his accession there were about 100 students, and the instructors consisted of the president, one professor, and three tutors, each of the lower classes being, in strueted in all branches by one tutor. President Dwight established permanent professorships and filled them with recent graduates of un usual ability and promise. Among the young men appointed at this time were three who served the college together for more than half a century and brought it great honor—Jereminh Day (q.v.). in mathematies; Benjamin Silliman (q.v.), in chemistry: and James L. Kingsley (q.v.), in language. President Dwight, antici pating, the growth of the college, extended the colhge square, by purchase, so as to include the whole front of the present campus. and eontinued the brick 1•0 \V to Berkeley Hall (North :Middle). Tle also planned the organization of professional schools under distinct faculties, but the medical school only was established before his death. Jeremiah Day, who heenine president in 1 S 1 7, find been selected by Dr. Dwight as his sue cessor, and continued to carry out his plans. The divinity and law schools were organized, and the brick row completed. Under President Day the responsibility for the government of the students was placed 111)011 the faculty, and out of the stricter discipline now enforced grew two misuccessful revolts known as the 'Conic B01)1'111011' and the 'Bread and Rebellion.' In 1831 a fund of $100,000 was raised to meet the general expenses of the college, the total pro ductive funds before this time having been less than 820,000. 11'11011 President Day resigned in 1846 the college had 587 students, of whom about one-fifth were from the Southern States.