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Condensers
Condensers. The Bulkley Injector-condenser Is Of The Injector Form, With Its Water Supply And Discharge-pipes Arranged To Act As A Siphon. The Condensing-water Enters By The Side Nozzle, Shown In The Cut (fig. 1), Passing Downward Around The Exhaust-nozzle In A Thin Circular Sheet. The Exhaust Steam Thus Enters A ...

Cotton Gin
Cotton Gin. The Improvements In Cotton-gins During The Past Decade Include Novel Forms Of Condensers And Feeders, And The Extended Use Of These Attachments, And The Inven Tion Of A New Type In Which A Peculiarly Formed Working Cylinder Is Substituted For The Saws. It May Not Be Generally Known ...

Cotton Harvester
Harvester, Cotton. The Difficulties In The Way Of A Successful Cotton-harvester Arise From The Peculiar Nature Of The Crop. A Field Of Cotton Is Not Harvested Once For All, As Is A Field Of Grain, Chiefly Because The Cotton On The Plant Does Not Ripen All At Once. It Therefore ...

Cotton Spinning Machnem
Cotton-spinning Mach:nem% To Show More Plainly The Advance In Cotton Spinning Machinery During The Past Ten Years, It May Be Well First To State In A General Way The Operations That Are At The Date Of This Work In Use In Converting The Cotton In The Bale To The Warp ...

Cranes
Cranes. A Variety Of Improved And Novel Forms Are Illustrated. Swtxotso Crane:s.-fig. 1 Represents A 30-ton Swinging Crane, Built By Messrs. Sellers & Co., Philadelphia—the Peculiar Feature Of The Construction Being That Anything Suspended From The Hook Can Be Brought Quite Close To The Center, There Being No Brace To ...

Creamers
Creamers. This Term Is Applied To Centrifugal Extractors When Used For The Separa Tion Of Cream From Milk. Similar Apparatus Is Also Employed For The Separation Of Fusel-oil From Alcoholic Liquors. When A Liquid Is To Be Separated Front A Liquid, The Receptacle Must Be Imperforate. The Components Of Different ...

Cycles
Cycles. The Term "cycle" May Be Considered As Generically Applicable To That General Class Of Vehicles That Has Aptly Been Called The Man-motor Carriage, Of Which The Unicycle, Bicycle, Tricycle, And Velocipede Are Types. Tf We Exclude The Johnson Bicycle, Patented In England In 1818 (which Was A Mere Rolling ...

Cylindrical
Cylindrical Furnaces.—the Improved Bruckner Roasting-cylinder, Extensively Used Both For Oxidizing And Chloridizing Roasting, Consists Of An Iron Cylinder, Lined With Fire-brick, And Provided With Two Receiving And Discharging Doors Midway In Its Length, Which Come Directly Under The Charging Hopper, And Discharge Directly Into An Iron Hot-ore Car Placed Underneath, ...

D Vertical Boring M
D. Vertical Boring - M A Chi Nes.—brown Te• Sharpe's Ver Tical Chucking - Term " Chucking-machine" Is Commonly Applied To A Turret-lathe In Which The Revolving Head Contains A Chuck For Holding The Pieces To He Operated Npon. It Is Also, However, Sometimes Applied To A Vertical Machine Similar ...

Data Of Electric Railway
Data Of Electric Railway Construction And Maintenance.—the Electric Railroads Of The United States Now (january, 1s)2) Number Nearly 500, And They Have Been In Operation Long Enough To Furnish Some Very Interesting Data As To The Cost Of Construction And Maintenance. Whether As Compared Among Themselves. Or As Contrasted With ...

Drawing Sheet Presses
Presses, Drawing. Sheet Metal.—toole Drawing Presses.—the Most Impor Tant Recent Improvement In Drawing Presses Is The Perfecting Of An Arrangement For Operat Ing The Blank-holder By Means Of Toggles, Which Entirely Dispenses With Cams Of Any Descrip Tion. Two Rock Shafts Are Placed Across The Back And Front Of The ...

Drills Driven By
Drills Driven By Hand Pou'er Drill (fig. M.—this Consists Of A Strong Cast Iron Cylinder, Shown In Fig. 16, In Which Works A Steel Rod R In Place Of A Piston-rod, Carrying The Drilling Tool At Its Outer Extremity By Means Of A Suitable Clip. Across The Cylinder At About ...

Dynamometers
Dynamometers. Alden's Absorption Dynamometer.—mr. George I. Alden (trans. A. S. 31. E., Vol. Xi) Describes A New Automatic Absorption Dynamometer, Shown In Fig. 1, As Follows: "this Dynamometer Is Essentially A Friction-brake, In Which The Pressure Causing The Fric Tion Is Distributed Over A Comparatively Large Area, Thus Giving A ...

Eire Engines
Engines, Eire, Yi(e1[ic,il. A Pparat Us For Projecting A Fire-extinguishing Fluid. Two Classes May Be Recognized : T. Those Which Project A Stream Of Water Permeated With Carbon Dioxiile, Usually Pnelneed By The Addition Of An Lucid Ii) Ii Soilli Il»1 Of 511da V111'110110 E. Tho'v Which Project A Liquid ...

Electric Motors
Motors, Electric. The Term " Electric Motor " Includes All Apparatus By Which Electric Energy Is Converted Into Mechanical Energy. This Can Be Accomplished (1) By The Attraction That An Electromagnet Exerts Upon An Iron Or Steel Armature ; (2) The Mutual Attraction Between Two Electromagnets : (8) By Analogous ...

Electric Railroad
Railroad, Electric. Some Experiments Were Tried In 1897, At Berlin, In Electric Railways, By Dr. Werner Siemens, But The Work Was Abandoned Because The Armature Of The Siemens Machine Then Used Became Heated Too Quickly And Too Greatly To Be Of Practical Ser Vice. Under Conditions Of More Promise, The ...

Electric Welding
Welding, Electric. One Of The Oldest Known Facts In The Working Of Iron Is That Portions. When Softened Or Rendered Plastic By Heat, Could, Under Suitable Conditions, Unite Or Weld Together. Owing To This Property, The Earliest Iron Smelters Were Able To Secure Pieces Of Moderate Size From The Granules ...

Ensi Lag E Mach
Ensi Lag E Mach I Ner Y. The Introduction Of The Silo, A Roofed Or Pit For Stor Ing And Preserving Under Fermentation Green Corn, Clover. And Other Forage Plants. Chopped Line And Elosi4y Laid In. With Frost Extranoms Moisture Excluded, Is Vastly Augmenting The Resources Of The Farmer For ...

Etc Filter Presses
Filter- Presses, Etc. —thc Pressure-tank Used In Connection With The Filter-press For Filtering The Precipitated Sulphides In The Lixiviatitin Process Consists Of A Cylindrical Tank Of Boiler-iron With A Funnel-shaped Bottom. Through The Top Of The Tank A Vertical Pipe Extends Almost To The Bottom. In The Cylindrical Portion Of ...

Evaporators L711
Evaporators. L711 To Within A Recent Date The Most Improved Process For The Evapo Ration Of Juice Was That Devised By Milieux (see Sunatt-31akixo Machinery, Rot. Ii Of This Work). The Principle Of Milieux Was The Evaporation By Multiple Effect, Or The Use Of The Steam Of Evaporation In The ...

Filtration
Filtration. The Purification Of Water Is Effected By Mechanical Means On A Larger Scale At The Present Time Than Has Ever Before Been Known. To Filter A Small Quantity Of Water Is Not A Difficult !natter, But To Filter Millions Of Gallons A Day Involves Engineering Problems Of Magnitude. In ...

Fine Crushing
Fine-crushing Machines.— The Blake _multiple -jaw Crusher (fig. 7) Is Constructed Upon The Same Principle As The Ordinary Blake Crusher, But Is Designed For Finer Crushing. In This Machine The Crushing Is Done Between A Series Of Sliding Jaws Supported Upon The Main Tension-rods. The Jaws Are Sep Arated And ...

Fire Appliances
Fire Appliances. All Methods For The Prevention Of Fires Fall So Short Of The Ideal Of Immunity That There Is A Necessity For Fire-apparatus. The Principle Of Defense Of A Manu Factory Against Fire Is That Of Self-protection By Making The Installation And Management Of The Fire-apparatus Of Such A ...

Fire Arms 1
Fire-arms. 1. Rifles.—single-shot Arms Have Almost Wholly Given Place To Those Hav Ing A Repeating Or Magazine Construction For Sporting Purposes, And Have Been Completely Su Perseded By The Latter For Military Use, The Winchester Repeating-rifle During The Last Decade Has Appeared In Various Improved Forms. We Illustrate The Latest, ...

Fire Engines
Engines, Fire, Steam. The Clapp Cf Jones Steam Fire-engive, Manufactured By The Clapp & Jones Manufacturing Co., Of Liaison, N. V., Is Illustrated In Figs. 1 And 2. This Is A Piston-engine Presenting Many Points Of Novelty And Interest. Sectional Views Of The Boiler Are Given In Figs. 1 And ...

Fire Escapes
Fire-escapes. Apparatus For Allowing Egress From Buildings On The Exterior, Instead Of By The Stairways Or Other Ordinary Means, Are Classed As Fire-escapes. Three Principal Types May Be Recognized: (1) Those Which Are Permanently Arranged On The Fronts Of Build Ings; (2) Those Which Are Adjusted In Position From The ...

Flanging Machines
Flanging-machines. A Variety Of New Forms Are Presented. The Dania F7anging-machinv.—fig.1 Represents A Boiler-head Flanging Machine, Built By I. B. Davis & Son, Of Ilartford, Conn., Designed For Flanging Heads Of Any Size From 38 To 90 In. Diameter, And Of Any Thickness Required Within Those Midis Of Size. In ...

Flax Machines
Flax-machines. When Flax Is Pulled, The Stalk May Be Said To Be Made Up Of Three Distinct Parts. There Is First The Wood, Then The Bark, And Lastly The Glossy Varnish Of The Bark. The Woody Matter In Flax Is Of No Value: The Difficulty Is How To Get Rid ...

Forging Presses
Presses, Forging. Hydraulic Forging.—mr. W. I). Allen, In A Paper Read Before The Iron And Steel Institute In 1891, Describes As Follows A Hydraulic Forging Press Which Has Been In Operation Some Time In England. And Has Proven To Be A Most Efficient And Useful Tool. In This Press The ...

Friction Of
Friction Of Engines.—prof. R. H. Thurston, In Papers Read Before The American Society Of Mechanical Engineers (trans., Vols. Viii, Ix, X). Has Called Attention To The Fact That The Variation Of Load In Steam-engines Is Not Productive Either Of The Method Or Of The Amount Of Engine-friction That Has Been ...

Gadding
Gadding Mamie's/m.—a Quarry Gadder Is A Machine By Which Holes Are Inserted Into The Side Of The Bench For The Insertion Of Plugs And Feathers, By Means Of Which The Blocks Are Separated In The Quarry. Fig. 12 Illustrates A Gadding Machine, Designed By The Writer Of This Paper, And ...

Gas Ftrnaces
F[trnaces, Gas. Classification.—the Different Kinds Of Furnaces For Burning Gaseous Fuel Are Thus Classified In A Paper In The Proc, Of The Inst. Of Mech. Eng., January, 1891 : Gas-furnaces May Properly Be Divided Into Four Classes, Namely: (a) With Reversing Regen Eration ; (b) With Continuous Regeneration ; (c) ...

Gas Producers
Gas-producers, Gas-fuel.—the Increasing Use Of Various Kinds Of Gas As Fuel. Both In The Industrial Arts And For Domestic Purposes. Makes Important A Knowledge Of The Different Processes For Producing Fuel-gas, And Of The Heat-giving Power Of The Several Kinds. An Elaborate Study Of This Subject Is Given In A ...

Gas An Oil Engines
Engines, Gas An!) Oil. Gas-engines Are Now Commonly Used With A Producer Gas, Made On A Continuous Process By Air And Steam Being Passed Through Incandescent Coal. From The Generator It Is Taken To The Scrubber For The Purpose Of Cleaning And Cooling, And It Is Thence Allowed To Enter ...

General
General Data.—diniensi.0118 Of Important Parts Of Corliss Engines.—james B. Stan Wood, In His Paper On Stationary-engine Practice In America, Engineering, June 12, 1801, Gives The Following Table: Limit Of In A Nen-cylinder Compound Enyine.—john G. .flair (proc. Fast, 31. B. February, 1887) Says, With Regard To The Number Of Expansions ...

General_2
General Theory.—dyvamo Machine And Electric Motor Are Convertible Terms. Any Dynamo Can Be Used Practically As A Motor, And In Most Cases Any Motor Can Be Used To Generate A Current. On Purely Theoretical Grounds This Should Be Possible In All Eases, But In Practice It Is Found That The ...