Wash-tubs.--Wooden wash-tubs are very un sanitary, as they rot, leak, and become foul and slimy. Slate and soapstone are hard to keep tight. Porcelain and enamelled iron are expensive, while Alberine stone is economical and easy to keep clean.
Kitchen-Sinks.—Porcelain-lined sinks are very attractive and clean, but they readily chip or " craze " ; and most housekeepers prefer a plain black iron sink, which costs far less and can be kept reasonably clean.
Refrigerators.—A refrigerator should be of ample size, and lined with enamelled tiles or glass, so as to he absolutely non-absorbent. There should be no wood in contact with the ice, nor should milk, butter, or other food be placed in the same compartment with the ice. There is no saving in wrapping ice in newspapers or woollen blankets to prevent rapid melting. Articles likely to taint other foods should not be placed in the refrigerator ; and the latter should be scalded frequently, and the shelves taken out and aired. The waste-pipe for melted ice in particular needs frequent cleansing.
Water placed in bottles in the ice is much more palatable than iced water. A better plan is to provide a square box, lined with galvanised iron, with a coil of supply-pipe, in the bottom, on which several days' supply of ice can be kept—sufficient to cool the drinking-supply without contact with the ice. Such a box can be made for 112, and it will soon pay for itself by the saving in labour and ice. A refrigerator should never connect direct with a drain or sewer, but should empty into a pan or over a sink in the cellar, with the end of the waste-pipe turned up to form a trap. In planning kitchens, most builders forget to provide a suitable place for the refrigerator, where it can be filled from outdoors, and, at the same time, be easily reached without going outside or downstairs. It should never be placed where it is very warm, nor in a dark corner. (See Figs. 36o, 361).
No article of food taken from a sick-room—such as jelly, custard, fruit, etc.should ever be stored with other foods, nor eaten by other persons than the invalid for \Iion) it \vas prepared ; and all remnants should be destroyed. A wooden box placed outside the window will, in cold weather,
serve as a substitute for a refrigerator. It can be protected in front by a curtain or by sliding glass doors (see Fig. 362).
Bathrooms. - -Every bathroom should connect with the open air by a window, and not be lighted by a ventilating shaft or skylight. Set wash-basins are not desirable in sleeping-rooms. The waste-pipes collect soap and grease, and should be cleansed every month or so with potash (lye) dissolved in boiling water. Odours about plumbing fixtures cannot be cured by ordinary disinfectants, which are usually only deodor isers ; and soap- and hot water will serve equally as well in most cases. If there are defects in drains, patches on soil-pipes, or foul traps, it is better to call in a good plumber and have him test the whole drainage s3 stem to find out what is wrong. It is also well to remember that a " cheap " plumber is usually a bungler. Good work is always most economical.
Cesspools.—There are two kinds of cesspools, tight and percolating. If the soil is porous, and there are no wells near by (one hundred feet is a safe distance), the latter form is preferred, as it saves pumping ouL. But the most absorbent soil will, in the course of time, become choked with grease, and the cesspool will fill up, so that a new one will have to be dug. On the other hand, a tight cesspool will have to be pumped out at short intervals, which is a costly and annoying process. Therefore, some other form of sewage disposal is to be preferred on sanitary as well as on economical grounds ; and it will ultimately pay for the extra outlay.
A good substitute for a cesspool is provided by digging a trench—say, ioo feet long, 2 feet deep, and equally wide ; lay a 4-inch tile drain, with open joints, and fill in around it with cobblestones and large gravel of the size of eggs. The top is to be left open, and the fresh sewage discharged into the drain until it fills up to the top. In a short time it will soak away into the soil and disappear. If any odour is perceptible, a pound of copperas should be dissolved in a pail of hot water and emptied into the drain.