air, water, boiler, hot, feet, persons, bed-room, atmosphere and heated

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Water cannot be warmed without consuming fuel ; and, if plenty of hot water is required for washing and bathing, a good fire must be kept up in the range. Water may be required in the laundry when a low fire is desir able in the range, as in summer or between meals. It is therefore desirable sometimes to have the boiler heated by the laundry-stove to prevent friction between cook and laundress. A very small stove will he sufficient for the purpose, and can be used also for heating irons, etc.

To keep the boiler hot, the circulation through the water-back must be rapid, and the connections must be properly made. The return-pipe from the range to the boiler should have an upward slope, as hot water always tends to rise. The inlet-pipe which carries the cold supply should descend a little from the boiler, so that the sediment can be easily removed by a small " sediment cock " when desired. Then there will be no chance for a reverse current of hot water from the water-back, which would interfere with the general circulation. If the return-pipe has not sufficient slope the flow will be sluggish, and the water will he exposed too long to the fire, and will boil or simmer, while bubbles of steam will form and flow with the current into the boiler, and there condense on contact with the volume of cold water. This gives rise to an alarming noise called " water hammer," which some times breaks couplings or pipes, and makes people think the boiler is about to explode.

Venillation.—Fresh air is not a luxury, but a necessity ; it is a lung food, and should be pure and abundant. The atmosphere of a living-room should be changed every twenty minutes in order to preserve health. Every house should supply Soo cubic feet of air for each occupant ; model prisons require i,000 cubic feet. People who spend the winters cooped up in small houses hugging the red-hot stove, or IA sleep in close, unventilated rooms for fear of the cold night-air, are usually sallow and sickly. The " great white plague." ki is millions every year owing to popular ignorance and neglect of ventilation. The test of a well-ventilated dwelling is to enter at any hour and find the air as pure and fresh as that outdoors, with no odours of cooking or washing, or of dust-laden carpets and curtains. To this end rugs and bare floors, open fires, and isolated kitchens and laundries are to be recommended.

A hood should be provided over the kitchen-range to carry off cooking odours and steam from the laundry, and there should be a skylight on the roof to remove foul and heated air which rises to the upper floors. Venti lating the bowl of a water-closet is of no benefit unless the vent-pipe con nects with a gas-jet or heated flue. Even an open fireplace does not always "draw," and frequently there is a down-draught, especially in the vicinity of a staircase. By

placing a four-inch hoard across the lower part of a bed-room window and raising the sash slightly, air can be admitted between the two sashes without causing a draught (see Fig. 365).

Lighting.—Few persons appreciate how much heat is radiated from an oil-lamp. A Rochester burner will warm quite a good sized room in winter if placed on the floor ; while, if a similar lamp is hung directly under a register leading into a room above, it will create a movement of air that will sensibly affect the atmosphere. An ordinary lamp contaminates the atmosphere as much as several persons will do ; and where there are a number of lamps in a room the need of venti lation is quickly apparent. This is a strong argument for the substitution of electric lights or acetylene for oil.

General Hints.—In selecting basins, kitchen-sinks, and wash-tubs, do not have them so low as to necessitate stooping. Bath-tubs also are often too high from the floor for persons of ordinary height, and with tiled or hard-wood floors there is danger of slipping if they are at all wet. A bath room should be sunny, and large enough to swing an Indian club and to contain a linen-closet as well as a wicker receptacle for soiled towels, etc. Faucets are conunonly too small, and the flow of \ r a ter consequently too slow. The difference in cost is slight. So also with marble slabs for basins, which are easily cracked if made too thin. It is in such details that plumbing work is " scamped." Oil-lamps should not be kept lighted in sleeping-rooms, as they con taminate the atmosphere as much as several adults. Nor should young children occupy the same bed-room as older persons, as they need all the air they can get. An ordinary bed-room (ro by 12 by S feet) hardly contains Loon cubic feet of air-space, and this is only partly changed during the night. Therefore, do not rob the child of its just needs. If it slept outdoors under the sky it would not have too much air. Yet, in some families, a child, an adult, and a lighted oil-lamp may he found in the same bed-room in the month of August, with the window closed.

If waste-pipes in cellars and kitchens are patched with scraps of lead or tin fastened with wire or twine, it indicates that the kitchen waste-pipe was choked with grease, and that a bungling plumber tried to clean it out. Such openings should be closed securely, and a permanent clean-out inserted, with a brass trap screw for convenience of access.

The fresh air supply for the furnace should never be taken from a cellar, no matter how clean it may seem ; nor should it be taken from an entrance hall, as is often done in churches to save fuel. Only outdoor air will serve for such purposes.

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