air, furnace, warm, floors, supply, house, water and heat

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Cisterns.—Rain-water is a valuable addition to the household supply. A roof of 3o by 4o feet will, even in a dry year. supply something like five barrels a day—enough for an average family. Impurities are greater in town than in the country, but by letting the first rainfall run to waste, and excluding dust and leaves, cistern water may be made palatable ; while it is especially suited for laundry use. A cistern should be of sufficient size to hold a month's supply. It should be covered with a fine wire-netting to exclude insects and dust, and it should be impervious to surface-water. Deep cisterns are coolest, and the water tends to purify itself as the sediment is deposited and the impurities oxidised.

Domestic Filters.—An ordinary filter is a delusion and a snare, unless it can be frequently reversed and thoroughly cleansed. It is simply a mechanical strainer, and not only serves no useful purpose, but is an actual menace. It is like having a cuspidor that is never cleaned ; it only collects filth and propagates disease-germs.

Heating-Apparatus.--Every house, however small, should have an open fire for comfort and as an aid to ventilation, even though most of the heat flies up the chimney. Stoves save fuel, and will warm halls or connecting rooms or rooms on different floors by means of a " drum " ; but they \\•ill not heat a whole house as well as a furnace. A " Galton " or " Jackson " venti lating grate is the best appliance for single rooms, serving at once as an open grate and as a closed stove. A furnace will warm several rooms as easily as one, and is more economical of fuel and less troublesome than several stoves. The important consideration is to secure a furnace that is large enough to serve without keeping a big fire, or heating the fire-pot red-hot, and thus " burning the air," as was formerly the rule in many dwellings. The fresh-air supply should never be shut off entirely even in hard frost. If the air seems dry, a wet towel should be hung in front of the register when the water will rapidly evaporate. Every room should have a chimney-flue, otherwise it will he as difficult to force hot air to enter it as it is to pour water into a bottle that is already full. So, also, warm air will rise to the upper floors, and not heat basement and halls. The heating-flues for lower floors should therefore connect direct with the furnace-dome, so that each can get its share of the heat. To warm an entrance hall is difficult on account of the upward " pull " of the staircase and the inrush of cold air.

Storm-doors and a vestibule should therefore be provided, and the register should be placed under the stairs. Registers should be fixed on inner walls, and never on floors, as they collect dust, matches, etc., which may cause fires. If there is a ventilating skylight in the roof, it will be easier to warm the house, as circulation of air is essential, and without such an arrangement the air will stagnate on upper floors. With an open fire one can sit in comfort with the thermometer at 50° F., whereas with stove or furnace heat 70° F. will be necessary.

Furnace.—The furnace should be placed near the cold side of the house on account of the wind-pressure, which makes it difficult to warm rooms facing north-west. The fresh-air supply should be taken from the same side, and the end of the box should be raised five feet above the yard level to avoid drawing in ground-air (see Fig. 363). If it opens under a verandah, the space around it should be kept free from leaves or other sources of impurity. The cold-air box should be tight, and should preferably be made of galvanised iron. It should have a fine wire-netting at the end to keep out dust, and it should be cleaned every year. For large buildings a steam or hot-water apparatus is preferable to a hot-air furnace. It is claimed that the former is less troublesome, and that it warms every room regardless of exposure or lowness of temperature.

It costs more to install, but is more durable than a furnace. The objection to steam-heat is that it is difficult to regulate in mild weather ; while with the direct system the radiators are unsightly and warm the same air over and over again, and there is no ventilation. If the radia tors have an air-supply from outdoors, they are liable to freeze in winter. The indirect system, by which fresh air is admitted to steam-coils in the cellar and then carried through flues to every part of the house, serves very well, though at greater expense. Hoi: water has the advantage of maintain ing a more even temperature without overheating on mild days in spring or autumn. The pipes are larger than steam-coils, and cost more to install, but the results are sanitary. The direct and indirect systems are often combined, and give entire satisfaction. The problem of warming is largely a matter of expense ; but the saving in doctors' bills and in increased mental and physical efficiency more than compensates for the outlay required to provide a really good heating apparatus.

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