Home >> Encyclopedia-britannica-volume-01-a-anno >> Albi to Alexander Emanuel Agassiz

Encyclopedia Britannica

Loading


Albi
Albi, A City Of South-west France, In The Department Of Tarn, 48m. N.e. Of Toulouse, On A Branch Line Of The Southern Railway. Pop. 0931) 21,86o. It Occupies A Commanding Position On The Left Bank Of The Tarn, Where Its Valley Broadens As It Emerges From The High Plateau Central ...

Albia
Albia, A City Of Iowa, U.s.a., 68m. S.e. Of Des Moines, In A Fertile Farming And Stock-raising District And In The Albia Coal-field; The County-seat Of Monroe County. It Is A Junction Point Of The Burlington, The Wabash, And The Minneapolis And St. Louis Railways, And Is The Northern Terminus ...

Albigenses
Albigenses, The Usual Designation Of The Heretics—and More Especially The Catharist Heretics—of The South Of France In The I2th And I3th Centuries. This Name Appears To Have Been Given To Them At The End Of The I2th Century, But The Designation Is Hardly Exact, For The Centre Of The Movement ...

Albino
Albino, A Biological Term (lat. Albus, White) For A Pigment Less Individual Of A Pigmented Race. Pigmentation Depends Upon The Presence And Interaction In The Tissues Of Colour-bases, Chro Mogens, Colourless In Themselves, And Ferments Or Enzymes Which, Acting Upon The Colour-bases, Yield Coloured Products. If, There Fore, Either Of ...

Albinovanus Pedo
Albinovanus Pedo, Roman Poet, Flourished During The Augustan Age. He Wrote A Theseis, Referred To In A Letter From His Friend Ovid (ex Ponto, Iv. 1o), Epigrams Which Are Commended By Martial (ii. 77, V. 5) And An Epic Poem (cf. Quintilian X. I. 9o) On The Exploits Of Germanicus ...

Albion
Albion, The Most Ancient Name Of The British Isles, Gen Erally Restricted To England (in Ptolemy 'axoviwv; Lat. Albion, Pliny 4, 16 [3o], 102). The Name Is Perhaps Celtic But The Romans Connected It With Albus, White, In Reference To The Chalk Cliffs Of Dover, And A. Holder (alt-keltischer Sprachschatz, ...

Albion_2
Albion, A City Of Calhoun County, Michigan, U.s.a., On The Kalamazoo River, 18 M. W. Of Jackson. It Is On The Michigan Central And The New York Central Railways, And Is Connected By Trolley With Cities As Far North As Grand Rapids And Owosso. The Population Was 8,354 In 192o ...

Albion_3
Albion, A Village In The North-western Part Of New York, U.s.a., About Iom. S. Of Lake Ontario And 3om. W.n.w. Of Rochester; The County-seat Of Orleans County. It Is Served By The New York Central And An Electric Railway. The Population Was 4,878 In 193o Federal Census. Albion Is An ...

Albite
Albite, A Mineral Of The Felspar Group And Forming The Sodic End Member Of The Plagioclases (q.v.) (from The Lat. Albus, In Allusion To The White Colour Of Its Crystals). Albite Crystallizes In The Triclinic System And Has The Chemical Composition In Petrology The Name Is Not Restricted To The ...

Alboin
Alboin, D. 573, King Of The Lombards And Barbarian Con Queror Of Northern Italy, Succeeded His Father Audoin About 565. The Lombards At That Time Occupied Noricum And Pannonia, And Were Engaged In Constant War With The Gepidae. Alboin Obtained The Alliance Of The Avars, And With Their Help Destroyed ...

Alborada
Alborada (span.) Signifies Strictly A Sunrise Song Or Morning Serenade Akin To The French Aubade (q.v.) But Is Now Applied To A Particular Kind Of Instrumental Music Of A Popular Type To Be Heard In Certain Parts Of Spain, The Instruments Em Ployed Being Generally The Bagpipes And Side Drum. ...

Albrecht Altdorfer
Altdorfer, Albrecht (?1480—i538), German Painter And Engraver, Was Born At Regensburg (ratisbon), Where In 1505 He Was Enrolled A Burgher, And Described As "twenty-five Years Old." Soon Afterwards He Is Known To Have Been Prosperous, And As City Architect He Erected Fortifications And A Public Slaughter-house. Altdorfer Has Been Called ...

Albrecht
Albrecht, The German Form Of Albert (q.v.). Albrechtsberger, Johann Georg 1809), Famous Austrian Musical Theorist And Teacher, Was Born At Kloster-neuburg, And Died In Vienna. He Studied Composition Under The Court Organist, Mann, And Became One Of The Most Learned And Skilful Contrapuntists Of His . Age. In 1772 He ...

Albret
Albret. The Lordship (seigneurie) Of Albret (labrit, Lebret), Situated In The Landes, Gave Its Name To A Powerful French Family. Arnaud Amanieu, Lord Of Albret, Helped To Take Guienne From The English. His Son Charles Became Constable Of France, And Was Killed At The Battle Of Agincourt In 1415. Alain ...

Albufera De Valencia
Albufera De Valencia, Lagoon, 7m. South Of Valencia In Spain, About I2m. Long, 14m. Broad And I2ft. Deep (max.), With A Narrow Outlet To Sea Under Control. It Is Crown Property And Rich In Fish And Wild Fowl, And Rice Is Grown Around It. Napoleon Made Marshal Suchet Duke Of ...

Albula Pass
Albula Pass, The Principal Route From The North To The Upper Engadine In The Grisons. It Was Used In The 13th Century And A Carriage Road (highest Point, 7,595ft.) Was Made Across It In 1865, But For A Long Time It Was Not As Much Used As The Easier And ...

Album
Album, In Ancient Rome, A Board Chalked Or Painted White, On Which Public Notices Were In Scribed In Black. The Annales Maximi Of The Pontif Ex Maximus, The Annual Edicts Of The Praetor, The Lists Of Senators And Jurors, The Acta Diurna, Etc., Were Ex Hibited In This Manner. In ...

Albumazar Or
Albumazar Or Properly Abu-maaschor (8o5 885), Arab Astronomer, Was Born At Balkh, Flourished At Baghdad And Died At Wasid In Central Asia. His Principal Works Were Translated Into Latin: De Magnis Conjunctionibus (augsburg, 1489) ; Introductorium In Astronomiam (venice, 1506) And Flores Astrologici (augsburg, 1488) . He Maintained In The ...

Albumin Or Albumen
Albumin Or Albumen Was Originally Used To Denote The Main Constituent Of The White Of Eggs. It Was Then Applied To Any Of The Substances Of Similar Propcl Ties And Composition Found In Vegetable And Animal Cells And Also In Milk And Eggs. These Substances Are Now Known As Proteins, ...

Albuminuria
Albuminuria, A General Name For Conditions In Which The Urine Contains Proteid Matter. Normally The Secreting And Conducting Parts Of The Urinary System Hold Back In The Blood, Out Of Which The Urine Is Formed, All Protein. But When The Kidney Is Diseased (see Kidney, Diseases Of), Whether-primarily Or Secondarily, ...

Albuquerque
Albuquerque, The Largest City Of New Mexico, U.s.a., Near The Centre Of The State, In A Fertile Strip Of Land On The East Bank Of The Rio Grande ; On The National Old Trails Road, And At The Junction Of Two Main Lines Of The Santa Fe Railway System. It ...

Alburnum
Alburnum (sapwood), The Outermost And Youngest Part Of The Wood Of A Tree, Through Which The Upward Water Current Mainly Passes. It Is Distinguished From The Harder Inner And Older Wood, The Duramen Or Heart-wood. ...

Albury
Albury, A Small Country Town Of Rising Importance In Goulburn County, New South Wales. Situated At An Elevation Of 542ft. On The Right (north) Bank Of The River Murray (q.v.), Approximately 1,47om. From Its Mouth, Albury Marks The Head Of Possible Navigation ( July—december) On This Stream, Though At Present ...

Alcaeus Or Alkaios
Alcaeus Or Alkaios (c. 600 B.c.), Greek Poet, Holds Second Place In The Alexandrian Lyric Canon. He Was A Contem Porary Of Sappho, And A Member Of One Of The Noble Families Of Mitylene. In The War Against The Athenians (6o6), He Fled From Battle With The Loss Of His ...

Alcaics
Alcaics, The Name Of Several Lyric Verses, From Alcaeus Of Lesbos, Their Supposed Inventor. They Comprise: The Alcaic Stanza Consists Of (i) Twice Repeated, Followed By (3) And Then (2), Once Each. It Was A Great Favourite, Not Only Of Its Inventor, But Of Horace, Who Made Some Very Slight ...

Alcaide
Alcaide, A Spanish Title Meaning The Governor Of A For Tress (arabic Al-querid). ...

Alcala De Henares
Alcala De Henares, Spain, 17m. E.n.e. Of Madrid, On The River Henares. Pop. (193o) 12,693. Alcala De Henares Contains A Military Academy. The Town Has Been Identified With The Roman Comp/utuni, Destroyed About I000, And Rebuilt By The Moors In Io83. Later Its University, Founded By Cardinal Jimenes De Cisneros ...

Alcala
Alcala (moorish Al Kala, The "fortress" Or "castle"), The Name Of Thirteen Spanish Towns, All Founded Or Named By The Moors. Alcala, De Henares, Pop. (193o) 12,693, Is Separately Described On Account Of Its Historical Importance. Alcala La Real (21,359), A Picturesque Town With A Fine Abbey, Is Situated In ...

Alcalde
Alcalde, The Title In Spanish For Officials Of Somewhat Varied Functions In Which, However, There Is Always A Judicial Element. Alcalde De Corte Was A Judge Of The Palace Court, Hav Ing Jurisdiction In And About The Residence Of The King. But The Title Is Now Exclusively Used For The ...

Alcamenes
Alcamenes, A Greek Sculptor Of Lemnos And Athens. He Was A Younger Contemporary Of Pheidias And Noted For The Deli Cacy And Finish Of His Works, Among Which A Hephaestus And An Aphrodite "of The Gardens" Were Conspicuous. Pausanias Says (v. 1o, 8) That He Was The Author Of One ...

Alcamo
Alcamo, Province Of Trapani, Sicily, 24m. W.s.w. Of Palermo Direct (51-1-m. By Rail). Population (1931) 51,194. The Saracenic Chief Al-kamuk Erected The Castle (a.d. 828), Consider Ably Altered Since. Frederick Ii. Removed The Site Lower Down (1233). The Surrounding District Is Very Fertile. ...

Alcantara
Alcantara, A Small Seaport Of Brazil, In The State Of Maranhao, On The West Shore Of The Bay Of Sao Marcos, I6m. From The City Of Maranhao By Water. It Has A Fairly Good Harbour, And Excellent Cotton And Rice Are Grown In The Vicinity And Shipped From The Port. ...

Alcantara_2
Alcantara, Western Spain, Province Of Caceres, On A Rocky Height On The Left Bank Of The River Tagus, 7m. From The Portuguese Frontier. Pop. (193o) 4,014. Alcantara (in Arab. "the Bridge") Owes Its Name To The Magnificent Roman Bridge Which Spans The Tagus On The Northwest, Built About A.d. O5, ...

Alcavala
Alcavala, A Duty Charged In Spain And Its Colonies Until The Invasion Of Napoleon (from Arab. Al-quabalah, "tax," Quabala, "to Receive" ; C F . Fr. Gabelle) . Originally Imposed In 1 341 By Alphonso Xi. To Secure Freedom From The Moors, It Was An Ad Valorem Tax Of Io%, ...

Alcazar De San Juan
Alcazar De San Juan Or Alcazar, Spain, Province Of Ciudad Real, And An Important Railway Junction, Where The Lines To The East And South-east Diverge From The Main Line To Andalusia. Pop. (i G 20) 16,117. Alcazar Trades In Wine And Manufactures Soap, Gunpowder, Chocolate And Inlaid Dag Gers. It ...

Alcester
Alcester (aul'stur), A Market-town, Warwickshire, 16m. W.s.w. Of Warwick On The Great Western, Southern, And London, Midland And Scottish Railways. Population Of Rural District (1931) 11,233. It Is Situated At The Junction Of The Small Stream Alne With The Arrow, A Northern Tributary Of The Avon. The Name (alnecestre, Alyncester) ...

Alchemy
Alchemy. In The Narrow Sense Of The Word, Alchemy Is The Pretended Art Of Making Gold And Silver, Or Transmuting The Base Metals Into The Noble Ones. The Idea Of Such Transmutation Probably Arose Among The Alexandrian Greeks In The Early Cen Turies Of The Christian Era; Thence It Passed ...

Alcibiades
Alcibiades (c. B.c.), Athenian General And Politician. He Belonged To The Family Of The Alcmaeonidae, And Was A Near Relative Of Pericles. He Was Very Handsome And Pos Sessed Great Wealth, Which He Squandered In Every Sort Of Dissipa Tion And Extravagance, Including The Upkeep Of A Fine Stud Of ...

Alcidamas
Alcidamas, Of Elaea, In Aeolis, Greek Sophist And Rheto Rician, Flourished In The 4th Century B.c. He Was The Pupil And Successor Of Gorgias And Taught At Athens At The Same Time As Isocrates. We Possess Two Declamations Under His Name : Iiepi Directed Against His Rival Isocrates And Setting ...

Alcinous
Alcinous (gr. Al-kin-o-6s), In Ancient Greek Legend, King Of The Phaeacians, In The Island Of Scheria, Son Of Nausithous And Grandson Of Poseidon. His Reception And Entertainment Of Odys Seus (q.v.), Who When Cast By A Storm On The Shore Of The Island Was Relieved By The King's Daughter, Nausicaa, ...

Alcinous_2
Alcinous, The Platonic Philosopher, Lived Probably In The Time Of The Caesars. He Was The Author Of An Analysis Of Plato's Philosophy, And Attributed To Plato Ideas Of Other Philosophers. He Produced Latterly A Synthesis Of Plato And Aristotle With An Admixture Of Pythagorean Or Oriental Mysticism, And Is Closely ...

Alciphron
Alciphron, Greek Rhetorician, Was Probably A Contem Porary Of Lucian (2nd Century A.d.). He Was The Author Of A Col Lection Of Fictitious Letters, Of Which 124 (i 18 Complete And Six Fragments) Have Been Published ; They Are Written In The Purest Attic Dialect And Are Considered Models Of ...

Alcira
Alcira, Eastern Spain, Province Of Valencia; On The Left Bank Of The River Jucar. Pop. (1930) 21,232. Alcira Is A Walled Town, Surrounded By Palm, Orange And Mulberry Groves, And By Low-lying And Unhealthy Rice-swamps. Silk, Fruit, Rice And Cabinet Woods Are Its Chief Products. It Has A Roman Bridge ...

Alcmaeon
Alcmaeon, Son Of Amphiaraus (q.v.). After The Destruc Tion Of Thebes By The Epigonoi, Alcmaeon Carried Out His Father's Injunctions By Killing His Mother, As A Punishment For Which He Was Pursued By The Erinyes From Place To Place. On His Arrival At Psophis In Arcadia, He Was Purified By ...

Alcmaeonidae
Alcmaeonidae, A Powerful Athenian Family, Which Played A Leading Part In The Politics Of The 6th And 5th Centuries, B.c. The Murder Of The Cylonian Conspirators (c. 632) Brought The Pollution Of Blood-guilt On Them (cf. Esp. Hdt. V. 70-71 And Thuc. I. 126-127) And They Were Banished Until The ...

Alcman Or Alcmaeon
Alcman Or Alcmaeon (fl. In The 7th Cent. B.c.), The Founder Of Doric Lyric Poetry, To Whom Was Assigned The First Place Among The Nine Lyric Poets Of Greece In The Alexandrian Canon. He Was A Lydian Of Sardis, Who Came As A Slave To Sparta, Where He Was Emancipated ...

Alcmene
Alcmene (alk-ma-na), In Greek Mythology The Daughter Of Electryon, King Of Mycenae, And Wife Of Amphitryon. She Was The Mother Of Heracles By Zeus, Who Assumed The Likeness Of Her Husband During His Absence. See Plautus, Amphitruo. ...

Alcobaca
Alcobaca, A Town Of Portugal, In The District Of Leiria, Pop. Alcobaca Is Chiefly Interesting For Its Cis Tercian Convent, Now Partly Converted Into Schools And Ba Racks. The Monastic Buildings, A Square, 7 2 5 F T. Across, Were Founded In 1 148 And Completed In 1222. During The ...

Alcohol In Industry
Alcohol In Industry. Owing To Its Very High Price, Duty-paid Alcohol Cannot Be Used For Most Industrial Purposes (even In "wet" Countries) ; Exhaustive Experiments Were Therefore Carried Out In England About The Year 1853 To Ascertain Whether It Would Be Possible So To Treat Alcohol As To Enable It ...

Alcohol
Alcohol, The Name Applied To Any Member Of A Class Of Organic Compounds (see Alcohols). The Word Is Of Arabic Origin, Being Derived From The Particle Al And The Word Kohl, An Impalpable Powder Used In The East For Painting The Eyebrows. For Many Centuries The Word Was Used To ...

Alcohols
Alcohols, In Organic Chemistry, A Class Of Compounds Of Which Ethyl Alcohol (see Alcohol) Is Perhaps The Most Common Member Derived From Paraffinoid And Non-aromatic Hydrocarbons By The Replacement Of One Or More Hydrogen Atoms By Hydroxyl Groups. This Definition Excludes Such Compounds As The Phenol (hydroxy Derivatives Of Benzene, ...

Alcoy
Alcoy, South-eastern Spain, Province Of Alicante, On The Small River Serpis, And At The Terminus Of A Branch Of The Barce Lona-valencia-alicante Line. Pop. Alcoy Is Built On High Ground At The Entrance To A Gorge. It Is A Thriving Indus Trial Town, With Manufactures Of Linen, Woollen Goods, Agricultural ...

Alcuin
Alcuin (azcxvinb), Ecclesiastic And Man Of Learning In The 8th Century, Who Liked To Be Called By The Latin Name Of Albinus, And At The Academy Of The Palace Of Charlemagn€ Took The Surname Of Flaccus, Was Born At Eboracum (york) In 735. Alcuin Is Important In The European History ...

Alcyone Or Halcyone
Alcyone Or Halcyone, In Greek Mythology, Daughter Of Aeolus And Wife Of Ceyx. For Their Insolence In Calling Themselves Zeus And Hera, Alcyone Was Changed Into A Diver, Ceyx Into A Kingfisher. In Another Story, Ceyx Was Drowned And His Body Cast On The Shore. His Wife Found The Body, ...

Aldabra Islands
Aldabra Islands, In The Indian Ocean, Part Of The Brit Ish Colony Of Seychelles, In 9° ,30' S., 46° E., 265m. N.w. Of The Northern Point Of Madagascar And 69om. S.w. Of Mahe, In The Seychelles. The Islands Are An Oval Atoll Some 4om. In Circumfer Ence And About Broad, ...

Aldborough
Aldborough, A Village In The West Riding Of Yorkshire, England, 16m. W.n.w. Of York. Pop. (1921), 424. There Are Evidences Of Settlement From Early Times, The Site Being Known To The Romans As Isurium Brigantum. ...

Aldebaran
Aldebaran, Tauri, Is The Brightest Star In The Constel Lation Taurus (q.v.). It Is Reddish In Colour And Radiates About 74 Times As Much Light As Does The Sun. Its Magnitude Is Pi. ...

Aldeburgh
Aldeburgh (aldborouch), Municipal Borough On The Coast Of Suffolk, England, The Terminus Of A Branch Of The London And North Eastern Railway, 991m. N.e. Of London. Population (1931) 2,480. The District Is Exposed, But A Fine Stretch Of Sand Fringes Aldeburgh Bay. To The West The River Alde Broadens As ...

Aldehydes General Methodsof
Aldehydes - General Methods Of Preparation I. Direct Synthesis. Arising From A Study Of Chemical Reactions Under High Pressure It Has Been Found That When Carbon Monoxide And Hydrogen Are Heated Together At 36o-38o° C. Under A Pressure Of 200 Atmospheres In The Presence Of A Mixed Catalyst Consisting Of ...

Aldehydes
Aldehydes, An Important Class Of Chemical Compounds Having The General Formula R.cho, Where R Is An Alkyl (aliphatic) Or Aryl (aromatic) Radical. The Name Is Derived From Alcohol Dehydrogenatus (j. Liebig), Indicating That These Compounds May Be Obtained From Primary Alcohols By Removal Of Hydrogen Rch2 • Oh — 2h ...

Alder Fly
Alder-fly, The Name Given To Neuropterous Insects Of The Family Sialidae With Long Filamentous Antennae And Four Large Wings, Of Which The Hind Pair Has The Anal Area Folded Fan-wise When At Rest. They Are Sluggish Insects Found Only Near Fresh Water. The Eggs Are Often Very Numerous And Are ...

Alder
Alder (alnus), The Name Given To A Group Of Shrubs And Trees Of The Birch Family (betulaceae), Comprising Some 20 Spe Cies Distributed Through The North Temperate Zone And In The New World Extending In The Andes To Chile. They Are Most Readily Distinguished From Their Allies The Birches (q.v.) ...

Alderman
Alderman, A Term Implying The Possession Of An Office Of Rank Or Dignity, And, In Modern Times, Applied To An Office-bearer In The Municipal Corporations And County Councils Of England And Wales, And In The Municipal Corporations Of Ireland And The United States. Among The Anglo-saxons, Earls, Governors Of Provinces ...

Alderney
Alderney, The Northernmost Of The Larger Channel Islands, 31m. N.e.-s.w., Average Width Mile. Area, 1,g62ac. Pop. (1931) 1,52r. It Lies 49°43' N. And 2°12' W. On The North Coast, Braye Harbour, With A Fine Breakwater, Communicates Twice Or Three Times Weekly With St. Peter Port, Guernsey, And Weekly With Cherbourg, ...

Aldershot
Aldershot, Municipal Borough, Hampshire, England, 34 M. S.w. By W. Of London, On The Southern Railway. Aldershot Was A Mere Village Till 1855 When A Camp Was Established. Pop. (1891) 25,595; (dui) 34,28i. Its Germ Is To Be Found In The Temporary Training Camp On Chobham Ridges, Formed In 1853 ...

Aldhelm
Aldhelm (c. 64o-709), Bishop Of Sherborne, English Scholar, Was Born Before The Middle Of The 7th Century. He Is Said To Have Been The Son Of Kenten, Who Was Of The Royal House Of Wessex, But Who Was Certainly Not, As Aldhelm's Early Biogra Pher Faritius Asserts, Brother Of King ...

Aldine Press
Aldine Press, The Printing Office Started By Aldus Manu Tius At The End Of The I 5th Century In Venice, From Which Were Is Sued The Celebrated Aldine Editions Of The Classics Of That Time. (see Manutius.) The Aldine Press Is Famous In The History Of Typography (q.v.), Among Other ...

Aldred Or Ealdred
Aldred Or Ealdred (d. Io69), English Ecclesiastic, Became Abbot Of Tavistock About 1027, In Io44 Was Made Bishop Of Worcester, And In I O6o Archbishop Of York. It Is Stated By Florence Of Worcester That Aldred Crowned King Harold Ii. In I O66, Although The Norman Authorities Mention Stigand As ...

Ale Conner
Ale-conner, An Officer Appointed Yearly At The Court-leet Of Ancient English Manors For The Assize Of Ale And Ale-measures. The Gustatores Cervisiae—called In Different Localities By The Differ Ent Names "ale-tasters," "ale-founders" And "ale-conners" Were Sworn To Examine Beer And Ale, To Take Care That They Were Good And Wholesome ...

Ale
Ale, An Old Word For A Fermented Liquor Obtained Chiefly From Malt. The Derivation Is From Ang.-sax. Ealu, A Sort Of Beer. In England "ale" Is Nowadays Almost Synonymous With "beer." Be Fore The Introduction Of Hops Into England From Flanders In The 16th Century, Ale Was The Name Exclusively ...

Aleardo Aleardi
Aleardi, Aleardo, Count (1812-1878), Italian Poet, Was Born At Verona On Nov. 4, 1812, And Thus Soon After His Birth Became An Austrian Subject. Inspired From His Cradle With A Hatred Of The Foreigner, He Found Himself Unable To Publish His Patriotic Verses. But The Revolutionary Year 1848 Made An ...

Alembic
Alembic, An Apparatus For Distillation (q.v.) Used Chiefly By The Alchemists, And Now Superseded By More Convenient Forms Of Still, Both In The Laboratory And In The Factory. It Consisted Essentially Of Three Parts: A Vessel Containing The Niaterial To Be Distilled And Called, From Its Gourd-like Shape, The Cucurbit, ...

Alenc On
Alenc On, North-west France, Capital Of Department Of Orne, 36m. N. Of Le Mans On A Branch Of The Western Railway. Pop. (1931) The Regularly Built Town Lies In A Wide And Fertile Plain At The Confluence Of The Sarthe And Briante. The Ancient Castle, Taken By William Of Normandy ...

Alentejo
Alentejo, Ancient Province Of Central And Southern Portugal; Bounded On The North By Beira, East By Spanish Estre Madura And Andalusia, South By Algarve And West By The Atlantic Ocean And Portuguese Estremadura. Pop. (1900) 416,105 ; Area 9,219sq.m. The Principal Rivers Are The Tagus, Which Divides Alentejo From Beira; ...

Aleppo
Aleppo, A District And City In Syria. Under Turkish Rule The Name Of The City (halab) Was Borne Also By A Vilayet And A Sanjaq. With The British Occupation Of The Area In 1918 An Arab Military Governor Was Installed And When France Took Possession Of Syria Under The League ...

Ales
Ales, South France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Gard, 25m. N.n.w' Of Nimes On The P.l.m. Railway Pop. (ii) 30,685. The Town Is At The Foot Of The Cevennes, On The Left Bank Of The Gardon, Which Half Surrounds It. The Prox Imity Of The High Plateau—a ...

Alesia
Alesia, The Ancient Name For A Hill In The Department Of Cote D'or, France, Now Alise-ste-reine. (pop. Of Commune [ ] 475.) The Site Was Important In Early Times. Here Ver Cingetorix, The Gaulish National Leader, Was Besieged By Caesar In 52 B.c.-the Former's Surrender Leading To The Final Conquest ...

Alessandria
Alessandria, Capital Of Province Of Same Name And Episcopal See, Piedmont, Italy, On The River Tanaro, 57m. S.e. Of Turin By Rail. Pop. (1931) 56,423 (town), 82,567 (com Mune) . Founded In 1168 For Defence Against The Marquis Of Monferrato And The Town Of Pavia, It Was Besieged In 1174 ...

Alessandro Achillini
Achillini, Alessandro ( 6 Italian Philo Sopher And Anatomist, Was Born At Bologna, Oct. 29, 1463, And Died There Aug. 2, 1512. A Much Admired Lecturer At Bologna And Padua, He Was Called The "second Aristotle." Bibliography.-his Works Were Printed At Venice (1508, 1551 Bibliography.-his Works Were Printed At Venice ...

Alessandro Alexander Ab Alex
Alessandri, Alessandro (alexander Ab Alex Andro) (1461-1523), Italian Jurist, Was Born At Naples About The Year 1461. His Work Entitled Dies Geniales Appeared At Rome In 1522, And Was Constructed After The Model Of The Noctes Atticae Of Aulus Gellius, And The Saturnalia Of Macrobius. It Consists Of A Confused ...

Alessandro Algardi
Algardi, Alessandro (1602-1654), Italian Sculp Tor, Was Born At Bologna In 1602, And Attended The School Of The Caracci. The Turning Point In Algardi's Fortune Was The Accession Of Innocent X., Of The Bolognese House Of Panfili, To The Papal Throne In 1644. He Was Employed By Camillo Panfili, Nephew ...

Alessandro Ancona
Ancona, Alessandro 0835–i914), Italian Man Of Letters, Was Born At Pisa On Feb. 20 1835 And Died At Florence On Nov. 8 1914. He Acted As Intermediary Between Cavour And The Tuscan Liberals In 1855, And Represented Tuscany In The Societa Nazionale. In 1861 He Was Appointed Professor Of Italian ...

Alethiology
Alethiology, An Uncommon Expression For The Doctrine Of Truth (gr. &xrl6eca, Truth) Used By Sir William Hamilton In His Philosophic Writings When Treating Of The Rules For The Discrimi Nation Of Truth And Error. The Term Was First Used By Lambert In His New Organon, 1764. ...

Aletrium
Aletrium (mod. Alatri), A Town Of The Hernici, About 6m. Due N. Of Frusino, Italy, Mentioned 3o6 B:c. For Fidelity To Rome. In Cicero's Time It Was A Municipium, And Continued In This Position Throughout The Imperial Period. Finely Preserved F Ortifi Cations Of Blocks Of Local Limestone Have An ...

Aleurites
Aleurites (gr. 6,xevp6tns, Pertaining To Axevpov, Ground Meal, From 6xeiv, To Grind), A Genus Of Trees Belonging To The Family Euphorbiaceae. Aleurites Triloba Is Widely Cultivated Throughout The Tropical And Sub-tropical Parts Of The World For Its Fruit, Which Is About The Size Of A Walnut, And Contains Several Seeds ...

Aleut
Aleut (al'e-oot), A Native Of The Aleutian Islands And Part Of The Alaska Peninsula, A Branch Of The Eskimo Stock. They Differ From The Eskimo In Their Brachycephaly, But Resemble Them In Features, And Their Language, Though Well Differentiated, Is Fundamentally Eskimo. Their Culture, Too, Is From The Same( Source, ...

Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands, A Chain Of Small Islands Situated In The Northern Pacific Ocean, And Extending About ',zoom. Westward From The Extremity Of The Alaskan Peninsula Toward The Peninsula Of Kamchatka; They Constitute Part Of The Territory Of Alaska, U.s.a. The Islands, Of Which An Alternative Collective Name Is The Catherine ...

Alewife
Alewife (pomolobus Pseudoharengus), A Fish Allied To The Shad (q.v.), Which Spawns In Great Numbers In The Tidal Parts Of The Rivers Of Eastern North America, From The St. Lawrence South Wards, During The Spring. It Grows To A Length Of A Foot And Is An Important Food Fish. ...

Alexander Adam
Adam, Alexander (1741-1809), Scottish Teacher And Antiquarian, Was Born On June 24, 1741 Near Forres, Morayshire, And Died In Edinburgh On Dec. 18, 1809. He Became Rector Of Edinburgh High School In 1768, And Had Among His Pupils Many Boys Who Afterwards Became Famous, Among Them Sir Walter Scott, Lord ...

Alexander Aetolus
Alexander Aetolus, Of Pleuron In Aetolia, Greek Poet And Man Of Letters, Flourished About 28o B.c. He Was Com Missioned By Ptolemy Philadelphus To Arrange The Tragedies And Satyric Dramas In The Library Of Alexandria In 276 He Went To The Court Of Antigonus Gonatas, King Of Macedonia. He Was ...

Alexander Alekhine
Alekhine, Alexander (1892— ), Champion Chess-player, Was Born In Moscow On Nov. 1, 1892. He Displayed Precocious Ability As A Chess-player, And In 1910 He Did Well At The Hamburg Tournament At The Age Of Seventeen. When The World War Broke Out In 1914 He Was Playing At The Mannheim ...

Alexander Ales Or Alesius
Ales Or Alesius, Alexander Scottish Reformer, Was Born At Edinburgh, April 23, I Soo. As Canon Of The Collegiate Church Of St. Andrews He Opposed The Reformers, But Was Converted By The Arguments And The Courageous Death Of Patrick Fern In 1538. He Escaped To Germany And At Witten Berg ...

Alexander Alexander Obrenovich
Alexander (alexander Obrenovich) (1876-1903), King Of Serbia, Was Born On Aug. 14, 1876. On March 6, 1889, His Father, King Milan, Abdicated And Proclaimed Him King Of Serbia Under A Regency Until He Should Attain His Majority At 18 Years Of Age. King Alexander, On April 13, 1893, Being Then ...

Alexander Alexander Of Battenberg
Alexander (alexander Of Battenberg) (1857-1893), First Prince Of Bulgaria, Born On April 5, 18s7, Was The Second Son Of Prince Alexander Of Hesse And The Rhine By His Morganatic Marriage With Julia, Countess Von Hauke, Who Received The Title Of Princess Of Battenberg. Prince Alexander Was Nephew Of The Tsar ...

Alexander Anderson
Anderson, Alexander (c. Scottish Mathematician, Was Selected By The Executors Of Franciscus Vieta To Revise And Edit His Manuscript Works. ...

Alexander Anderson_2
Anderson, Alexander (1775-1870), Pioneer Amer Ican Wood Engraver, Was Born In New York City On April 21, The Son Of A Printer. At The Age Of 12 He Made His First Attempts At Engraving Without Instruction By Observing The Work Of Jewel Lers And Other Artisans. Among His Earliest Efforts ...

Alexander Archipelago
Alexander Archipelago, A Maze Of About I,ioo Islands And Islets (area About 13,000sq.m.) Lying Close Inland Off The South-west Coast Of Alaska, U.s.a., Situated Between S4° 4o' And 58° 3o' N. They Are The Remnant Of A Submerged Mountain System; The Islands Rise 3,00o To 5,000f T. Above The Sea ...

Alexander Balas
Alexander Balas (i.e., "lord"), A Native Of Smyrna Of Humble Origin, Gave Himself Out To Be The Son Of Antiochus Iv. Epiphanes And Heir To The Syrian Throne. His Claims Were Rec Ognized By The Roman Senate. At First Unsuccessful, He Finally Defeated The Reigning King Demetrius Soter In 150 ...

Alexander Cornelius
Alexander Cornelius, Greek Grammarian Sur Named Polyhistor From His Great Learning, Born At Miletus, Be Came A Roman Citizen In 82 B.c., After Being Taken Prisoner In The Mithridatic War. Of The Extant Fragments Of His Works (which Were Mainly Historical And Geographical) (mueller, Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, Iii.), Those Relating ...

Alexander Emanuel Agassiz
Agassiz, Alexander Emanuel American Man Of Science, Son Of J. L. R. Agassiz, Was Born In Neuchatel, Switzerland, On Dec. 17, 1835. He Came To The United States With His Father In 1846; Graduated At Harvard In Subsequently Studying Engineering And Chemistry, And Taking The Degree Of Bachelor Of Science ...