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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Asoka
Asoka, A Famous Buddhist Emperor Of India Who Reigned From 264 To 228 Or 227 B.c. Thirty-five Of His Inscriptions On Rocks Or Pillars Or In Caves Still Exist (see Inscriptions: Indian), And They Are Among The Most Remarkable And Interesting Of Bud Dhist Monuments (see Buddhism). Asoka Was The ...

Asolo
Asolo (anc. Acelum), Venetia, Italy, Province Of Treviso, About 19m. N.w. Direct From Treviso, Some 1 Om. E. Of Bassano By Road And Iom. W.n.w. Of Montebelluna By Tram. Pop. (1931) Town, 3,033 ; Commune, 9,799. It Is On A Hill, 69oft. Above Sea-level. Remains Of Roman Baths And Of ...

Asor
Asor, An Instrument "of Ten Strings" Mentioned In The Bible, About Which Authors Are Not Agreed. The Word Occurs Only Three Times In The Bible, And Has Not Been Traced Elsewhere. ...

Asp
Asp (vipers Aspis), A Species Of Venomous Snake, Closely Allied To The Common Adder Of Great Britain, Which It Represents Throughout The Southern Parts Of Europe, Being Specially Ant In The Region Of The Alps. It Differs From The Adder In Having The Head Entirely Covered With Scales, Shields Being ...

Asparagine
Asparagine, A Naturally Occurring Base Found In Plants Belonging To The Families Leguminosae And Cruciferae, And Notice Ably In Asparagus. It Has The Structure And Belongs To The Important Group Of Amino-acids, Being Both An Acid, By Virtue Of The Carboxyl Group, And A Base, By Virtue Of The Two ...

Asparagus Pea
Asparagus-pea, The Name Of A Group Of Cultivated Leguminous Plants Mostly Derived From Psophocarpus Tetragon Olobus, Native To India. All Varieties Are Rapidly-growing Vines, Io Ft. To 5o Ft. Long, Producing Quadrangular, Green-winged Pods, 3 In. To 9 In. Long. The Tender Young Pods Are Eaten Like String Beans And ...

Asparagus
Asparagus, A Numerous Genus Of Plants Of The Lily Family (liliaceae), Comprising Upwards Of 120 Species, Widely Distributed In The Temperate And Warmer Parts Of The Old World. They Are Erect Or Climbing, Extensively Branching And Sometimes More Or Less Woody Plants, Rising From Cord-like, Thickened Or Tuberous Rootstocks (rhizomes). ...

Aspasia
Aspasia, Born At Miletus, Was The Most Famous Of The Ionian Courtesans Who Settled At Athens. She Became Pericles' Mistress, For By His Own Law Of 451 She Could Not, As A Foreigner, Be His Legal Wife, And Her Charm And Talents Seem To Have Won Her An Important Place ...

Aspasius
Aspasius, A Greek Peripatetic Philosopher, And A Prolific Commentator On Aristotle. He Flourished Probably Towards The Close Of The 1st Century A.d., Or Perhaps During The Reign Of An Toninus Pius. Commentaries On Books 1-4, 7 (in Part), And 8 Of The Nicomachean Ethics Are Preserved ; That On Book ...

Aspect Ratio
Aspect Ratio, Of An Aeroplane Wing, The Ratio Of The Span To The Chord, The Latter Being The Length Of The Straight Line Drawn From The Leading To The Trailing Edge, At Right Angles To The Length Of The Wing. (see Aeroplane.) ...

Aspen
Aspen, A Section Of The Poplar Genus (populus) Of Which The Common Aspen Of Europe, P. Tremula, May Be Taken As The Type--a Tall, Fast-growing Tree With A Slender Trunk, And Grey Bark Becoming Rugged When Old. The Roundish Leaves, Toothed On The Margin, Are Slightly Downy When Young, But ...

Aspendus
Aspendus, An Ancient City Of Asia Minor, Mod. Balkis Kale, Or, More Anciently In The Native Language, Estvedys (whence The Adjective Estvedijys On Coins), Very Strongly Situated On An Isolated Hill On The Right Bank Of The Eurymedon At The Point Where The River Issues From The Taurus. The Sea ...

Asperges
Asperges, The Ceremony Of Sprinkling The People With Holy Water Before High Mass In The Roman Catholic Church, So Called From The Opening Words Asperges Me, Domine, Hyssopo (ps. Li. 7). The Brush For Sprinkling Is An Aspergilluco, And A Vessel For Holy Water An Aspersorium. To The Violence Of ...

Asphalt
Asphalt. According To The Standard Definition Of The American Society For Testing Materials, Asphalts Are "black To Dark Brown Solid Or Semi-solid Cementitious Materials Which Gradually Liquefy When Heated, In Which The Predominating Con Stituents Are Bitumens All Of Which Occur In The Solid Or Semi-solid Form In Nature Or ...

Asphodel
Asphodel (asphodelus), A Genus Of The Lily Family (lilia Ceae), Containing Seven Species In The Mediterranean Region. The Plants Are Hardy Herbaceous Perennials With Narrow Tufted Radical Leaves And An Elongated Stem Bearing A Handsome Spike Of White Or Yellow Flowers. Asphodelus Albus And A. Fistulosus Have White Flowers And ...

Asphyxia
Asphyxia, A Term In Medicine Signifying Arrest Of Respi Ration From Some Hindrance To The Entrance Of Air Into The Lungs. (see Respiratory System : Diseases Of.) ...

Aspic
Aspic, A Poisonous African Snake Popularly Supposed To Give A Quick And Easy Death. "the Worm's An Odd Worm," Said The Clown To Cleopatra, "those That Do Die Of It Do Rarely Re Cover," And The Aspic Was Welcomed By The Queen As The Means Of Swift Dispatch. The French ...

Aspidistra
Aspidistra, A Small Genus Of The Lily Family (liliaceae), Native Of The Himalayas, China And Japan. Aspidistra Elatior Is A Favourite Pot-plant, Bearing Large Green Or White-striped Leaves On An Underground Stem, And Small Dark Purplish, Cup-shaped Flowers Close To The Ground. It Is Very Resistant To Unfavourable Conditions And ...

Aspirin
Aspirin Is The Trade-name Of Acetyl Salicylic Acid. Its Dose Is 0.3 To 1 •og. (5 To 15 Grains) . Like Other Salicylates It Is Of Great Use In Acute Rheumatic Fever, In Which It Seems To Have Almost A Specific Action, As It Causes The Temperature To Drop And ...

Aspromonte
Aspromonte, Mountain, Calabria, Italy, Behind Reggio Di Calabria, The Western Extremity Of The Sila Range. It Is 6,42oft. High And Has Forest-clad Slopes. Here Garibaldi Was Wounded And Taken By Italian Troops Under Pallavicini (1862) . ...

Ass
Ass, A Common Name For Varieties Of The Subgenus Asinus, Belonging To The Horse Tribe, And Especially For The Domestic Ass; It Differs From The Horse In Its Smaller Size, Long Ears, The Char Acter Of Its Tail, Fur And Markings, And Its Proverbial Dullness And Obstinacy. The Fifth Proposition ...

Assab
Assab, A Bay And Port On The African Shore Of The Red Sea, 6om. N. Of The Strait Of Bab-el-mandeb. Assab Bay Was The First Territory Acquired By Italy In Africa. Bought From The Sultan Of Raheita In 187o, It Was Not Occupied Until 1880. (see Eritrea, History.) ...

Assai
Assai (ital.), Though Meaning Originally "enough" (cf. Fr. Asset) Has Acquired Also The Secondary Meaning Of "very," In Which Sense Alone It Is Employed In Musical Terminology, As In Presto Assai, Meaning "very Fast." ...

Assam
Assam, A Province Of British India. Area (including The State Of Manipur) 67,334sq.m. Pop. The Brahmaputra Emerges From Himalayan Gorges Into A Valley, 5om. Wide, With Steep Mountain Sides, And Flows West And West South-west Till It Turns South Around The Bastion Of The Garo Hills. This Broad Valley Is ...

Assamese Language
Assamese Language, The Indo-aryan Tongue Spoken In The Assam Valley. In Its Grammar It Closely Resembles Bengali (q.v.), Since Both Are Derived From A Common Source. Its Vocabu Lary Is Mainly Tadbhava. It Has Been Affected By Its Proximity To Tibeto-burman Dialects Both In Vocabulary And In Structure, As In ...

Assassin
Assassin, A General Term For A Secret Murderer (properly Hashishin, From Hashish, The Opiate Made From The Juice Of Hemp Leaves), Originally The Name Of The Ismaili Branch Of The Shiite Sect Founded By Hasan-i-sabbah At The End Of The I 1 Th Century, And From That Time Active In ...

Assault
Assault, In English Law, "an Attempt Or Offer With Force Or Violence To Do Corporal Hurt To Another, As By Striking At Another With A Stick Or Other Weapon, Or Without A Weapon, Though The Party Misses His Aim." Mere Words, Be They Ever So Provoking, Will Not Constitute An ...

Assay Office Bar
Assay Office Bar, A Bar Of Fine, Meaning Pure, Gold Which Has Been Made From Metal Assayed By The U.s. Assay Office. Such A Bar Bears The Government Stamp Certifying To Its Weight And Fineness. Bars Of Precious Metals Turned Out By Pri Vate Assayers Cannot Carry The Government Stamp, ...

Assay Office
Assay Office, A Department Operating Under The United States Mint As A Laboratory For The Purpose Of Assaying, I.e., Chemically And Otherwise Testing For Purity, Content And Value, Metals Submitted To It For This Purpose. The Metals Brought For Assay Are Usually Gold And Silver, And May Be In The ...

Assegai Or Assagai
Assegai Or Assagai (from Berber-arab As-zahayah, Through Portuguese Azagaia), A Weapon For Throwing Or Hurling, A Light Spear Or Javelin Made Of Wood And Pointed With Iron, Par Ticularly The Spear Used By The Zulu And Other Kaffir Tribes Of South Africa. In Addition To The Long-handled Assegai There Is ...

Assemble
Assemble, A Term Of Great Significance In Modern Produc Tive Methods. It Explains The Difference Between The Older Practice Of Fitting Parts To One Another, And The Modern Way Of Finishing Components So That They Can Be Brought Together Or "assembled" Without The Need For Any Cutting Or Alteration; If ...

Assemblyman
Assemblyman, The Official Who Is Elected To Serve As A Member Of The More Numerous Branch Of The State Legislature In New Jersey And New York, Where He Is Elected For A Term Of One Year. In Most Of The Other States Such Official Is Called A "representative" And Serves ...

Assen
Assen, Capital Of The Province Of Drente, Holland, 16m. By Rail S. Of Groningen, At The Junction Of Two Canals Running North And South To Groningen And Meppel Respectively. Pop. (193o) 17,656. Many Remains Of Early Man From This Region Are In The Leyden Museum. Assen Was The Site Of ...

Asser Or Asserius Menevensis
Asser Or Asserius Menevensis (died C. 91o), English Bishop, Author Of A Life Of Alfred The Great, Was Born In 'vales. He Became A Monk At St. David's, And Having Acquired Some Reputation For Learning, He Was Invited By King Alfred To His Court. He Agreed To Spend Six Months ...

Assessed Valuation
Assessed Valuation, The Value Placed Upon Real Or Personal Property By Governmental Authority For Purposes Of Tax Ation. It May Or May Not Be An Indication Of The Market Value Of The Property, But In Any Case, Provided The Assessments Are Equitable, It Supplies A Guide To The Relative Values ...

Assessment Insurance
Assessment Insurance: See Friendly Societies; Benefit Societies And Approved Societies. ...

Assessment
Assessment, A Demand Or Call Made By A Corporation Upon Stockholders For A Specified Sum Of Money Per Share Of Stock In Addition To That Already Paid In. Such Assessments Are Generally Made When The Company Is Financially Embarrassed And It Is A Question Of The Stockholders Meeting The Assessment ...

Assessor
Assessor, A Roman Term Originally Applied To A Trained Lawyer Who Sat Beside A Governor Of A Province Or Other Magis Trate, To Instruct Him In The Administration Of The Laws (see Roll, De Assessoribus Magistratuum Romanorum, Leipzig, 1872). The System Is Still Exemplified In Scotland, Where It Is Usual ...

Assignats
Assignats, A Form Of Paper Money Issued In France From 1789 To 1796. Assignats Were So Termed As Representing Land Assigned To The Holders. The Term Is From Lat. Assignatus, Assigned. The Financial Strait Of The French Government In 1789 Was Extreme. Coin Was Scarce, Loans Were Not Taken Up, ...

Assignment
Assignment. An Assignment Is The Term For That Kind Of Total Alienation By Deed Or Writing (other Than Testamentary) Of A Chattel Interest In Real Property, Or Of Chattels Personal, Or Of An Equitable Interest In Real Estate, Which Is Not Essentially De Structive Of Such Interest. Assignments Are Either ...

Assimilation
Assimilation, A Term Used In Psychology To Denote The Mechanism By Which Two Or More Mental Processes Are Drawn Into A Single Unitary Whole. What Takes Place In Psychological Assim Ilation Can Be Understood By Considering The Way In Which Lines Slightly Different In Length Are Taken To Be Equal, ...

Assiniboia
Assiniboia, A Name Formerly Applied To Two Districts Of Canada, But Not Now Held By Any. (1) A District Formed In 1835 By The Hudson's Bay Company, Having In It Fort Garry At The Junction Of The Red And Assiniboine Rivers In Rupert's Land, North America. It Extended Over A ...

Assiniboin
Assiniboin, An American Indian Tribe In The Northern Plains, Of Siouan Affiliation, Closely Related In Dialect To The Yank Ton Dakota, But Separately Mentioned As Early As 164o. Their Habitat In The 17th Century Was About Lake Winnipeg, And In The 18th Century On The Upper Saskatchewan, Where They Ultimately ...

Assisi
Assisi (anc. Asisium), Episcopal See, Umbria, Italy, Prov Ince Of Perugia, 1 5m. E.s.e. By Rail From Perugia. Pop. (1931) Town, 7,008; Commune, 21,614. The Town Occupies A Fine Posi Tion On A Spur Of The Monte Subasio (1,345ft. Above Sea-level) With A View Over The Tiber And Topino. St. ...

Assize Or Assize
Assize Or Assize, A Legal Term, Meaning Literally A "ses Sion," But In Fact Sometimes A Jury, Or The Sittings Of A Court, And Sometimes The Ordinances Of A Court Or Assembly. It Originally Signified The Form Of Trial By A Jury Of 16 Persons, Which Eventually Superseded The Barbarous ...

Assmannshausen
Assmannshausen, A Village Of Germany, Near Wies Baden, On The Right Bank Of The Rhine And The Railway From Frankfort-on-main To Niederlahnstein. Pop. 1,344. It Has A Lithium Spring, Baths And A Kurhaus, And Is Famed For Its Red Wine (assmannshiiuser). ...

Associability
Associability Is A Term Used By Herbert Spencer (principles Of Psychology, Sec. 16o Ff.) To Denote The Capacity Of An Experience (state Of Consciousness Or Feeling) Of One Kind For Association Or Integration With Others So As To Lead Subsequently To Mutual Revival Or Recall. He Pointed Out That Emotions ...

Associate Justice
Associate Justice, A Judicial Official In The Federal And Many Of The State Courts In The United States. In The United States Judiciary There Are Eight Associate Justices Of The Supreme Court, Who Have Concurrent Authority With The Chief Justice, Except That He Presides And Assigns Cases For Opinions. Likewise ...

Associated Banks
Associated Banks, Banks That Make Daily Clearings Through The Same Clearing House, I.e., A Group Of Banks Which Are Members Of The Same Clearing House Association. (see Clearing House.) ...

Associated Press
Associated Press. In The Period Prior To 1892 There Existed Among Important Daily Newspapers In The United States A Loose Federation Of News-gathering Associations From Which Grad Ually Evolved The Associated Press, The Largest Co-operative News Organization In The World And One Of The Most Successful Purely Mutual Enterprises That ...

Association Advertising
Association Advertising Is The Ad Vertising Of Competitors To Promote The Sale Or Use Of The Product Of An Industry, E.g., The Campaign To Increase The Buying Of Flow Ers Conducted By The Society Of American Florists. This Is A Form Of Advertising Which Developed During The First 20 Years ...

Association Of Ideas
Association Of Ideas. The Chief Problem That Is In Volved In A Discussion Of The Association Of Ideas And The Laws Of Association Is The Problem Of Recollection And The Conditions Under Which It Takes Place. Although The Expression "associa Tion Of Ideas" Was Introduced By Locke, The Problem Under ...

Association Tests
Association Tests Are Used In Psychology To Discover The Mental Connections Which Underlie Such Cognitive Functions As Perception, Learning, Memory, Language Ability, Reasoning And Judgment, And Also In Psychopathology To Discover The Way In Which Emotional Experiences Upset Normal Mental Connections. In The Usual Association Test An Individual Is Given ...

Association
Association Is A Term Used In A Specialized Sense In Chemistry To Denote The Union Of Like Atoms Of An Element Or Molecules Of A Compound To Give A More Complex Molecule Hav Ing The Same Chemical Properties. The Term Polymerization Is Not Quite Synonymous, For It Has A Wider ...

Associationism Or Associationist Psy
Associationism Or Associationist Psy Chology. This Is The Name Of A Theory That Mental Experi Ences Consist In The Last Resort Of Certain Ultimate Elements Of Consciousness Which Are Variously Combined Into Complex Wholes Under The Laws Of Association. (see Association Of Ideas.) In Its Extreme Form This Theory Treats ...

Associative Laws
Associative Laws, Two Laws Relating To Numbers, One With Respect To Addition And The Other With Respect To Multi Plication. These Laws May Respectively Be Defined Symbolically As Follows : A+ (b + C) = (a + B) + C, And A(bc) _ (ab) C; That Is, The Terms Or ...

Assonance
Assonance, A Term Defined, In Its Prosodical Sense, As "the Corresponding Or Riming Of One Word With Another In The Accented Vowel And Those Which Follow It, But Not In The Consonants" (new English Dictionary). Much Rustic Or Popular Verse In Eng Land Is Satisfied With Assonance, As In Such ...

Assumed Bonds
Assumed Bonds, Bonds Of A Corporation Which Has Been Absorbed By Another By Means Of Merger, Consolidation, Purchase Or Other Methods. In A Merger, The Corporation Which Retains Its Identity; In A Consolidation, The Newly Formed Corpora Tion ; And In A Sale, The Purchasing Company, Assumes All The In ...

Assumpsit
Assumpsit, The Latin Word Meaning "he Has Undertaken." It Is Applied In English Law To An Obsolete Form Of Action For The Recovery Of Damages By Reason Of The Breach Or Non-performance Of A Simple Contract, Either Express Or Implied, And Whether Made Orally Or In Writing. Assumpsit Was The ...

Assur Bani Pal
Assur-bani-pal Creates A Son"), The Grand Monarque Of Assyria, Was The Prototype Of The Greek Sardanap Alus, And Appears Probably In The Corrupted Form Of Asnapper In Ezra Iv. Io. He Had Been Publicly Nominated King Of Assyria (on The 12th Of Iyyar) By His Father Esar-haddon, Some Time Before ...

Assur
Assur (country), The Land Of Assyria, Not To Be Confused With The City Of Ashur (modern Shergat) From Which It Took Its Name. The Country Is Situated On The Tigris, At The Southern Ex Tremity Of Assyria Proper, Which Was Bounded On The North By The Foothills Of Kurdistan, And ...

Assyria In The Early
Assyria In The Early Period The Land Of Assyria May Originally Have Been Inhabited By The Subaraeans, A Race Which At A Later Time Occupied Parts Of Meso Potamia, The Hill Country North Of Assyria, And The Valleys Of The Zagros Range As Far South As Kirkuk. The Assyrians, Themselves ...

Assyria
Assyria. The Two Great Empires, Assyria And Babylon, Which Grew Up On The Banks Of The Tigris And Euphrates, Can Be Separated As Little Historically As Geographically. From The Beginning Their History Is Closely Intertwined ; And The Power Of The One Is A Measure Of The Weakness Of The ...

Assyrian Language
Assyrian Language. The Babylonians, Though Semites, Learnt The Cuneiform (q.v.) Script From The Non-semitic Sumerians, Whom They Found In Southern Mesopotamia In The 3rd Millennium B.c. ; And I,000 Years Afterwards The Northern Assyrians Adopted It. Sumerian Had 600 Signs, Constituting Thou Sands Of Ideograms (signs Depicting Ideas). Some Signs ...

Astara
Astara, A Small Port In The Azerbaijan S.s.r. On The Caspian Sea At The Mouth Of Astara River. Lat. 38° 25' N. Long. 48° 52' E. The River Is The Boundary Between Persia And Russia And Trade From Tabriz In Rice, Timber, Rushes And Piece Goods Is Carried On, Though ...

Astarabad
Astarabad, A Province Of Persia, Bounded North By The Caspian Sea And The Atrak River, South By The Elburz Mountains, West By Mazandaran And East By Khurasan. Area About 5,63o Sq.m. With A Sparse Population. The Land Is Thickly Wooded But Marshy In Parts, And The Soil Is Exceedingly Productive, ...

Astarabad_2
Astarabad, Chief Town Of Astarabad Province, Persia; On The Astar, A Tributary Of The Kara Su, In 36° 4o' N. Lat. And 3o' E. Long., 23m. From The Caspian Sea, At The Foot Of A Thickly Wooded Spur Of The Elburz. Occupying A Commercially And Strategically Important Position The Town ...

Astarte
Astarte, A Semitic Goddess Whose Name Appears In The Bible As Ashtoreth. She Is Everywhere The Great Female Principle, Answering To The Baal Of The Canaanites And Phoenicians And To The Dagon Of The Philistines. She Had Temples At Sidon And At Tyre (whence Her Worship Was Transplanted To Carthage), ...

Astatic Coils
Astatic Coils, When Passing An Electric Current, Produce No External Magnetic Field. Conversely, A Varying External Mag Netic Field Does Not Induce In Them An Electromotive Force. (see Electricity.) ...

Aster Or Astrosphere
Aster Or Astrosphere, The Term Used In Biology For The Star-shaped Structure Produced By The Centrosome Immedi Ately Prior To Cell-division. Two Asters Arise In The Cell And These Unite To Form The Spindle. (see Cytology.) ...

Aster
Aster, A Large Genus Of Plants Of The Family Compositae, So Named From The Radiate Or Star-like Appearance Of The Flowers, And Known As Asters Or Star-worts (gr. Hqt,p, A Star). There Are Some 400 Species, Found Chiefly In North America But Scattered Sparsely In Asia, Europe And South America. ...

Asteria Or Star Stone
Asteria Or Star-stone, A Name Applied To Varieties Of Ruby And Sapphire Which Exhibit A Six-rayed Star. Cymophane, Or Chatoyant Chrysoberyl, May Also Be Asteriated. The Asterism Is Due To The Reflection Of Light From Twin-lamellae Or From Fine Tubular Cavities Or Thin Enclosures Definitely Arranged In The Stone. The ...

Asterisk
Asterisk, The Sign * Used In Typography (from The Gr. Aarepiqlcos, A Little Star). The Word Is Also Used In Its Literal Mean Ing, A Small Star, And As A Description Of An Ornamental Form In One Of The Utensils In The Greek Church. ...

Asterius
Asterius, Bishop Of Amasia, In Pontus, C. 400. His Fame Rests Chiefly On His Homilies, Which Were Much Esteemed In The Eastern Church. Twenty-one Of These Are Given In Full By Migne (patrol. Ser. Gr. Xl. 164-477), And There Are Fragments Of Others In Photius (cod. 271). ...

Asterius_2
Asterius, Of Cappadocia, Sophist And Teacher Of Rhetoric In Galatia, Was Converted To Christianity About The Year 300, And Became The Disciple Of Lucian, The Founder Of The School Of Antioch. He Is Best Known As An Able Defender Of The Semi-arian Position, And Was Styled By Athanasius The "advocate" ...

Asteroids
Asteroids, The Minor Planets, Over I,000 In Number, Which Describe Orbits Round The Sun, Lying Between Those Of Mars And Jupiter (q.v.), And Having Various Eccentricities. (see Minor Planets.) In Zoology, A Group Of Echinoderma (q.v.), The Starfish As Op Posed To The Brittle-stars Or Ophiuroids (see Starfish). ...

Asthenia
Asthenia, Lack Or Loss Of Strength, A Condition In Which The Body Lacks Or Has Lost Strength Either As A Whole Or In Any Of Its Parts. General Asthenia Is Found In Certain Individuals With A Characteristic Physical Build. They Are Thin, Have Small Bones, Underdeveloped Musculature And Are Subject ...

Asthenopia
Asthenopia, A Condition In Which The Eyes Are Weak And Tire Too Easily. It May Be Brought On By Disorders In Any Of The Various Complicated Functions Involved In The Visual Act. Thus Imbalance Between The Muscles That Keep The Eyes Parallel Leads To Fatigue In The Constant Effort To ...

Asthma
Asthma, A Disorder Of Respiration Characterized By Severe Paroxysms Of Difficult Breathing (dyspnoea), Usually Followed By A Period Of Complete Relief, With Recurrence Of The Attacks At More Or Less Frequent Intervals. The Term Is Often Loosely Em Ployed In Reference To States Of Embarrassed Respiration, Which Are Plainly Due ...

Asti
Asti (anc. Hasta), Episcopal See, Piedmont, Italy, Province Of Alessandria, On The Tanaro, 2 2m. W. By Rail From Alessandria. Pop. (1931) Town, 23,65o; Commune, 49,062. Remains Include 8th-century Baptistery (s. Giovanni), Ilth-century Octagonal Baptistery (s. Pietro), Mediaeval Towers, And A Fine 14th-century Gothic Cathedral. It Was The Birthplace Of ...

Astigmatism
Astigmatism, A Form Of Aberration In Optical Systems, Including The Eye, Resulting In Rays Proceeding From A Point Source Forming An Area Instead Of A Point And Thus Causing Blurred Vision. (see Optics And Eye.) ...

Aston Manor
Aston Manor, A District In The North-east Of The City Of Birmingham, Warwicks., England. Pop. (1921), 61,000. It Was Originally A Municipal Borough Of Its Own But Was Included Within The City Of Birmingham (q.v.) In 1911. Aston Manor Is An Indus Trial District With Large Motor Works. ...

Astorga
Astorga, A City Of N.w. Spain, Province Of Leon; On The Right Bank Of The River Tuerto. Pop. (1930) 8,243. Astorga Was The Roman Asturica Augusta, The Administrative Centre Of One Asturian District And The Point Of Convergence Of The Great Military Roads Connecting The North-west With The Pyrenean Passes ...

Astoria
Astoria, A City And A Port Of Entry, The County Seat Of Clatsop County, Oregon, U.s.a., On The South Bank Of The Co Lumbia River, Which Is About 6m. Wide Here, 1 Om. From The Open Ocean, And About 75m. In A Direct Line N.w. Of Portland. It Is At ...

Astraea
Astraea, In Ancient Greek Mythology, The "star Maid En," Daughter Of Zeus And Themis, Or Of Astraeus The Titan And Eos ("the Dawn"), In Which Case She Is Identified With Dike. During The Golden Age She Remained Among Men Distributing Blessings, But When The Iron Age Began, She Left The ...

Astragal
Astragal, In Architecture, A Small Torus. The Term Is Sometimes Restricted To The Combination Of A Small Torus And A Fillet Used Between The Shaft And Capital Of A Classic Order (see Order). It Is Frequently Carved With A "bead And Reel" Ornament. ...

Astragalus
Astragalus, A Very Large Genus Of The Pea Family (leguminosae Or Fabaceae), Widely Distributed Throughout The World, Except In Australia, But Most Numerous In The Steppe Re Gion Of Northern Asia, The High Plains Of Western North America And The Tropical Andes. The Common Species Of Great Britain And Of ...

Astrakhan I
Astrakhan. (i) A Province In The Russian Republic (u.s.s.r.) Consisting Of A Narrow Strip On Either Side Of The Volga River From About Lat. 48° 2' N. To The Caspian Sea. Area 27,984 Sq.km. Pop. (5926) 516,706; Urban 153,134; Rural 363,572. The Akhtuba River Runs Parallel With The Volga River ...

Astringent
Astringent, A Term Comprising A Group Of Agents That Tend To Shrink Mucous Membranes And Raw Surfaces And To Dry Up Secretions. They Are Usually Classed According To Their Mode Of Action Into (i) Those That Decrease The Blood Supply By Narrowing The Small Blood-vessels (adrenalin And Cocaine Are In ...

Astrolabe
Astrolabe, An Instrument Used For The Taking Of Altitudes Of Heavenly Bodies, From Which Time And Latitude Are Deducible. The Planispheric Astrolabe, To Which The Name Is Now Commonly Restricted, Is Believed To Have Been A Greek Instrument Invented By Hipparchus (15o B.c.), Or Even By Apollonius Of Perga (c. ...

Astrology
Astrology, The Ancient Art Or Science Of Divining The Fate And Future Of Human Beings From Indications Given By The Positions Of The Stars And Other Heavenly Bodies. The Study Of Astrology And The Belief In It, As Part Of Astronomy, Is Found In A Developed Form Among The Ancient ...

Astronomical Articles
Astronomical Articles. Besides The Article Astronomy, This Subject Is Dealt With Under The Following Heads: ...

Astronomical Societies
Astronomical Societies. The Royal Astronomical Society Was Founded In 182o As The Astronomical Society Of Lon Don And Was Incorporated March 7, 1831. Its Headquarters Are At Burlington House, London, And Memoirs (1882, Etc.) And Monthly Notices (1831, Etc.) Are Published. The First Inter National Astronomical Congress Met At Heidelberg ...

Astronomy Of The Ancients
Astronomy Of The Ancients China.—already, In The Third Millennium B.c., Equinoxes And Solstices Were Determined In China By Means Of Culminating Stars. This Is Known From The Orders Promulgated By The Emperor Yao About 2300 B.c., As Recorded In The The Shit King, A Collection Of Documents Antique In The ...

Astronomy Of The Middle
Astronomy Of The Middle Ages Arab Astronomy, Transported By The Moors To Spain, Flourished Temporarily At Cordova And Toledo. From The Latter City The Toletan Tables, Drawn Up By Arzachel In 1080, Took Their Name; And There Also The Alfonsine Tables, Published In 1252, Were Pre Pared Under The Authority ...

Astronomy
Astronomy. The Earth On Which We Live Is The Fifth Largest Planet Belonging To One Of The Lesser Stars. Perhaps It Is Less Necessary Now Than It Used To Be To Insist On The Smallness Of Our Planet. Scientific Inventions And Ease Of Travel Seem To Have Brought Different Parts ...

Astropalia
Astropalia, An Aegean Island (classical Astypalaea, Mediaeval Stampalia), With Good Harbours, Situated In 36.5° N. And Immediately West Of 26.5° E. It Was Colonized By Megara, And Its Constitution And Buildings Are Known From Numerous Inscrip Tions. The Roman Empire Recognized It As A Free State, And In The Middle ...

Astrophysics
Astrophysics, That Branch Of Astronomy Which Deals With The Physical Constitution Of The Heavenly Bodies Or Involves The Use Of Instruments And Methods Specially Dependent On Physics. It Is Contrasted With "astrometry," Which Deals With The Positions And Motions Of The Heavenly Bodies. There Is No Strict Line Of Demarcation, ...

Astura
Astura, Formerly An Island, Now A Peninsula, Coast Of Latium, Italy, 7m. S.e. Of Antium, At The South-eastern Extremity 'of The Bay Of Antium. The Name Also Belongs To The River Which Flowed Into The Sea At An Anchorage Immediately South-east. The Mediaeval Castle Of The Frangipani, In Which Conradin ...

Astures
Astures (u), A Warlike Tribe Occupying The Mountains Of The North-west Of Ancient Spain. They Resisted The Roman Con Quest And Were Only Reduced By Augustus ; Asturica Augusta, Legio Vii. Gemina And Other Strong Places Being Planted To Hold Them Down. Their Name Is Preserved In The Modern Spanish ...