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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Asturias
Asturias, A Principality Of Spain, Created (1388) By John I. Of Leon And Castile When His Eldest Son Henry Married The Daughter Of The Duke Of Lancaster. The Principality, Now Purely Titular, Belongs To The Eldest Son Of The Sovereign; Administratively The Principality Is Chiefly Merged In The Province Of ...

Astyages
Astyages, The Last King Of The Median Empire. In The In Scriptions Of Nabonidos The Name Is Written Ishtuvegu (cylinder From Abu Habba V R 64, Col. 1,32; Annals, Published By Pinches, Tr. Soc. Bibl. Arch. Vii. Col. 2, 2). According To Herodotus, He Was The Son Of Cyaxares And ...

Asuncion
Asuncion (nuestra Senora De La Asuncion), Capital Of The Republic Of Paraguay, Stands On The Eastern Bank Of The Paraguay River In 25° 16' 04" S., 57° 42' 40" W., 97om. N. Of Buenos Aires. Pop. , The City Is Connected With Buenos Aires And Montevideo By Regular Steamers. There ...

Asvins
Asvins, In Vedic Hindu Mythology, Twin Gods Of Light, And After Indra, Agni And Soma The Most Prominent In The Rig Veda, Invoked In More Than 5o Hymns. As Spirits Of The Dawn They Pre Pare Her Path In The Sky. Called Sons Of The Sun, Offspring Of The Ocean, ...

Aswan Or Assuan
Aswan Or Assuan, A Town Of Upper Egypt On The East Bank Of The Nile, Facing Elephantine Island Below The First Cataract, And S9om. S. Of Cairo By Rail. It Is The Capital Of A Province Of The Same Name—the Southernmost Province Of Egypt. The Principal Buildings Are Along The ...

Asylum
Asylum, A Place Of Refuge. The Derivation Is Of Interest. In Classical Greek, A Can Or To Ouxov Was The Right Of Seizing The Ship Or Cargo Of A Foreign Merchant To Cover Losses Incurred Through Him, And So Came Generally To Mean The Right Of Seizure Or Reprisal. The ...

Asymptote
Asymptote, A Line Which Approaches Continually Nearer To A Given Curve, But Which Does Not Meet It Within A Finite Dis Tance. More Precisely Speaking, If A Curve (c) Has An Infinite Branch And If There Be A Straight Line (a) Such That The Distance Pp' To A From A ...

Asyut
Asyut, Capital Of A Province Of The Same Name In Upper Egypt, And The Largest And Best-built Town In The Nile Valley South Of Cairo, From Which It Is Distant 248m. By Rail. The Population Rose From 32,00o In 1882 To 57,136 In 1927. Asyut Stands Near The West Bank ...

Atacama
Atacama, A Province Of Northern Chile, Bounded North And South Respectively By The Provinces Of Antofagasta And Coquimbo, And Extending From The Pacific Coast East To The Argentine Bound Ary Line. It Has An Area Of 3o,729sq.m. Lying In Great Part Within The Atacama Desert Region, And A Population (190 ...

Atacamenan
Atacamenan, An Independent Linguistic Stock Of South American Indians, Formerly Occupying The Coastal Region And Western Slope Of The Andes In The Chilean Provinces Of Tarapaca And Antofagasta. Some Authorities Believe That In The Latter Prov Ince They Extended Eastwards Into The Puna De Atacama. The Culture Of The Atacamenas ...

Atacamite
Atacamite, A Mineral Found Originally In The Desert Of Atacama, And Named By D. De Gallizen In 180i. It Is A Cupric Oxychlor`ide, Having The Formula And Crystalliz Ing In The Orthorhombic System. Its Hardness Is About 3 And Its Specific Gravity 3.7, While Its Colour Presents Various Shades Of ...

Atahuallpa Or Atabalipa
Atahuallpa Or Atabalipa (atahu, Virile, And A//pa, Sweet) (c. , "the Last Of The Incas" (or Yncas) Of Peru, Was The Favourite Son Of The Inca Huayna Capac, By Pacchas, The Daughter Of The Conquered Sovereign Of Quito. His Half-brother, Huascar, Succeeded Huayna Capac In 1525, For, As Atahuallpa Was ...

Atalanta
Atalanta, A Heroine, Probably A By-form Of Artemis, Variously Said To Be Daughter Of Schoeneus Of Boeotia Or Of Iasus And Clymene, Of Arcadia. She Was A Renowned And Swif T Footed Huntress. From Her Complex Legend The Following Incidents Are Of Interest : (1) She Was Exposed At Birth, ...

Atalantis Or Atlantica Atlantis
Atlantis, Atalantis Or Atlantica, A Legend Ary Island In The Atlantic Ocean. Plato In The Timaeus Describes How Egyptian Priests, In Conversation With Solon, Represented The Island As A Country Larger Than Asia Minor With Libya, Situ Ated Just Beyond The Pillars Of Hercules (q.v.). Beyond It Lay An Archipelago ...

Atargatis
Atargatis, A Syrian Deity, Known To The Greeks By A Shortened Form Of The Name, Derketo, And As Dea Syria, Or In One Word Deasura (lucian, De Dea Syria) . She Is Generally Described As The "fish-goddess." The Name Is A Compound Of Two Divine Names ; The First Part ...

Ataulphus
Ataulphus (the Latinized Form Of The Gothic Ataulf, "father-wolf," From Atta, Father, And Vul F S, Wolf ; Mod. Ger. Adolf, Latinized As Adolphus, The Form Used By Gibbon For The Subject Of This Article), King Of The Goths (d. 415). On The Death Of Alaric (q.v.) His Followers Acclaimed ...

Atavism
Atavism, Sometimes Called Reversion, The Term Given In Biology To The Reproduction In A Living Person Or Animal Of Charac Teristics Of An Ancestor More Remote Than Its Parents (see Heredity) . Loosely Used, It Connotes A Reversion To An Earlier Type. Individuals Reproduce Unexpectedly The Traits Of Earlier Ancestors, ...

Atbara River
Atbara River. The Last Tributary Of The Nile Is The At Bara, Which Joins It 4okm. Upstream Of Berber, After A Total Course Of About 1,266 Kilometres. It Rises As The Takazze In The Lasta Hills, Close To The Eastern Escarpment Of Abyssinia, And Rapidly Deepens Its Valley Into A ...

Atchison
Atchison, A City Of Kan., U.s.a., 42m. N.w. Of Kansas City, On The Missouri River; The County Seat Of Atchinson County. It Is Served By The Burlington, The Rock Island, The Santa Fe, And The Missouri Pacific Railways. The Population Was 12,63o In 1920, Of Whom 1,479 Were Negroes ; ...

Ate
Ate, In Greek Mythology, The Personification Of Criminal Folly Or Infatuation, The Daughter Of Zeus Or Of Eris ("strife"). She Even Made Zeus Take A Hasty Oath Which Resulted In Heracles Becoming Subject To Eurystheus. Zeus Thereupon Cast Her By The Hair Out Of Olympus, After Which She Remained On ...

Atella
Atella, Ancient Oscan Town, Campania, Gm. N. Of Naples And Gm. S. Of Capua. A Member Of The Campanian Confederation, It Shared The Fortunes Of Capua, But Remained Longer Faithful To Hannibal, And He Transferred The Inhabitants To Thurii Before The Romans Took The Town (2 I I ) And ...

Atellanae Fabulae
Atellanae Fabulae, A Sort Of Farce, Popular In Republican And Early Imperial Rome. The Ancients Derived The Name, Probably With Justice, From The Town Atella In Campania. If This Is So, Then The Farces Were Of Oscan Origin, Very Likely In Fluenced By The Greek Farces Of Tarentum And Other ...

Ath Or Aath
Ath Or Aath, Ancient Town, Province Of Hainaut, Belgium, On The Left Bank Of The Dender. Pop. (193o) Io,6o6. The Fort Ress Was Dismantled After 1858 And Its Ramparts Superseded By Boulevards. The Fine Church Of St. Julien ( 14th Century) Was Destroyed By Fire In 1817 (since Rebuilt). A ...

Athabasca Or Elk
Athabasca Or Elk, A River And Lake Of The Province Of Alberta, Canada. The River Rises In The Rocky Mountains Near The Yellowhead Pass In 5 2 ° 10' N. And 1 17 ° 10' W., And Flows North East As Far As Athabasca Landing, And Thence North Into Lake ...

Athabascan
Athabascan, A Linguistic Family Of North American Indians, One Of The Most Widely Spread On The Continent, And Also Known As Dene Or Tinneh. The Athabascan Languages Are Sharply Characterized And Seem Fairly Conservative ; At Any Rate They Differ Relatively Little From One Another, Even Where Widely Separated And ...

Athalaric
Athalaric (516-534), King Of The Ostrogoths, Grandson Of Theodoric, Became King Of The Ostrogoths In Italy On His Grandfather's Death (526). As He Was Only Ten Years Old, The Regency Was Assumed By His Mother, Amalasuntha (q.v.). He Died On Oct. 2, 534. ...

Athaliah
Athaliah, The Daughter Of Ahab, And Wife Of Jehoram, King Of Judah. After The Death Of Ahaziah, Her Son, She Usurped The Throne And Reigned For Six Years. She Massacred All The Members Of The Royal House Of Judah (2 Kings Xi. 5--3). The Sole Survivor, Joash, Was Concealed In ...

Athamas
Athamas In Greek Mythology, King Of The Minyae In Orchomenus. His First Wife Was Nephele (see Argonauts). Athamas And His Second Wife Ino Incurred The Wrath Of Hera, Because Ino Had Nursed Dionysus. Athamas Went Mad, And Slew One Of His Sons, Learchus; Ino, To Escape, Threw Herself Into The ...

Athanagild
Athanagild Became King Of The Visigoths (in Spain) In 534, Having Invoked The Aid Of The Emperor Justinian For His Revolt Against His Predecessor Agila. He Is Chiefly Remembered For The Tragic Fortunes Of His Daughters Brunechildis And Gavleswintha, Who Married Two Frankish Brother Kings, Sigebert And Chilperic. Athanagild Died ...

Athanaric
Athanaric (d. 381), A Ruler Of The Visigoths From About 366 To 380. He Bore The Title Not Of King But Of Judge, A Title Which May Be Compared With That Of Ealdorman Among The Anglo-saxon Invaders Of Britain. Athanaric Waged An Unsuccess Ful War With The Emperor Valens (367 ...

Athanasius The Great
Athanasius "the Great," Saint And Bishop Of Alexandria, Was Born About 298, Probably At Alexandria. He Re Ceived A Liberal Education. From Early Years He Was Instructed In The Scriptures, That Is The Septuagint And New Testament. He Knew No Hebrew. These Studies, Combined With Greek Learning, Moulded His Later ...

Atharva Veda
Atharva Veda, The 4th And Apocryphal Veda Of The Aryans, Mainly Composed Of Incantations Preserved In Two Re Censions, A Fifth Of It Reproduces Spells From The Rig Veda. For A Long Period It Was Not Accepted As A Canonical Veda. 'the Charge Of Apollinarianism Is In Part Due To ...

Atheism
Atheism Is A Term Of Varying Application And Significance (gr. A6eos, "denying God," "godless," Hence Disbelief In Or Denial Of God). Its Meaning Is Dependent Upon The Particular Type Of "theism" With Which At The Moment It Is Being Contrasted. Yet, As We Should Expect, There Is Some Connecting Link ...

Athelm
Athelm (d. 923), English Churchman, Is Said To Have Been A Monk Of Glastonbury Before His Elevation In Gog To The See Of Wells, Of Which He Was The First Occupant. In 914 He Became Archbishop Of Canterbury. ...

Athelney
Athelney, A Slight Eminence Of Small Extent In The Low Level Tract About The Junction Of The Rivers Tone And Parrett In Somersetshire, England. It Was Formerly Isolated By Marshes And Accessible Only By Boat Or Artificial Causeway, And Under These Conditions It Gained Its Historical Fame As The Retreat ...

Athena
Athena, The Attic (and Latin) Form Of The Homeric Athene, Also Called Pallas Athene, Or Simply Pallas, One Of The Most Im Portant Goddesses In Greek Mythology. No Satisfactory Deriva Tion Of The Name Athena Has Been Given; The Name Pallas Has Been Connected With The Greek Pallake ("maiden"). According ...

Athenaeum
Athenaeum, A Name Originally Applied In Ancient Greece To Buildings Dedicated To Athena, And Specially Used As The Desig Nation Of A Temple In Athens, Where Poets And Men Of Learning Were Accustomed To Meet And Read Their Productions. The Acad Emy For The Promotion Of Learning Which The Emperor ...

Athenaeus
Athenaeus, Of Naucratis In Egypt, Greek Rhetorician And Grammarian Flourished About The End Of The 2nd And The Beginning Of The 3rd Century A.d. Suidas Only Tells Us That He Lived "in The Times Of Marcus"; But The Contempt With Which He Speaks Of Commodus (died 192) Shows That He ...

Athenagoras
Athenagoras, A Christian Apologist Of The 2nd Century A.d., Was, According To An Emendator Of The Paris Codex 451 Of The 11th Century, A Native Of Athens. The Only Sources Of In Formation Regarding Him Are A Short Notice By Philip Of Side, In Pamphylia (c. 420 A.d.), And The ...

Athenodorus
Athenodorus, The Name Of Two Stoic Philosophers Of The 1st Century B.c., Who Have Frequently Been Confounded. (i) Athenodorus Cananites (c. 74 B.c.—a.d. 7), So Called From His Birthplace Canana, Near Tarsus, Was A Friend Of Strabo, From Whom We Derive Our Knowledge Of His Life. (see Also Cic. Ep. ...

Athenry
Athenry, County Galway, Ireland, 14m. Inland From Gal Way On The Great Southern Railway. Pop. (1926) 993. Its Name Is Derived From The Ath-na-riogh, The Ford Of Kings; And It Grew To Importance After The Anglo-norman Invasion As The First Town Of The Burgs And Berminghams. There Are Remains Of ...

Athens
Athens, The Capital Of The Republic Of Greece ('a63vac, Athenae, Modern Colloquial Greek 'a90a), Situated In 23° 44' E. And 37° 58' N., Towards The Southern Cad Of The Central And Princi Pal Plain Of Attica. There Are Various Theories With Regard To The Origin Of The Name. It Is ...

Athens_2
Athens, A City Of Georgia, U.s.a., 73m. E. By N. Of Atlanta, On A Hill Overlooking The Oconee River; The County Seat Of Clarke County. It Is On The Bankhead Highway And Several Other Na Tional Automobile Routes; Has A Municipal Air Port, Epps Field; And Is Served By The ...

Athens_3
Athens, A City Of Ohio, U.s.a., 72m. S.e. Of Columbus, On The Hocking River; The County Seat Of Athens County. It Is On Federal Highway 5o, And Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio, The New York Central, And The Hocking Valley Railways. The Popu Lation In 1930 Was 7,252. ...

Atherstone
Atherstone, Market-town, Warwickshire, England, 102i M. N.w. From London By Railway. Population Of Rural District 21, 736 (1931) . It Lies In The Upper Valley Of The Anker, And Is On The Coventry Canal. Atherstone (aderestone, Edridestone, Edrichestone) Is Men Tioned In Domesday Book Among The Possessions Of Countess Godiva, ...

Atherton Or Chowbent
Atherton Or Chowbent, Urban District, Lancashire, England, 13m. W.n.w. Of Manchester On The L.m.s. Railway. Population (1931) 19,985. The Cotton Factories Account For The Rapid Industrialization Of The District. The Manor Was Held By The Athertons From John's Reign To 1738, When It Passed By Marriage To Robert Gwillym And ...

Athetosis
Athetosis, The Medical Term For Certain Slow, Purposeless Movements Of The Hands And Feet. The Fingers Are Separately Flexed And Extended, Abducted And Adducted In An Entirely Irreg Ular Way. The Hands As A Whole Are Also Moved, And The Arms, Toes And Feet May Be Affected. The Condition Is ...

Athlete
Athlete, In Greek And Roman Antiquities, One Who Con Tended For A Prize (aoxov) In The Games; Now A General Term For Any One Excelling In Physical Strength (gr. A©arlrss; Lat. Athleta). Originally Denoting One Who Took Part In Musical, Equestrian, Gym Nastic Or Any Other Competitions, The Name Became ...

Athletic Sports
Athletic Sports. Various Sports Were Cultivated Many Hundreds Of Years Before The Christian Era By The Egyptians And Several Asiatic Races. The Irish, Too, Had A Great Festival Known As The Lugnasad, Or Tailtin Games, Which Were Celebrated Several Centuries B.c. From Such Ancient Festivals As These The Early Greeks ...

Athlone
Athlone, Urban District, Co. Westmeath, Ireland. Pop. (1926) It Is 78m. W. Of Dublin On The Great Southern Railway. A Castle And A Bridge Over The River Were Built By John De Grey, Bishop Of Norwich And Justiciar Of Ireland In I210. It Became The Seat Of The Presidency Of ...

Athol
Athol, A Town Of Worcester County, In Northern Massa Chusetts, U.s.a. It Lies In The Valley Of Miller's River At An Alti Tude Of 5 7o Ft., And Is Served By The Boston And Albany And The Boston And Maine Railways. The Area Is 35 Sq.m. The Population In 193o ...

Atholl Or Athole
Atholl Or Athole, Mountainous District In North Perth Shire, Scotland, Area About 45osq.m., Bounded On The North By Badenoch, On The North-east By Braemar, On The East By Forfar Shire, On The South By Breadalbane, On The West And North-west By Lochaber. It Is Watered By Tay, Tummel, Garry, Tilt, ...

Athos
Athos, The Most Eastern Of The Three Peninsular Promontor Ies Which Extend, Like The Prongs Of A, Trident, Southwards From The Coast Of Macedonia Into The Aegean Sea. Before The 19th Century The Name Athos Was Usually Confined To The Terminal Peak Of The Promontory, Which Was Itself Known By ...

Athy
Athy, Urban District, County Kildare, Ireland, 45m. S.w. Of Dublin On A Branch Of The Great Southern Railway. Pop. (1926) 3,549. It Is Intersected By The River Barrow, The Crossing Of Which Was Disputed From Earliest Times, And The Name Of The Town Is De Rived From A King Of ...

Atina
Atina, The Name Of Three Ancient Towns Of Italy. (i) A Town (mod. Atena) Of Lucania, Upon The Via Popillia, 7m. N. Of Tegianum, Towards Which An Ancient Road Leads, In The Diano Valley. Walls Of Rough Cyclopean Work May Have Had A Total Extent Of Some Two Miles. There ...

Atitlan Or Santiago De
Atitlan Or Santiago De Atitlan, A Town In The Department Of Solola, Guatemala, On The Southern Shore Of Lake Atitlan. Pop. (1905) About 9,000; (1921) 7,675, Almost All In Dians. Cotton-spinning Is The Chief Industry. Lake Atitlan Is 24m. Long And Iom. Broad, With 64m. Circumference. It Occupies A Crater ...

Atkarsk
Atkarsk, A Port And Railway Junction On The River Medvyeditsa, With A Grain Elevator, In The Saratov Province Of The U.s.s.r. Pop. (1926) 19,326. Lat. 51•52° N. Long. 44.58° E. Atkinson, Edward (1827-1905), American Economist, Was Born At Brookline (mass.) On Feb. I O, 1827. For Many Years He Was ...

Atlanta
Atlanta, The Capital Of Georgia, U.s.a., And Its Largest City, In The North-central Part Of The State, 8 M. From The Chatta Hoochee River; Lying Mostly In Fulton County, Of Which It Is The County Seat, But Partly Also In De Kalb County. It Is On The Dixie And The ...

Atlantes
Atlantes, In Architecture, Male Figures Used As Supports For An Entablature, A Balcony Or Other Architectural Projection, Especially When Such Figures Are Posed As Though They Were Actu Ally Upholding Great Weights, Like Atlas Carrying The World. When Male Figures Resemble The Female Caryatides (q.v.) They Are More Properly Known ...

Atlantic City
Atlantic City, A City Of Atlantic County, New Jersey, U.s.a.; A Famous Seaside Resort, On The Atlantic Ocean, 55m. S.e. Of Philadelphia And I Tom. S.-by-w. Of New York. It Is Served By The Pennsylvania And The Reading Railways, By Trolley (tram) And Motor-coach Lines, And In Summer By Steamboats ...

Atlantic Coast Line Railroad
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, A Virginia Corporation Which Operates In The States Of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida And Alabama. It Is The Outgrowth Of The Gradual Consolidation Of More Than 8o Separate Railroad Corporations And The Construction And Purchase Of A Large Amount Of Additional Mileage ...

Atlantic Coastal Highway
Atlantic Coastal Highway Runs From New York City To Miami, Florida. It Is About 1,600m. In Length And Is For The Most Part Hard Surfaced Or Paved Excepting Between Wilmington, North Carolina, And Savannah, Georgia. This Route Follows The Same General Course As That Of The Atlantic Highway Except Between ...

Atlantic Highway
Atlantic Highway, One Of The First Great American Thoroughfares To Have A Name, Is Notable For The Fact That It Passes Through The Greatest Cities Of The East And Is Surrounded By The Historic Points Of Interest Of The 13 Original States. Extending From Calais, Me., To Miami, Fla., It ...

Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean, The Name Given To The Vast Stretch Of Sea Dividing The Continents Of Europe And Africa From The New World. The Term Is Supposedly Derived From Atlantis, Presumed To Be A Submerged Continent Be Low The Present Ocean. ...

Atlantic Pacific Highway
Atlantic Pacific Highway Extends From New York City To Los Angeles And San Diego, Calif., And Is About 3,000m. Long. In 1928 It Was Hard And Paved For A Large Part Of The Distance From New York To Portsmouth, O., Paved The Full Breadth Of Illinois, And Hard Or Paved ...

Atlantic
Atlantic, A City In The South-west Part Of Iowa, U.s.a., 5om. E. By N. Of Omaha; The Attractive County Seat Of Cass County. It Is At The Intersection Of Highways 71 And 32 And Is Served By The Rock Island Railway. It Has An Intermediate Land Ing Field For Aeroplanes, ...

Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains, The Name For The Mountain Chains More Or Less Parallel To The Coast Of North-west Africa. They Ex Tend From Cape Nun (west) To The Gulf Of Gabes (east), A Dis Tance Of 1,5oom., Traversing Morocco, Algeria And Tunisia. They Are Bounded On The North By The Mediterranean ...

Atlas
Atlas, In Greek Mythology, Son Of The Titan Iapetus And Clymene (or Asia), Brother Of Prometheus. Homer, In The Odyssey (i. 52) Speaks Of Him As "one Who Knows The Depths Of The Whole Sea, And Keeps The Tall Pillars Which Hold Heaven And Earth Asunder." In The First Instance ...

Atmolysis
Atmolysis, A Term Invented By Thomas Graham To Denote The Separation Of A Mixture Of Gases By Taking Advantage Of Their Different Rates Of Diffusion Through A Porous Septum Or Diaphragm. It Is Derived From Gr. Aruos, Vapour : And Ximtv, To Loosen. (see Diffusion.) ...

Atmosphere
Atmosphere. The Term "atmosphere" Usually Refers To The Gaseous Envelope Covering The Surface Of The Earth. The Word Is Derived From The Greek Words Smoke Or Vapour And A4aipa, Globe Or Sphere. The Early Greeks Were Probably The First To Study The Weather In A Regular And Systematic Way And ...

Atmospheric Absorption
Atmospheric Absorption Is A Loss Of Power In Transmission Of Radio Waves Due To A Dissipation In The Atmos Phere. The "fading" Of Radio Waves As Often Observed In Broad Cast Reception Over Long Distances May Be, In Part, The Result Of Variations In The Atmospheric Absorption To Which The ...

Atmospheric Railway
Atmospheric Railway. About 1840-45 Great In Terest Was Excited By A Method Of Propelling Railway Trains Through The Agency Of Atmospheric Pressure. Various Inventors Worked At The Realization Of This Idea. On The System Worked Out In England By Jacob Samuda And S. Clegg A Continuous Pipe Or Main Was ...

Atmospherics
Atmospherics Are Electrical Disturbances Occasioned By Lightning Or Other Electrical Changes In The Atmosphere. They Be Come Manifest In Radio Reception As Disturbing "crackling" Sounds And Are Variously Known As "static," "strays," "x's" Or "noise." ...

Atoll
Atoll (native Name Atollon In The Maldive Islands), A Horse-shoe Or Ring-shaped Reef Of Coral Enclosing A Lagoon. It Is Found In Low Latitudes. Its Form May Be Likened To That Of A Partly Submerged Dish With Pieces Broken From Its Edge, The Ring Of Islands Standing Upon A Conical ...

Atom
Atom, When Ordinarily Used In Chemistry And Physics, Refers To The Smallest Particle Of An Element Which Can Exist Either Alone Or In Combination With Similar Particles Of The Same Or Of A Differ Ent Element. The Atom Also Refers To A Quantity Proportional To The Atomic Weight Of An ...

Atomic Constitution And The
Atomic Constitution And The Periodic Table Soon After The Discovery Of The Electron It Was Recognized That The Relationships Between The Physical And Chemical Properties Of The Elements Expressed In The Periodic Table Point Towards A Group-structure Of The Electronic Distribution In The Atom. Fun Damental Work On These Lines ...

Atomic Number
Atomic Number, In Chemistry, Is The Ordinal Number Of An Element In The Series Of The Elements Arranged In Accordance With The Periodic Law (q.v.). The Chemical Elements Were Formerly Arranged In The Periodic Classification In Ascending Order Of Their Atomic Weights, But This Arrangement Led To Three Pairs Of ...

Atomic Weights
Atomic Weights. Atomic Weights Have Been Defined As "the Relative Weights Of The Atoms Of Chemical Elements Referred To A Common Standard." This Statement Still Serves As The Simplest Indication Of The Fundamental Idea Involved, Although It Now Needs Amplification. The Concrete Development Of The Idea Was First Effected In ...

Atonality
Atonality, A Modern Musical Term Which Has Been Adopted In Connection With That Class Of Composition Which Is Not Written In Any Definite Key And Hence Has No Defined Tonality (see Harmony.) ...

Atonement
Atonement. To "atone" Is To Make "at One," And This Is The Actual Derivation Of The Word. A Doctrine Of Atonement Makes The Following Assumptions. (a) There Is A Natural Relation Of Communion Between Man And God. (b) This Communion Has Been Broken Through Man's Fault. Early Conceptions Of This ...

Atouts
Atouts, The 22 Emblematic Cards, Numbered From I To 21, And Including One Unnumbered Card, Used In The Ancient Game Of Tarrochino Or Tarots. (see Cards, Playing.) Atouts Is Also The Regular Modern French Word For Trumps At Auction And Contract Bridge. ...

Atrato
Atrato, A River Of Western Colombia, South America, Rising On The Slopes Of The Western Cordilleras, In 5° 36' N. Lat., And Flowing Almost Due North To The Gulf Of Uraba, Or Darien, Where It Forms A Large Delta. Its Length Is About 400m., But Owing To The Heavy Rainfall ...

Atrek
Atrek, A River Which Rises In Lat. 37° 1 O' N., Long. 59° E., In The Mountains Of The R_orth-east Of The Persian Province Of Khora San, And Flows West Long The Borders Of Persia And The Turk Menistan S.s.r. (q.v.). After A Course Of 35om., It Enters The South-eastern ...

Atreus
Atreus, In Greek Legend, Son Of Pelops And Hippodameia, Elder Brother Of Thyestes And King Of Mycenae. His Wife Aerope Was Seduced By Thyestes, Who Was Driven From Mycenae. To Avenge Himself, Thyestes Sent Pleisthenes (atreus's Son Whom Thyestes Had Brought Up As His Own) To Kill Atreus, But Pleisthenes ...

Atri
Atri, Abruzzi, Italy, Province Of Teramo, 18m. W. Of Teramo Station On The Railway From Ancona To Foggia, And 18m. Due E.s.e. Of Teramo, On The Site Of The Ancient Hadria (q.v.) . Pop. (1931), 10,366 (town) ; 14,202 (commune). Its Romanesque Gothic Cathedral (1285-1305) Is Remarkably Fine, Though The ...

Atrium
Atrium, Originally The Central Room Of A Roman House In Which Was Placed The Hearth. As This Room Had A Hole In The Roof To Let Out The Smoke The Atrium Was In Essence A Small Court, And When With The Developing Complexity Of The Roman House The Kitchen And ...

Atropatene Or Media Atropatene
Atropatene Or Media Atropatene, Anciently The District Now Occupied By The Azerbaijan Republic And The Per Sian Province Of The Same Name. It Formed Part Of The Ancient Persian Empire And The Empire Of Alexander, But In The Confusion Following The Latter's Death, Secured For A Considerable Time The Rank ...

Atrophy
Atrophy, A Medical Term Implying Wasting From Some Interference With Healthy Nutrition. Waste And Repair Are Constant Processes In The Animal Body ; When They Balance, The Volume Of The Body And Of Its Constituent Parts Remains Constant; When Repair Is Greater Than Waste There Is Growth Or Hypertrophy; When ...

Atropine
Atropine, A Poisonous, Crystalline Alkaloid (see Alka Loids) Widely Used In Medicine. It Does Not Normally Occur In Nature, But Is Derived From Laevo-hyoscyamine And Laevo-hyoscine (see Hyoscyamine And Hyoscine), Found In Various Plants Of The Nightshade Family, As Belladonna (atropa), Henbane (hyo Scyamus), Thorn-apple (datura) And Scopolia. Pure Atropine, ...

Atropos
Atropos, In Greek Mythology, The Eldest Of The Three Fates. Her Name, The "unalterable," Indicates Her Function, That Of Ren Dering The Decisions Of Her Sisters Irreversible Or Immutable. At Ropos Is Most Frequently Represented With Scales, A Sun-dial Or A Cutting Instrument, The "abhorred Shears" With Which She "slits ...

Atroscine
Atroscine : See Hvoscine. ...

Attachment
Attachment, In Law, A Process From A Court Of Record, Awarded By The Justices At Their Discretion, On A Bare Suggestion, Or On Their Own Knowledge, And Properly Grantable In Cases Of Contempt. It Differs From Arrest (q.v.), In That He Who Arrests A Man Carries Him To A Person ...

Attack
Attack Is A Word Used In Various Senses In Musical Termi Nology. Thus In The Form Attacca (ital.) It Is A Direction To Pro Ceed Without Pause To The Next Movement Or Section Of A Com Position. "good Attack" Applied To A Performance Signifies A Performance Characterized By Spirit, Decision ...

Attainder
Attainder, In English Law, Was The Immediate And In Separable Consequence From The Common Law Upon The Sentence Of Death. When It Was Clear Beyond All Dispute That The Criminal Was No Longer Fit To Live He Was Called Attaint, And Could Not, Before The Evidence Act 1843, Be A ...

Attaleia
Attaleia, An Ancient City Of Pamphylia, Which Derived Its Name From Attalus Ii., King Of Pergamum; The Modern Adalia (q.v.). It Was Important As The Nearest Seaport To The Rich Dis Tricts Of South-west Phrygia. A Much-frequented "half-sea" Route Led Through It To The Lycus And Meander Valleys, And So ...

Attalus
Attalus, The Name Of Three Kings Of Ancient Pergamum. ...

Attar Of Roses
Attar Of Roses, A Perfume Prepared By Macerating Or Distilling Roses, Mainly The Rosa Damascena. The Essential Oil Obtained Is A Beautiful, Precious And Very Costly Material, Costing As Much As £50 A Pound. Some 25o Lbs. Of Roses Are Needed To Make A Single Ounce Of The Attar, Which ...

Attempt
Attempt, In Law, An Act Done With Intent To Commit A Crime, And Forming One Of A Series Of Acts Which Would Constitute Its Actual Commission If It Were Not Interrupted. Mere Intention To Commit A Crime Is Not Sufficient, And An Attempt Must Proceed To An Overt Act, But ...

Attention
Attention. The Term Is Employed In Psychology Some Times. In A Wider, And Sometimes In A Narrower Sense. In The Narrower Sense, Which Coincides More Or Less With The Popular Use Of The Term, Attention Means That Mental Process By Which Some Object Comes To Be Apprehended More Clearly Or ...

Attenuation
Attenuation, In Radio Communication, Is The Reduction In Power Of A Wave Or A Current With Increasing Distance From The Source Of Transmission. Attenuation Of An Electric Current Or Wave Is Ordinarily The Result Of The Absorption Or Loss Of Power In Certain Elements Of The Circuit Or Transmission Path. ...