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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Attestation
Attestation, The Verification Of A Deed, Will, Or Other Instrument By The Signature To It Of A Witness Or Witnesses, Who Subscribe To A Memorandum, To The Effect That It Was Signed Or Executed In Their Presence, Showing That At The Execution Of The Document There Was Present Some Disinterested ...

Atthis
Atthis (an Adjective Meaning "attic"), The Name Given To A Monograph Or Special Treatise On The Religious And Political His Tory, Antiquities And Topography Of Attica And Athens. During The 4th And 3rd Centuries B.c., A Class Of Writers Arose, Who, Mak Ing These Subjects Their Particular Study, Were Called ...

Attic Base
Attic Base, The Term Given In Architecture To Any Column Base (q.v.) Consisting Of An Upper And Lower Torus (q.v.) Sepa Rated By A Scotia (q.v.). Used First By The Greeks In Connection With The Ionic Order, It Became The Favourite Base Of The Romans And Is Common In Byzantine, ...

Attic
Attic, In Architecture, Any Portion Of Wall Raised Above The Main Cornice, Utilized By The Romans Principally For Decorative Purposes, Inscriptions, Etc., As In Triumphal Arches. It Was De Veloped In The Renaissance As An Important Part Of A Façade, Fre Quently Enclosing An Additional Storey, The Windows Of Which ...

Attica
Attica, A Triangular District Of Ancient Greece, With The Chain Of Mts. Cithaeron And Parnes As Its Base And Sunium As Its Apex. It Is Washed On Two Sides By The Aegean Sea, And The Coast Is Broken Up Into Small Bays And Harbours, Exposed To The South Wind. Attica ...

Attila
Attila (d. 453), King Of The Huns, Became King In 433 On The Death Of His Uncle Roua. In The First Eight Years Of His Reign Attila Was Chiefly Occupied In The Wars With Other Barbarian Tribes, By Which He Made Himself Virtually Supreme In Central Europe. His Own Special ...

Attilio Ariosti
Ariosti, Attilio (c. 166o), Operatic Composer, Was Born At Bologna And Brought Out His First Opera Dafne At Venice In 1686. Later He Went To Germany And Was Hofkapellmeister At Berlin In 1698. Subsequently He Passed Many Years In London, Producing There A Number Of Operas, And Becoming In 1720, ...

Attis Or Atys
Attis Or Atys, A Deity Worshipped In Phrygia, And Later Throughout The Roman Empire, In Conjunction With The Great Mother Of The Gods. Their Worship Included The Celebration Of Mysteries Annually On The Return Of The Spring Season. Attis Was Confused With Pan, Sabazios (q.v.) , Men And Adonis, And ...

Attitude
Attitude. The Term Is Mostly Used In Psychology To Denote A Certain Disposition Or Preparedness To Attend To Certain Objects Or Certain Parts Of Objects Rather Than Others. This Is One Of The Most Important Subjective Conditions Of Attention (q.v.). Its Influence Manifests Itself Not Only In Waking Life But ...

Attleboro
Attleboro, A City Of Bristol County In South-east Massa Chusetts, U.s.a., I2m. N.e. Of Providence. It Is Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. The Area Is 28 Sq. Miles. The Population Was 19,731 In 1920, Of Whom 4,723 Were Foreign-born; And 21,769 In 193o. The 143 ...

Attock
Attock, A Town And Fort In British India, In The Punjab, 47m. By Rail From Peshawar, And On The East Bank Of The Indus. The Indus Is Here Crossed By The Military And Trade Route Through The Khyber Pass Into Afghanistan. The River Runs Past Attock In A Deep, Rapid ...

Attorney
Attorney, In English Law, In Its Widest Sense, Any Substi Tute Or Agent Appointed To Act In "the Turn, Stead Or Place Of An Other." Attorneys Are Of Two Kinds, Attorneys-in-fact And Attor Neys-at-law. The Former Is Simply An Agent, The Extent Of Whose Capacity To Act Is Bounded Only ...

Attornment
Attornment, In English Real Property Law, The Acknowl Edgment Of A New Lord By The Tenant On The Alienation Of Land. Under The Feudal System It Was Always Considered Unreason Able To The Tenant To Subject Him To A New Lord Without His Own Approval, And It Thus Came About ...

Attrition
Attrition, A Rubbing Away; A Term Used In Pathology And Geology (lat. Attritio, From Attero, "rub Away"). Theologians Have Also Distinguished "attrition" From "contrition" In The Matter Of Sin, As An Imperfect Stage In The Process Of Repentance; At Trition Being Due To Servile Fear Of The Consequences Of Sin, ...

Atypical Children
Atypical Children. Atypical Means Irregular, Or Not Conformable To Type. Applied To Children, It Usually Indicates Those Who Are Below Normal Mentally, Or Who Are Suffering From More Or Less Abnormal Conditions Of The Mind. (see Mental. Deficiency.) "atypical Schools" Are Maintained In Washington, D.c., And Other American Cities, For ...

Aubade
Aubade (a French Word From Cube, The Dawn), The Dawn Song Of The Troubadours Of Provence, Developed By The Minne Singers (q.v.) Of Germany Into The Tagelied, The Song Of The Part Ing At Dawn Of Lovers At The Warning Of The Watchman, And Now Applied, Analogously With Its Counterpart ...

Aubagne
Aubagne, A Town Of South-eastern France, In The Depart Ment Of Bouches-du-rhone, 11m. E. Of Marseille. Pop. (1931), 6,628. The Railway To Toulon Here Turns South And Reaches The Coast Through Two Tunnels Under A Transverse Ridge. Earthenware Is Made And Fruit And Vines Are Cultivated. A Fountain Commem Orates ...

Aube
Aube, Department, France, South-east Of Paris, Including The Courses Of The Seine And Aube From Near The Edge Of The Jurassic Rocks Of Cote D'or To The Lowland In Which Aube, Seine, Yonne And Loing Unite. Its North Boundary Is Largely An Old Frontier Zone, E.g., Between Remi And Senones ...

Aubenas
Aubenas, South-east France, Department Of Ardeche, 19m. S.w. Of Privas By Road. Pop. 4,33 Situated On The Slope Of A Hill, On The Right Bank Of The Ardeche, Its Streets Are Crooked And Narrow. It Has A Castle Of The 13th And 16th Cen Turies. Institutions Include A Tribunal And ...

Aubergine Or Egg Plant
Aubergine Or Egg Plant (solanum Melongena), A Tender Annual Widely Cultivated In The Warmer Parts Of The Earth, And In France And Italy, For The Sake Of Its Fruits, Which Are Eaten As A Vegetable (diminutive Of Fr. Auberge, A Variant Of Alberge, A Kind Of Peach). The Seed Should ...

Aubervilliers
Aubervilliers, Town Of Northern France, In The De Partment Of Seine, On The Canal St. Denis, 2m. From The Right Bank Of The Seine And Im. North Of The Fortifications Of Paris. Pop. It Manufactures Cardboard, Colours, Chemical Products, Perfumery, Etc. During The Middle Ages And Till Modern Times Aubervilliers ...

Aubin
Aubin, A Town Of Southern France, In The Department Of Aveyron On The Enne, 3o M. N.w. Of Rodez. Pop. (1931) Aubin Is The Centre Of Important Coal-mines Worked In The Middle Ages, And Also Has Iron-mines And Marble Quarries. Sheep-breeding Is Important In The Vicinity. ...

Aubretia
Aubretia, A Genus Of Small Plants Of The Family Cruci Ferae, Frequently Cultivated In Rock-gardens. The Flowers Are Purple, And The Plants Are Herbaceous And Of Low Habit Of Growth. They Are Natives Of The Mountainous Regions Of Greece, Italy, Etc. ...

Auburn
Auburn, A City Of North-eastern Indiana, U.s.a., On Federal Highway 27, 23m. N. By E. Of Ft. Wayne; The County Seat Of Dekalb County, And The Centre Of A Great Variety Of Manufactur Ing Industries. It Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio, The Indiana Service Corporation, The New York ...

Auburn_2
Auburn, A City In The South-west Part Of Maine, U.s.a., On The Androscoggin River, Opposite Lewiston, 32m. N. By E. Of Portland ; The Shire-town Of Androscoggin County. It Is Served By The Grand Trunk And The Maine Central Railways, And By An Electric Line To Portland. The Population Was ...

Auburn_3
Auburn, The County-seat And The Only City Of Cayuga County (n.y.), U.s.a., 25m. S.w. Of Syracuse, On An Outlet Of Owasco Lake, Which Lies Two Miles To The South-east. It Is On The Yellowstone Trail ; And Is Served By The Lehigh Valley And The New York Central Railways. Its ...

Auburn_4
Auburn, Ruddy-brown ; The Meaning Has Changed From The Original One Of Brownish-white Or Light Yellow (low Lat. Alburnus, Whitish, Light-coloured), Probably Through The Intensi Fication Of The Idea Of Brown Caused By The Early Spelling "abron" Or "abrown." ...

Aubusson
Aubusson, A Town Of France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Creuse, On The River Creuse, 24m. S.e. Of Gueret By Rail. Pop. (1931) 5,600. It Has Celebrated Manufac Tories Of Carpets, Etc., Employing Over 2,000 Workmen, The Artistic Standard Of Which Is Maintained By A National School ...

Aucassin And Nicolette
Aucassin And Nicolette, Now Considered The Most Charming Of All Mediaeval Love Romances, Was Not Popular In Its Own Day And Has Survived In A Single Manuscript In The Biblio Theque Nationale At Paris. The Story Resembles That Of The Far More Popular Floire Et Blancliefleur (q.v.) And, Like It, ...

Auch
Auch, South-west France, Capital Of The Department Of Gers, On The Southern Railway, South Of Agen. Pop. (1931) 8,987. It Consists Of A Lower And Upper Quarter United By Several Flights Of Steps. The Streets Are Steep And Narrow, But There Is An 18th Century Promenade In The Upper Town. ...

Auchterarder
Auchterarder, Police Burgh, Perthshire, Scotland, 134m. S.w. Of Perth By The L.m.s. Railway, On Ruthven Water, A Right-hand Tributary Of The Earn. Pop. (1931) 2,254. The Chief Manufactures Are Those Of Tartans And Other Woollens. It Obtained A Charter From The Earl Of Strathearn (early 13th Century), Afterwards Became A ...

Auchtermuchty
Auchtermuchty, Royal And Municipal Burgh And Mar Ket Town Of Fifeshire, Scotland, About 9m. W. By S. Of Cupar. Pop. 1,253. (see Also Fifeshire.) ...

Auckland Islands
Auckland Islands, A Group Of Islands In The Southern Pacific Ocean In So° 24' S., 166° 7' E., Discovered In I8o6 By Capt. Briscoe. The Islands Are Of Volcanic Origin, With Fertile Soil And Are Forest Clad. They Were Granted To A Private Company By The British Government As A ...

Auckland
Auckland, The Largest City Of New Zealand, And A Thriving Sea-port, On The East Coast Of New Zealand ; Capital Of The Province Of Its Name. Population (192 7) 202,400. It Is Beautifully Situated At The Mouth Of An Arm Of Hauraki Gulf, The Waitemata Harbour, And Only 6m. From ...

Auction Bridge
Auction Bridge, This Originated In India. Three Mem Bers Of The Indian Civil Service, Mr. F. Roe ("john Doe"), Mr. Hudson, And Another, All Keen Bridge Players, Were Staying At A Far Away Hill Station, Where It Was Quite Impossible To Find A Fourth. They Played "cut Throat" For A ...

Auction Pitch
Auction Pitch, A Card Game (a Variation Of All Fours, Q. V.) For From Four To Seven Players. A Complete Pack Is Used. All The Players Cut For Deal, The Highest Winning. Ace Is The Highest Card, Deuce The Lowest. The Dealer Shuffles, And His Opponent At The Right Cuts. ...

Auctions And Auctioneers
Auctions And Auctioneers. An Auction (lat. Auctio, Increase) Is A Proceeding At Which People Are Invited To Compete For The Purchase Of Property By Successive Offers Of Ad Vancing Sums. The Advantages Of Conducting A Sale In This Way Are Obvious, And We Naturally Find That Auctions Are Of Great ...

Aucuba
Aucuba, The Japanese Name For A Small Genus Of The Dog Wood Family (cornaceae) . The Familiar Japanese Laurel Of Gar Dens And Shrubberies Is Aucuba Japonica. It Bears Male And Female Flowers On Distinct Plants; The Red Berries Often Last Till The Next Season's Flowers Appear. There Are Numerous ...

Audaeus Or Audius
Audaeus Or Audius, A Church Reformer Of The 4th Century, By Birth A Mesopotamian. He Was Banished Into Scythia, Where He Worked Successfully Among The Goths. The Audaeans Cele Brated The Feast Of Easter On The Same Day As The Jewish Passover, And They Were Also Charged With Attributing To ...

Aude
Aude, Department Of South France Formed In 1790 From Part Of The Old Province Of Languedoc. Area 2,448sq.m. Pop. (1931) 296,880. It Consists Of The East Side Of The Carcassonne Gap Be Tween The Montagne Noire As An Outer Rampart Of The Plateau Central And The Outer Ramparts Of The ...

Audefroi Le Batard
Audefroi Le Batard, French Trouvere, Flourished At The Beginning Of The 13th Century And Was Born At Arras. The Seigneur De Nesles, To Whom Some Of His Songs Are Addressed, Is Probably The Chatelain Of Bruges Who Joined The Crusade Of 1200. Audefroi Was The Author Of At Least Five ...

Aude_2
Aude, River Of South-west France, Rising In The Eastern Pyre Nees Near The P. Carlitte And Flowing Into The Gulf Of Lions. The Upper Course, Except Near Axat, Is Through Deep Gorges. Below Carcassonne Its Course, From North, Turns Due East, Skirting The Corbieres, To Enter The Mediterranean Some E.n.e. ...

Audience
Audience. In A Technical Sense, The Term Is Applied To The Right Of Access To The Sovereign Enjoyed By The Peers Of The Realm Individually And By The House Of Commons Collectively. More Particularly It Means The Ceremony Of The Admission Of Ambassadors, Envoys, Or Others To An Interview With ...

Audio Frequencies
Audio Frequencies, In Radio Communication, The Frequencies Corresponding To Normally Audible Sound Waves. The Upper Limit Ordinarily Lies Between Io,000 And 20,000 Cycles. The Lower Limit Is About 16 Cycles. ...

Audio Frequency Transformer
Audio-frequency Transformer, A Trans Former Used With Electric Currents Of Audio-frequency. An Ex Ample Of Such Use Is In The Audio-frequency Amplifier Forming Part Of A Radio Receiving Set. ...

Audit Ale
Audit Ale, A Special Quality Of Strong Ale Brewed At Certain Colleges In The English Universities Of Oxford And Cam Bridge, So Called Because It Was Drunk At The Feasts Held' On Audit-day. ...

Audit And Auditor
Audit And Auditor. An Audit Is Examination Of The Accounts Kept By The Financial Officers Of A State, Public Corpo Rations And Bodies, Or Private Persons, And The Certifying Of Their Accuracy. In The British Isles The Public Accounts Were Audited From Very Early Times, Though Until The Reign Of ...

Audit Bureau Of Circulations
Audit Bureau Of Circulations, A Organization Of Advertisers, Advertising Agencies, And Publishers In The United States And Canada. Organized In 1914. Headquar Ters, Chicago, Illinois. The Objects Of The Bureau Are Described In The By-laws As Follows: To Issue Standardized Statements Of The Circulation Of Publisher Members; To Verify The ...

Audition
Audition, Also Known As Auditory Sensation, Is The Principle Of The Division Of Sensations Of Hearing, According To Which Two Great Groups Are Formed. The First Is That Of Sensations Of Tone, Which Are Musical And Smooth; The Second That Of Sensations Of Noise, Which Are Abrupt, Harsh And Rough. ...

Audran Girard Or Girard
Girard Or Girard, Audran, Engraver, Was The Third Son Of Claude Audran, And Was Born At Lyons In 164o. He Was Taught The First Principles Of Design And Engraving By His Father, And Continued His Studies In Paris. He There, In 1666, Engraved For Le Brun "constantine's Battle With Maxentius," ...

Audran
Audran, The Name Of A Family Of French Artists And En Gravers. The First Who Devoted Himself To The Art Of Engraving Was Claude Audran, Born 1597, And The Last Was Benoit, Claude's Great-grandson, Who Died In 1772. The Two Most Distinguished Members Of The Family Are Gerard And Jean. ...

Audubon
Audubon, A Rapidly Growing Residential Borough Of Cam Den County, New Jersey, U.s.a., 5m. S.e. Of Camden, On The Atlantic City Railway (reading System) And Federal Highway 3o. The Population Was 5,343 In 1910; 4,740 In 1920 (9o% Native White), And Was 8,904 In 1930 By The Federal Census. Wire, ...

Aue
Aue, Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Saxony At The Con Fluence Of The Mulde And Schwarzwasser, 21m. S.w. Of Chem Nitz. Pop. It Has The Erzgebirge In The Background To The Southward. It Manufactures Machinery And Metal Objects. ...

Auerbach
Auerbach, A Town In The South-west Of The Land Of Saxony, Lying 1,5ooft. Above Sea Level Under The Erzgebirge, East Of Plauen. Pop. It Produces Embroidery, Carpets And Textiles. ...

Aufgesang
Aufgesang, A Division Of The Verses Or Stanzas Of The Ancient German Minnelieder. The Stanza Was Usually Divided Into Three Sections. The Two First, Which Were Similar In Con Struction, Formed The Introduction Or Au F Gesang, And The Third Was Known As The Abgesang Or Conclusion. The Form Is ...

Aufidena
Aufidena, Ancient City Of The Samnites Caraceni, Just North Of Modern Alfedena, Italy, A Station On The Railway Between Sulmona And Isernia, 37m. From The Latter. Its Remains Are De Scribed By L. Mariani ;n Monumenti Dei Lincei ( 190 I) , 225 Seq. ; Cf. Notizie Degli Scavi (1900, ...

Augeias Or Augias Augeas
Augeas, Augeias Or Augias, In Greek Legend, A Son Of Helios The Sun-god, And King Of The Epeians In Elis. He Possessed An Immense Wealth Of Herds, Including 12 White Bulls, Sacred To Helios. Eurystheus Imposed Upon Heracles The Task Of Clearing Out All His Stalls Unaided In One Day. ...

Aughrim Or Aghrim
Aughrim Or Aghrim, A Small Village In Co. Galway, Ireland, 4m. W. By S. Of Ballinasloe. It Is Rendered Memorable By The Decisive Victory Gained Here On July 12, 1691, By The Forces Of William Iii. Under General Ginkel, Over Those Of James Ii. Under The French General St. Ruth, ...

Augite
Augite, An Important Rock-forming Mineral Of The Pyroxene (q.v.) Group. The Name Is Now Applied To Aluminous Pyroxenes Of The Monoclinic Series, Which Are Dark-green, Brown Or Black In Colour. The Habit Of Well-shaped Crystals In Lavas Is Simple And Very Characteristic, Consisting Of The Forms A (zoo), B (oio), ...

Augment
Augment, In Sanskrit And Greek Grammar The Vowel Pre Fixed To Indicate The Past Tenses Of A Verb; In Greek Grammar It Is Called Syllabic, When Only The E Is Prefixed; Temporal, When It Causes An Initial Vowel In The Verb To Become A Diphthong Or Long Vowel, (lat. Augere, ...

Augsburg
Augsburg, A City And Episcopal See, Bavaria, Germany, Chief Town Of The District Of Swabia. Pop. (1933) 176,631. Lying On A Plateau 1,5oof T. Above Sea, Between The Rivers Wertach And Lech, Which Unite Below The City, It Consists Of An Upper And A Lower Town, The Old Jakob Suburb ...

Augurs
Augurs, In Ancient Rome, Members Of A Religious College Whose Duty It Was To Observe And Interpret The Signs (auspices) Of Approval Or Disapproval Sent By The Gods In Reference To Any Proposed Undertaking. The Augures Were Originally Called Auspices, But, While Auspex Fell Into Disuse And Was Replaced By ...

August
August (originally Sextilis), The Sixth Month In The Pre Julian Roman Year, Which Received Its Present Name From The Emperor Augustus. The Preceding Month, Quintilis, Had Been Called "july" After Julius Caesar, And The Emperor Chose August To Be Renamed In His Own Honour Because In That Month He Had ...

Augusta Bagiennorum
Augusta Bagiennorum, Chief Town Of Ligurian Bagienni, Identical With Modern Bene Vagienna, On The Upper Course Of The Tanaro, About 35m. S. Of Turin, Italy. It Remained A Tribal Centre In The Reorganization And Replanning Under Augus Tus, Whose Name It Bears.. There Are Remains Of Public Buildings, In Concrete ...

Augusta Praetoria Salassorum
Augusta Praetoria Salassorum (mod. Aosta, Q.v.), Ancient Town Of Italy, District Of The Salassi, Founded By Augustus About 24 B.c. On The Site Of The Camp Of Varro Murena, Who Subdued This Tribe In 25 B.c., And Settled With 3,00o Praeto Rians. Pliny Calls It The Last Town Of Italy ...

Augusta
Augusta, A Seaport Of Sicily, 19m. N. Of Syracuse By Rail. Pop. (1931) 22,68o (town); 23,569 (commune). It Occupies A Part Of The Former Peninsula Of Xiphonia, Now A Small Island, Connected With The Mainland By A Bridge. Founded By The Emperor Frederick Ii. (1232), It Was Almost Destroyed By ...

Augustan History
Augustan History, The Name Given To A Collection Of The Biographies Of The Roman Emperors From Hadrian To Carinus (a.d. The Work, Which, As We Have It, Is Mutilated, The Preface And A Few Lines Being Lost, Professes To Have Been Written During The Reigns Of Diocletian And Constantine, And ...

Augusta_2
Augusta, A City Of Georgia, U.s.a., 171m. E. By S. Of Atlanta, At The Head Of Navigation On The Savannah River; The County-seat Of Richmond County. It Is On Federal Highways I, 25, And 78; Is A Pivoted Point For Other South-eastern Roads; And Is Served By The Southern, The ...

Augusta_3
Augusta, The Capital Of Maine, U.s.a., And The Shire-town Of Kennebec County, At The Head Of Navigation On The Kennebec River, 6om. N.e. Of Portland. It Is Served By The Maine Central Railroad, And In Every Direction Radiate Hard-surfaced Highways, And Historic Trails. The Population In 1920 Was 14,114, Of ...

Augustinian Canons
Augustinian Canons, A Religious Order In The Roman Catholic Church, Called Also Austin Canons, Canons Regular, And In England Black Canons, Because Their Cassock And Mantle Were Black, Though They Wore A White Surplice ; Elsewhere The Colour Of The Habit Varied Considerably. The Lateran Synod Of Ios9 Had Urgently ...

Augustinian Hermits Or Friars
Augustinian Hermits Or Friars, A Religious Order In The Roman Catholic Church, Sometimes (but Improperly) Called Black Friars (see Friars). In The First Half Of The 13th Century There Were In Central Italy Various Small Congregations Of Hermits Living According To Different Rules. The Need Of Co Ordinating And Organizing ...

Augustinians
Augustinians, In The Roman Catholic Church, A Generic Name For Religious Orders That Follow The So-called "rule Of St. Augustine." The Chief Of These Orders Are : Augustinian Canons (q.v.), Augustinian Hermits (q.v.) Or Friars, Premonstratensians (q.v.), Trinitarians (q.v.), Gilbertines (see Gilbert Of Sempring Ham, St.). ...

Augustow
Augustow, A Small Town Of Poland, In The Province Of Bialystok, 5om. North Of The Town Of That Name, On A Canal (65m.) Connecting The Vistula With The Niemen. It Was Founded In By Sigismund Ii. (augustus), And Is Laid Out In A Very Regular Manner, With A Spacious Market-place. ...

Augustus I
Augustus I. (1526-1586), Elector Of Saxony, Was The Younger Son Of Henry, Duke Of Saxony, And Consequently Belonged To The Albertine Branch Of The Wettin Family. Born At Freiburg On July 31 1526, And Brought Up As A Lutheran, He Received A Good Education At The University Of Leipzig. He ...

Augustus Ii
Augustus Ii. , "the Strong," King Of Poland, Second Son Of John George Iii., Elector Of Saxony, Was Born At Dresden May 12 167o. Upon The Death Of His Brother, John George Iv., In 1694, He Became Elector Of Saxony As Frederick Augustus I., And In 1695 And 1696 Led ...

Augustus Iii
Augustus Iii., King Of Poland (1696-1763) And, As Fred Erick Augustus Ii., Elector Of Saxony, The Only Legitimate Son Of Augustus Ii. ("the Strong"), Was Born At Dresden On Oct. 17 1696, And Died There On Oct. 5 1763. He Followed His Father's Example By Joining The Roman Catholic Church ...

Augustus
Augustus, The Title Given By The Roman Senate, On Jan. 17, 27 B.c., To Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (63 B.c.—a.d. 14), Or, As He Was Originally Designated, Gaius Octavius, In Recognition Of His Eminent Services To The State (mon. Anc. 34), And Borne By Him As The First Of The ...

Augustusbad
Augustusbad, A Watering-place Of Germany, So M. E. From Dresden, Close To Radeberg, In A Pleasant Valley. It Has Five Saline Chalybeate Springs, Used Both For Drinking And Bathing. ...

Aulard
Aulard, Francois Victor Alphonse 1928), French Historian, And One Of The Leading Authorities On The Revolutionary Period In France, Was Born At Montbron In Charente On July 19, 1849. Having Obtained The Degree Of Doctor Of Letters In 1877 With A Latin Thesis Upon C. Asinius Pollio And A French ...

Aulic Council
Aulic Council (reichshofrat), An Organ Of The Holy Roman Empire, Originally Intended For Executive Work, But Acting Chiefly As A Judicature, Which Worked From 1497 To 18o6. In The Early Middle Ages The Emperor Had Already His Consiliarii; But His Council Was A Fluctuating Body Of Personal Advisers. In The ...

Aulis
Aulis, An Ancient Town In Boeotia On The Euripus, On A Rocky Peninsula Between Two Bays, Near The Modern Village Of Vathy, About 3m. S. Of Chalcis. It Was The Traditional Starting-place Of The Greek Fleet Before The Trojan War, The Scene Of The Sacrifice Of Iphigenia. ...

Aulnoy
Aulnoy (or Aunoy), Marie Catherine Le Jumel De Barneville De La Motte, Baronne D' (c. 1650-1705) , French Author, Was Born At Barneville Near Bourg-achard (eure). She Married On March 8 1666, Francois De La Motte, A Gentleman In The Service Of Cesar, Duc De Ven Dome, Who Became Baron ...

Aulos
Aulos, In Greek Antiquities, A Class Of Woodwind Instru Ments With Single Or Double Reed Mouthpiece And Either Cylindrical Or Conical Bore, Thus Corresponding To Both Oboe And Clarinet. (gr. Ai,xos ; Lat. Tibia; Egyptian Hieroglyphic, Ma It; Mediaeval Equivalents, Shalm, Chalumeau, Schalmei, Hautbois.) In Its Widest Sense Aulos Was ...

Aulus Licinius Archias
Archias, Aulus Licinius, Greek Poet, Was Born At Antioch In Syria 120 B.c. In 102 B.c. He Came To Rome, Where He Obtained The Patronage Of Lucullus, Whose Gentile Name He Assumed. In 93 He Received The Citizenship Of Heracleia, One Of The Federate Towns, And Indirectly, By The Provisions ...

Aumale
Aumale, A Town Of Northern France, In The Department Of Seine-inf Erieure, On The Left Bank Of The Bresle, 47m. N.e. Of Rouen. The Church Is An Interesting Building Of The 16th And 17th Centuries And Has A Portal Attributed To Jean Goujon. The Town Has Glass And Steel Works. ...

Aumont
Aumont, The Name Of A F Amily, Which Played An Important Part In French History. Jean D'aumont, Lieutenant-general To The King Of France In The Government Of Burgundy, Rendered Impor Tant Services To Louis Xii. And Francis I. Another Jean D'au Mont (d. 1595), A Marshal Of France And Knight ...

Auncel
Auncel, A Balance Formerly Used In England; Now, In Dia Lectical Use, A Term For The Weighing Of Meat By Hand Instead Of By Scales (from The Anglo-fr. Auncelle, A Confused Derivation From L'auncelle, Ital. Lancella, A Little Balance). ...

Aundh
Aundh, A Native State Of India In The Deccan Division Of Bombay, Ranking As One Of The Satara Jagirs. Its Area Is 5o 1 Sq.m. ; Its Population Was 76,507 In 1931, Showing An Increase Of 18% In The Decade. No Tribute Is Paid. The Chief, Whose Title Is Pant ...

Aunis
Aunis Was Formerly A Province (pays) Of France, Bounded On The North By Poitou, On The West By The Atlantic, And On The South And East By Saintonge. Its Principal Town Was At First Chatelaillon, And Later La Rochelle ; The Latter City Was Founded In 1117 By Duke Guillaume ...

Aunt Sally
Aunt Sally, An English Game Popular At Fairs, Race Courses And Summer Resorts. It Consists In Throwing Wooden Or Leather-covered Balls At Grotesquely Dressed Puppets, Generally A Female Figure Called "aunt Sally," With The Object Of Smashing A Clay Pipe, Inserted Either In The Mouth Or Forehead Of The Puppet. ...

Aura
Aura, Formerly The Supposed Ethereal Emanation From A Volatile Substance ; Applied Later To The "electrical Aura," Or Air Current Caused By Electrical Discharge; In Epilepsy (q.v.) To One Of Its Premonitory Symptoms; And In Spiritualism (q.v.) To A Light Associated With The Presence Of Spirit-forms. See Aureola; Hysteria. ...

Auramine
Auramine, A Yellow Synthetic Dye. There Are Several Dif Ferent Methods Of Preparation. It Crystallizes From Water Or Al Cohol In Yellow Scales, Melts At 267° C, And Carbonizes Without Previous Fusion At C. It Decomposes When Heated As An Aqueous Solution, Above 70° C, And When Treated With Acids. ...

Aurangabad
Aurangabad, A City Of India, In The Dominions Of The Nizam Of Hyderabad, North-west Division, Situated 138m. From Poona, 207 From Bombay Via Poona, And 27o From Hyderabad On The River Kaum. It Gives Its Name To A District. It Was Founded In 1610 By Malik Ambar, An Abyssinian Slave ...

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb (1618-1707 ), One Of The Greatest Of The Mogul Emperors Of Hindustan, Was The Third Son Of Shah Jahan, And Was Born In Nov. 1618. His Original Name, Mohammed, Was Changed By His Father, With Whom He Was A Favourite, Into Aurangzeb, Meaning Ornament Of The Throne, And At ...

Auray
Auray, A Town Of France, In The Department Of Morbihan, I2m. W. Of Vannes On The Railway To Quimper. Pop. (1931) 6,242. Coastal Subsidence Forming The Island-studded Morbihan Bay Has Submerged The Lower Valley Of The Auray River And The Tide Reaches The Town, Giving It Some Coasting Trade. The ...

Aurelian Lucius Domitius Aurelianus
Aurelian (lucius Domitius Aurelianus) (roman Emperor, A.d. 2 70-2 7 5) Was Born Of Humble Parents At Sirmium In Pannonia Between A.d. 212 And 214. He Had A Distinguished Military Career, And On The Death Of The Emperor Claudius Ii. Gothicus (2 7o), Aurelian Was Proclaimed His Successor, With The ...

Aureole Aureola
Aureola, Aureole, The Radiance Of Luminous Cloud (fr. Diminutive Of Lat. Aura, Air), Surrounding The Figures Of Sacred Personages In Paintings. In The Earliest Periods Of Chris Tian Art This Splendour Was Confined To The Figures Of The Persons Of The Godhead, But It Was Afterwards Extended To The Virgin ...

Aures
Aures, A Mountain Mass In The South Of The Department Of Constantine, Algeria (q.v.). See M. W. Hilton Simpson, Among The Hill Folk Of Algeria (1921) . Auric, George (1899– ), French Composer, Born Lodeve, Herault. With Honegger, Poulenc, And Others, He First Came Under Notice As One Of A ...

Aurich
Aurich, A Town Of Hanover, Germany, Chief Town Of The District Of East Friesland, On The Ems-jade Canal, 18m. N.w. Of Emden. Pop. It Is Built In The Dutch Style And Lies In A Sandy But Fertile Plain, Surrounded By Promenades Re Placing The Old Fortifications. The Palace Of The ...

Auricle
Auricle, The External Ear In Animals, Or An Analogous Part In Plants, Etc. From A Supposed Resemblance To The Ear Of A Dog, The Term Was Applied To The Upper Cavities Of The Heart. The Adjective "auricular" Is More Specially Used In The Phrase "auric Ular Confession" (see Confession), I.e., ...