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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Bar
Bar, Francois De (1538-1606), French Scholar, Was Born At Seizencourt, Near St. Quentin, And Became Prior Of The Benedictine Abbey Of Anchin, Near Pecquencourt, And Passed Much Of His Time In The Valuable Library Of The Abbey, Studying Ecclesiastical History, Especially That Of Flanders. He Also Made A Catalogue Of ...

Bara Banki
Bara Banki, A Town And District Of British India, In The Fyzabad Division Of The United Provinces. The Town, Which Forms One Municipality With Nawabgani, The Administrative Headquar Ters Of The District, Trades In Sugar And Cotton. The District Has An Area Of 1,756 Sq.m., Level Plain Interspersed With Numerous ...

Baraboo
Baraboo, A City Of Wisconsin, U.s.a., On The Baraboo River, Federal Highway 12, And The Chicago And North Western Railroad, About 35m. N.w. Of Madison; The County-seat Of Sauk County. The Population Was 6,324 In 1910; 5,545 In 1930 This Decrease Was Caused By The Removal Of The Railway Shops ...

Barabra
Barabra, The Modern Inhabitants Of Nubia. The Work Of The Archaeological Survey Of Nubia Indicates That Even Before The Dawn Of Egyptian History Lower Nubia Was Inhabited By A Proto Egyptian Race, The Near Relatives Of The Pre-dynastic Egyptians Whose Wares They Imported. By The 12th Dynasty The Population Was ...

Baracaldo
Baracaldo, A River-port Of North-eastern Spain, In The Province Of Biscay, 5m. By Rail N.w. Of Bilbao. Pop. (1930), 34,209. The Municipality Of Baracaldo Comprises A Number Of Vil Lages Spread Over The Fertile Flats—covered With Maize, Pod Fruit And Vines—at The Confluence Of The Rivers Cadagua And Galindo With ...

Baracoa
Baracoa, A Seaport City Of North-east Cuba, In Oriente Province. Pop. (193i) 9,179. The Town Lies Under High Hills On A Small Circular Harbour Accessible To Small Craft. The Country Round About Is Extremely Rugged. The Hill Called The "anvil Of Baracoa" (about 3,00o Ft.) Is Remarkable For Its Extremely ...

Baraka
Baraka, A Term Used Among The Berbers (q.v.) To Indicate The Quality Of "holiness" Of People And Things. The Word Is Semitic And Primarily Meant Knee But Now Means "blessing." It Is Not Derived From Or Connected With Baraq, Lightning. A Person Possessing Baraka In An Exceptional Degree Is Called ...

Barasat
Barasat, A Subdivisional Town In The District Of The Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, India. ...

Barathrum
Barathrum, In Greek (36.paopov, A Pit, At Athens The Deep Cleft West Of The Hill Of The Nymphs, Into Which Common Crim Inals Were Thrown. (see Athens.) ...

Barb I
Barb. (i) A Term Used Of The Folds Of Mucous Membrane Under The Tongue Of Horses And Cattle, And Of A Disease Affecting That Part, Of The Wattles Round The Mouth Of The Barbel, Of The Backward Turned Points Of An Arrow And Of The Piece Of Folded Linen Worn ...

Barbacena
Barbacena, An Inland Town Of Brazil, In The State Of Minas Geraes, 15om. N.n.w. Of Rio De Janeiro And About 3,5ooft. Above Sea-level. The Surrounding District Is Chiefly Agri Cultural, Producing Coffee, Sugar-cane, Indian Corn And Cattle, And The Town Has Considerable Commercial Importance. It Is Also Noted For Its ...

Barbacoan
Barbacoan, A Linguistic Stock Or Sub-stock Of South American Indians, So Called From The Barbacoas, One Of Its Most Important Tribes. The Stock, Which Included Among Other Tribes The Cayapas (q.v.) And Colorados, Occupied The Coastal Region Of Southern Colombia And Northern Ecuador, From About 3° N. Lat. South To ...

Barbados Or Barbadoes
Barbados Or Barbadoes, An Island In The British West Indies. It Lies 78m. E. Of St. Vincent, In 13° 4' N. And 59° 37' W., Is 2im. Long, 141m. At Its Broadest And I66sq.m. (106,470 Ac.) In Extent (roughly Equalling The Isle Of Wight). Its Coasts Are Encircled With Coral ...

Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon
Bodichon, Barbara Leigh Smith English Educationalist, Was Born At Watlington, Norfolk, On April 8,1827, The Daughter Of Benjamin Smith (1783-186o), Long M.p. For Norwich. She Early Showed A Force Of Character And Catho Licity Of Sympathy That Later Won Her A Prominent Place Among Philanthropists And Social Workers. In 1857 ...

Barbarian
Barbarian, The Name Among The Early Greeks For All Foreigners, Including The Romans (gr. J3ap)(apos) . The Word Probably Represents The Uncouth Babbling Of Which Languages Other Than Their Own Appeared To The Greeks To Consist. It Soon Assumed An Evil Meaning, Becoming Associated With The Vices And Savage Natures ...

Barbarossa
Barbarossa, The Name Given By The Christians To A Fam Ily Of Turkish Admirals And Sea Rovers Of The 16th Century—arouj And Khizr (alias Khair-ed-din) And Hassan The Son Of Khair-ed Din. In 184o Capt. Walsin Esterhazy, Author Of A History Of The Turkish Rule In Africa, Ventured The Guess ...

Barbary Ape
Barbary Ape, A Tailless Monkey Inhabiting Algeria, Morocco And The Rock Of Gibraltar And Referable To The Group Of Macaques. This Monkey, Macacus Inuus, Is Light Yellowish Brown Above And Yellowish-white Below, With The Naked Part Of The Face Flesh-coloured. It Is Terrestrial And Goes About In Droves. ...

Barbary Pirates
Barbary Pirates. The Power Of The Piratical Coast Population Of Northern Africa Arose In The 16th Century, Attained Its Greatest Height In The 17th, Declined Gradually Throughout The 18th And Was Extinguished By The French Conquest Of Algiers In 1830. From 1659 Onwards The Coast Cities Of Algeria And Tunisia, ...

Barbary
Barbary, Part Of Northern Africa Bounded East By Egypt, West By The Atlantic, South By The Sahara And North By The Medi Terranean, Comprising Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia And Tripoli. The Name Is Derived From The Berbers, The Chief Inhabitants Of The Region. ...

Barbe Marbois
Barbe-marbois, Francois, Marquis De (1 I45 French Politician, Was Born At Metz. He Began His Public Career As Intendant Of San Domingo Under The Old Regime. At The Close Of 1789 He Returned To France, And Served The Revolutionary Government. He Was Twice Arrested As A Suspect And In 1797 ...

Barbecue
Barbecue (span. Barbacoa), Originally A Framework On Posts Placed Over A Fire On Which To Dry Or Smoke Meat ; Hence, A Gridiron For Roasting Whole Animals, And In Cuba An Upper Floor On Which Fruit Or Grain Is Stored. In The United States The Word Means An Open Air ...

Barbed Wire
Barbed Wire. This Is A Protective Variety Of Fencing Wire Which Is Barbed At Regular Intervals Of I2 To 6in. The Ordi Nary Barbed Wire Of Commerce Consists Of Two Or Three Line Wires Twisted Together With A Fairly Long Lay Or Pitch, The Barbed Wires Being Tightly Inter-woven And ...

Barbel
Barbel (barbus Barbus), A Cyprinid Fish Of The Rivers Of Central Europe, Found Also In Yorkshire And In The Trent And Thames. The Mouth Has Four Barbels, Used As Feelers To Search For Food. It Attains A Weight Of 5olb. In The Danube. There Are Numerous Species Of Barbus In ...

Barber
Barber, One Whose Occupation It Is To Shave Or Trim Beards, A Hairdresser. In Former Times The Barber's Craft Was Dignified With The Title Of A Profession, Being Conjoined With The Art Of Surgery. In France The Barber-surgeons Were Separated From The Perruquiers, And Incorporated As A Distinct Body In ...

Barberini
Barberini, The Name Of A Powerful Italian Family, Orig Inally Of Tuscan Extraction, Who Settled In Florence During The Early Part Of The I I Th Century. They Acquired Great Wealth And Influence, And In 1623 Maffeo Barberini Was Raised To The Papal Throne As Urban Viii. He Made His ...

Barberry
Barberry (berberis Vulgaris), A Spiny Shrub Of The Bar Berry Family (berberidaceae), Native To Europe And Asia And Naturalized In Great Britain And The Eastern United States. It Bears Spiny-toothed Leaves, Bright Yellow Flowers, And Scarlet Berries, Sometimes Used For Preserving. The Shrub Has Long Been Grown As An Ornamental, ...

Barbers Itch
Barber's Itch, Known Also As Ringworm Of The Beard, Is A Communicable Disease Of The Skin Of The Bearded Region. The Causes Are Molds (trichophyton Cerebriforme And Rosaceum) Which Are Usually Transferred From Person To Person In The Barber Shop. The Disease Is Characterized By Nodules Of Varying Sizes Which ...

Barberton
Barberton, A District And A Town In The Transvaal. The Town, 2 5 ° 35' S. And 31 ° I I' E., Is Situated On The Slopes Of The De Kaap Valley, And Is Overlooked By De Kaap, A Peak Of The Drakenberg. It Is 2,825ft. Above Sea-level And Is ...

Barberton_2
Barberton, A Manufacturing City Of Summit County, Ohio, U.s.a., 6m. S.w. Of Akron, On The Tuscarawas River. It Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio, The Erie And The Pennsyl Vania Railroads, And By A Belt Line To Akron. The Population In Creased From 4,354 In 'goo To 18,81i In ...

Barbet
Barbet, The General Name For Birds Of The Family Capiton Idae. They Inhabit The Warm Regions Of The World, But Are Absent From Australia. The Plumage Is Usually Predominantly Green And The Beak Large And Stout. They Feed Mainly On Fruit And Lay Several White Eggs In Holes In Trees. ...

Barbette
Barbette, A Platform Inside A Fortification Raised Suf Ficiently High For Artillery Placed Thereon To Be Able To Fire En Barbette, Viz., Over The Top Of The Parapet; Also In Warships A Raised Platform, Protected By Armour On The Sides And Top Upon Which Guns Are Mounted En Barbette. (fr. ...

Barbican
Barbican, An Outwork For The Defence Of A Gate Or Draw Bridge; Also A Sort Of Penthouse Or Construction Of Timber To Shelter Warders Or Sentries From Arrows Or Other Missiles. The Word Is Probably Of Arabic Or Persian Origin. ...

Barbiton Or Barbitos
Barbiton Or Barbitos, Ancient Stringed Instrument Known To Us From The Greek And Roman Classics, But Derived From Persia. Although In Use In Asia Minor, Italy, Sicily, And Greece, It Is Evi Dent That The Barbiton Never Won For Itself A Place In The Affections Of The Greeks Of Hellas ...

Barbituric Acid
Barbituric Acid, A White, Crystalline, Organic Chemical Compound Prepared By Condensing Di-ethyl Malonate And Urea, Is Soluble In Water, Alcohol And Ether. It Forms Salts (q.v.) With Metals And These Metal Salts May Be Reacted With Organic Halogen Compounds To Form Other Compounds In Which Either One Or Two, As ...

Barbuda
Barbuda, An Island In The British West Indies, 25m. North Of Antigua, Of Which It Is A Dependency, In 17 ° 33' N. And 6 I ° 43' W. Area 62 Sq.m. Pop. I,000. It Is Flat And Well-wooded. On The Western Side Is A Large Lagoon, Separated From The ...

Barca
Barca (mod. El Merg, Pop. 3,000), In Cyrene, Founded In The Middle Of The 6th Century B.c. Rising Quickly To Impor Tance It Became A Rival Of Cyrene, And Gave Its Name To The West Of Cyrene's Territory. Barca Is Said To Have Owed Its Origin To Greek Refugees Flying ...

Barcarolle Or Barcarole
Barcarolle Or Barcarole, Properly A Musical Term For The Songs Sung By The Venetian Gondoliers, And Hence For An Instrumental Or Vocal Composition, Generally In 6-8 Time, Writ Ten In Imitation Of Their Characteristic Rhythm. Famous Examples Are Those Of Chopin (one Of His Greatest Works), Offenbach (the Well-known Number ...

Barcelona
Barcelona, A Maritime Province Of North-eastern Spain, Formed In 1833 Out Of Districts Belonging To The Then Province, And Earlier Principality, Of Catalonia. Pop. (1930) 1,800,638; Area 2,971sq.m. The Axis Of The Province Is The Valley Of The Llobregat, About Which Its Small Regions Are More Or Less Symmet Rically ...

Barcelona_2
Barcelona, Formerly Capital Of Catalonia, And Since Capital Of The Province Of Barcelona In Eastern Spain ; The Seat Of A Bishop. Pop. (1930) 1,005,565. The City And Suburbs Occu Pies An Amphitheatre Between The Flood-plains Of The Rivers Llobregat And Besos, Facing South-east To The Mediterranean And Backed By ...

Barcelona_3
Barcelona, A Town And Port Of Venezuela, Capital Of The State Of Anzoatequi, On The Neveri River, 3m. From Its Mouth And 12m. By Rail From The Port Of Guanta, Which Competes With The River Port In The Trade Of This District. Pop. (192o) 10,883. Hay Ing A Mean Annual ...

Barcelonnette
Barcelonnette, Town, Department Of Basses-alpes, South-east France. Pop. (1931) 1,91 1. Situated At A Height Of 3 , 717f T. On The Right Bank Of The Ubaye River, It Is In A Fertile Val Ley Surrounded By Villas, Built By Those Who Have Made Their Fortune In Mexico, And Are ...

Barclays Bank Limited
Barclays Bank Limited. The History Of Barclays Bank As A British Limited Company Dates From 1896, Although The Institutions Now Embodied In It Were Established At Much Earlier Dates. The Banking Firms Which Took The Lead In Forming The Limited Company Were Barclay, Bevan, Tritton, Ransom, Bouverie & Co., Of ...

Bard
Bard, A Word Applied To The Ancient Celtic Poets. The Name Itself Is Not Used By Caesar In His Account Of The Manners And Cus Toms Of Gaul And Britain, But He Appears To Ascribe The Functions Of The Bards To A Section Of The Druids. Later Latin Authors, Such ...

Bardaisan
Bardaisan (b. A.d. 154), An Early Teacher Of Christianity In Mesopotamia, Whose Works, Saving Possibly The Hymn Of The Soul In The Acts Of Thomas, Have Perished. Bardaisan Founded A School Which Was Soon Branded As Heretical. ...

Bardowiek
Bardowiek, Village, Prussian Province Of Hanover, Ger Many, 3m. N. Of Luneburg On The Navigable Ilmenau. Founded (8th Century) By Charlemagne As A Bishop's See, It Was The Chief Commercial City Of North Germany Till William The Lion De Stroyed It 0189). It Derives Its Name From The Longobardi Who ...

Bardsey
Bardsey, An Island Off The Coast Of Wales; Area 444 Acres, Pop. (1921) 58. This Continuation Of The Hills Of Carnarvonshire Has Been Separated From The Mainland By A Submergence Of Pleis Tocene Date Whereby A Famous Tide Race That Endangers Navigation Has Been Formed. As A Refuge In The ...

Barebone Or Barebones Barbon
Barbon, Barebone Or Barebones, (c. 1596-168o), English Leather-seller And Fifth Monarchy Man From Whom The "barebones" Parliament Derived Its Nickname, Was Minister To A Congregation Which Assembled At His Own House, "the Lock And Key," In Fleet Street, Where His Preaching At Tracted Large Audiences. He Wrote Two Books In ...

Barebones Parliament
Barebone's Parliament, In English History The Name Derisively Given To The Nominated Parliament, Summoned In The Name Of Cromwell After The Expulsion Of The Rump (april 20, 1653) . At The Fall Of The "long Parliament" Some Had Advocated Government Through A Nominated Assembly, Others Through A Smaller Council. Cromwell ...

Bareges
Bareges, Health Resort Of South-west France, Department Of Hautes-pyrenees, In The Valley Of The Bastan, 25m. S.s.w. Of Bagneres-de-bigorre By Road. Placed At A Height Of 4,1 Oof T., It Is A Mere Hamlet In The Commune Of Betpouey-bareges, But Is Fre Quented From June-september For Its Nitrogenous Waters And ...

Bareilly Or Bareli
Bareilly Or Bareli, A City And District Of British India In The Rohilkhand Division Of The United Provinces. The City Is Situated On The Ramganga River, 812m. N.w. From Cal Cutta By Rail. Pop. (1931) 144,031. The Principal Buildings Are Two Mosques Built In The 17th Century; A Modern Fort ...

Barents Sea
Barents Sea, The Eastern Portion Of The Northernmost Arctic Ocean, Framed By North Norway, Finland And Russia On The South, By Novaya Zemlya On The East, By Franz Josef Land On The North, And By Spitsbergen And Bear Island On The West. The English Pioneer Merchant-seamen, Willoughby And Chancellor (1553), ...

Barfleur
Barfleur, Port Of North-west France, Department Of Manche, 22-1m. N.n.e. Of Valognes. Pop. (1931) 1,054. In The Middle Ages Barfleur Was One Of The Chief Ports Of Embarkation For England. In 1120 The "white Ship," Carrying Prince William, Only Son Of Henry I., Went Down Outside The Harbour. About 2m. ...

Barfurush
Barfurush, A Town In The Persian Province Of Mazan Daran, 36° 32' N. And 52° 42' E., Situated In A Low-lying District On The Eastern Side Of The River Babil. It Is On The High-road From Tehran To The Coast And About 15m. Distant From The Roadstead Of Meshed-i-sar On ...

Bargain And Sale
Bargain And Sale, In Common Law, A Contract Whereby Property, Real Or Personal, Is Transferred From One Person—called The Bargainor—to Another—called The Bargainee—for A Valuable Consideration ; But The Term Is Particularly Used To Describe A Mode Of Conveyance Of Lands. The Disabilities Under Which A Feudal Owner Very Frequently ...

Barges
Barges And Canal Craft. The Name Barge Was Originally Applied To A Small Sailing Vessel, But Afterwards Came Into General Use For A Flat-bottomed Boat Used For Carrying Goods On Inland Waterways. On Canals, Barges Are Usually Towed, But Are Sometimes Fitted With Some Kind Of Engine; The Men In ...

Barguest Or Bargest Barghest
Barghest, Barguest Or Bargest, The Name Given In The North Of England, Especially In Yorkshire, To A Monstrous Goblin Dog With Huge Teeth And Claws. The Demon Of Tedworth, The Black Dog Of Winchester And The Padfoot Of Wakefield All Shared The Characteristics Of The Barghest Of York. In Wales ...

Bari
Bari (anc. Barium), An Archiepiscopal See In Apulia, Italy, Capital Of Province Of Bari, On A Small Peninsula, 69m. N.w. Of Brindisi By Rail. Pop. (1815) About 15,000 ; (190 I) 7 7,4 7 8 148,292 (town) ; 171,801 (commune). The Closely-built Old Town Is On The Peninsula To The ...

Bariba
Bariba, A Well-proportioned, Long-headed People Located In Northern Dahomey (parakou, Nikki, Kandi And The Atakora District Of Southern Upper Volta). Their Language Is Related To Kabre. They Are Independent And Warlike, Are Cultivators And Cattle-raisers, Employing Fulani Herdsmen. They Live In Extended Family Groups In Walled Villages, Subject To A ...

Barili
Barili, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 21 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province And Island Of Cebu, Philippine Islands, On The Barili River, 2m. From Its Mouth And About 35m. S.w. Of Cebu, The Capital. Pop. (1918), 33,481, Of Whom 16,366 Were Males (no Whites). Corn, Sibucao, Abaci (or ...

Barilla
Barilla, An Impure Soda, Formerly Used For The Making Of Soda, Soap And Glass, But Now Employed Very Little. It Was Ob Tained From The Ashes Of The Fleshy Plant (salsola Soda), Called In Spanish Barrilla, Grown Specially For This Product Along Sea Shores In Mediterranean Countries. ...

Baring
Baring, The Name Of A Family Of English Financiers And Bankers. The Firm Of Baring Brothers Was Founded By Francis Baring (1 I 40-1810) , Whose Father, John Baring, Son Of A Lu Theran Minister At Bremen, Had Come To England And Started A Cloth Manufactory At Larkbear, Near Exeter. ...

Baringo
Baringo, A Lake In Kenya Colony, O° .46' N., 36° 15' E.; Situated 3,15o Ft. Above Sea-level. It Can Best Be Reached From The Railway At Nakuru, 78 Miles Away. The Lake Is About 18 Miles Long By So Broad. It Occupies A Portion Of The Floor Of The Eastern ...

Barisal
Barisal, A Town Of British India, Headquarters Of Backer Gunge District In Bengal, Situated On A River Of The Same Name. Pop. 35,716. It Is An Important Centre Of River Trade, On The Steamer Route Through The Sundarbans From Calcutta To The Brahmaputra. Barisal Has Given Its Name To A ...

Baritone Or Barytone
Baritone Or Barytone, A Musical Term For The Male Voice Whose Range Lies Between Those Of The Tenor And Of The Bass (ital. Baritono, From Gr. Oapurovos Deep Sounding) ; Also The Name Of An Obsolete Stringed Instrument Like The Viola Da Gamba And Of The Small Bb Or C ...

Barium
Barium, One Of The Metallic Chemical Elements Included In The Group Of The Alkaline Earths (symbol, Ba, Atomic Number 56, Atomic Weight 137.37 [0= I6] ). It Takes Its Name From The Greek F3apvs (heavy) On Account Of Its Presence In Barytes Or Heavy Spar Which Was First Investigated In ...

Barking
Barking, Market Town, Essex, England, On The River Bod Ing Near Its Junction With The Thames, 8m. E. Of London On L.m.s.r. And Metropolitan District. Pop. Of Urban District Of Barking Town (1891) 14,301; (190i) 51,277. Bark Ing Was Celebrated For Its Nunnery, One Of The Oldest And Richest In ...

Barkly East
Barkly East, A Town In South Africa, 5,900f T. Above Sea-level; Situated On The Kraai And Lange Kloof Rivers, 82m. By Road From Aliwal North. It Is Connected With Railhead At New England (13m.) By Post-cart. The White Population In 1931 Was 1,009. Barkly East, Which Is Named Of Ter ...

Barkly West
Barkly West, A Town Of The Cape Province, South Africa, 21m. North Of Kimberley, And Chief Town Of A District Of The Same Name In Griqualand West. It Is Built On The Right Bank Of The Vaal River, Here Spanned By A Bridge. Pop. (1931) 465 Whites. Originally Called Klipdrift, ...

Barlaam And Josaphat
Barlaam And Josaphat. The Life Of Barlaam And Joasaph (or Josaphat) Is A Hagiographical Legend, Found Among The Writings Of St. John Of Damascus. It Owes Its Interest And Importance To The Fact That Parts Of It Correspond To The Legend Of The Buddha. It Begins With The Story Of ...

Barletta
Barletta (anc. Barduli), Episcopal See, Apulia, Italy, On The East-south-east Coast, Province Of Bari, 341m. W.n.w. Of Bari By Rail. Pop. (1931) Town 48,273, Commune 48,335. It Has A Romanesque Cathedral Begun About 115o, A Gothic Church Of S. Sepolcro (13th Century), A Castle (13th Century), Remodelled In 1532-37, And ...

Barley Break
Barley-break, An Old English Country Game Frequently Mentioned By The Poets Of The 17th And I8th Centuries. It Was Played By Three Pairs Composed Of One Of Each Sex, Who Were Stationed In Three Bases Or Plots, Contiguous To Each Other. The Couple Occupying The Middle Base, Called Hell Or ...

Barley Corn
Barley-corn, A Grain Of Barley, And Thus A Measure Taken From The Length Of A Grain Of Barley, Three Of Which (some Times Four) Were Considered To Make Up An Inch. The Barley-corn Has Been Personified As Representing The Malt Liquor Made From Barley, As In Burns's Song "john Barleycorn." ...

Barley
Barley. The Cultivated Varieties Of Barley Are Grouped Into Three Species Or Races, Viz. (1) Six-rowed Barley Tichon L.) ; (2) Bere, Bigg Or Four-rowed Barley (h. Vulgare L.) And (3) Two-rowed Barley (h. Distichon L.). The Axis Of The Ear Of Barley Is Notched On Opposite Sides Throughout Its ...

Barm
Barm, The Scum Formed On The Top Of Malt Liquor When Fer Menting; Yeast Used To Leaven Bread, Or To Set Up Fermentation In Liquor. See Yeast, Fermentation, Brewing. ...

Barmecides
Barmecides, Better, Barmakids, A Noble Persian Family Which Attained Great Power Under The Abbasid Caliphs. Barmak, The Founder Of The Family, Was A Parsi. According To Tradition, His Wife Was Taken For A Time Into The Harem Of Abdallah, Brother Of Kotaiba, The Conqueror Of Balkh, And Became The Mother ...

Barmen
Barmen, A Former German City In The Prussian Rhine Province. Pop. (1816) 19,030; (1925) 187,239. It Has Now Been Joined With Elberfeld To Form The New City Of Wuppertal, Pop. 408,404. The City Stretches 4 M. Along The Narrow Valley Of The Wupper. High Wooded Hills Surround It. It Is ...

Barmote Court
Barmote Court (also Berghmote, Barghmote, Bar Gemote, Barmoot), A Court Held In The Lead-mining Districts Of Derbyshire, England, For The Purpose Of Determining The Cus Toms Peculiar To The Industry And For The Settlement Of Disputes Arising In Connection Therewith. Barmote Courts Are Of Very Ancient Origin, Having Been In ...

Barmouth
Barmouth (abermaw, Mouth Of The Maw, Or Mawddach) Is A Sea-side Town On The North Bank Of The Mawddach Estuary, Merionethshire, North Wales. Pop. U.d. (1931) 2,491. Until The Advent Of The Railway It Was Secluded. It Is On The Coast Route Of The Old Cambrian (now G.w.r.) Line, With ...

Barnabas
Barnabas, The Surname Given By The Apostles (acts Iv. 36, Possibly In Distinction From Joseph Barsabbas, Acts I. 23) To Joseph, "a Levite, A Man Of Cyprus By Birth," Who, Though Not Of The Twelve, Came To Rank As An Apostle (acts Xiv. 4, 14, I Cor. Ix. 6; See ...

Barnabe Barnes
Barnes, Barnabe (c. 1568-1609), English Poet, Fourth Son Of Dr. Richard Barnes, Bishop Of Durham, Was Entered In 1586 At Brasenose College, Oxford, Where Giovanni Florio Was His Servitor, And In 1591 Went To France With The Earl Of Essex, Who Was Then Serving Against The Prince Of Parma. On ...

Barnabites
Barnabites, A Religious Order Ecclesiastically Known By The Name Of "clerics Regular Of St. Paul," Founded In 1530 By Antonio Maria Zaccaria (1502-1539, Canonized 1897) And Con Firmed As An Order By The Vatican In 1535 And 1579. In Addition To Monastic Devotion, Their Vocation Included Education And Mis Sionary ...

Barnacle
Barnacle, The Common Name For Marine Crustaceans Of The Order Cirripedia. Originally, The Name Was Given To The Stalked Barnacles (lepadidae Of C. Darwin), Which Attach Themselves In Great Numbers To Drift-wood And Other Objects Floating In The Sea And Are One Of The Chief Agents In The Fouling Of ...

Barnard Castle
Barnard Castle, Urban District, Durham, England, 17m. W. Of Darlington By A Branch Of The London And North Eastern Railway. Population (1931) 3,883. It Is Beautifully Situ Ated On The Steep Left Bank Of The Tees. There Are A Few Pic Turesque Old Houses, And A Fragment Of An Augustinian ...

Barnaul
Barnaul, A Town In The Siberian Area Of The Russian Re Public, On The Railway From Novo-sibirsk To Semipalatinsk, At The Junction Of The River Barnaulka And The River Ob. Lat. 53° 23' N., Long. 83° 4o' E., Alt. 48oft. Pop. (1933) 109, 20o, An Increase Of In 33 Years. ...

Barnes Or Bernes Berners
Berners, Barnes Or Bernes, Juliana (b. 1388?), English Writer On Hawking And Hunting, Is Said To Have Been Prioress Of Sopwell Nunnery Near St. Albans, And Daughter Of Sir James Berners, Who Was Beheaded In 1388. The Only Docu Mentary Evidence Regarding Her, However, Is The Statement At The End ...

Barnesville
Barnesville, An Incorporated Village Of Belmont County, Ohio, U.s.a., In The Eastern Part Of The State, Tom. From The Ohio River, On The Baltimore And Ohio Railroad. The Population Was 4,965 In 1920; 193o It Was 4,602. Coal Is Mined Near By, And The Raising Of Jersey Cattle Is One ...

Barnet
Barnet, Residential District, Hertfordshire, England; I Om. North Of London, Served By The L.n.e. Railway. The Three Chief Divisions Are As Follows :—(i ) Chipping Or High Barnet, A Market Town And Urban District (barnet) . Pop. (1931) 14,721. The Second Epithet Denotes Its Position On A Hill; The First ...

Barnett Barnato
Barnato, Barnett (1852-1897), English Speculator, The Son Of A Jewish Shopkeeper, Isaac Isaacs, Was Born In Ald Gate, London, In 1852. In 1873 He Joined His Elder Brother, Henry, In Kimberley, Where The Latter Had Gone, To Trade In Diamonds. When Isaacs Arrived There He Changed His Name To Barnato, ...

Barnim I
Barnim I. (c. 1209-1278), Called The Good, Was The Son Of Bogislaus Ii., Duke Of Pomerania-stettin, And Succeeded To This Duchy On His Father's Death In 1220. In 1250 He Was Compelled To Recognize The Supreracy Of The Margrave Of Brandenburg. Barnim Introduced German Settlers And Customs Into The Duchy, ...

Barnim Iii
Barnim Iii. (c. 1303-1368), Called The Great, Was The Son Of Otto I., Duke Of Pomerania-stettin, And Took A Prominent Part In The Defence And Government Of The Duchy Before His Father's Death In 1344. A Victory Gained By Him In August 1332 Freed Pomerania For A Time From The ...

Barnim Xi
Barnim Xi. (1501-1573), Son Of Bogislaus X., Duke Of Pomerania, Became Duke On His Father's Death In 1523. He Ruled For A Time In Common With His Elder Brother George; And After George's Death In 1531 He Shared The Duchy With His Nephew Philip I., Retaining For Himself The Duchy ...

Barnim
Barnim, The Name Of Thirteen Dukes Who Ruled Over Divi Sions Of The Duchy Of Pomerania. The Following Are The Most Important: ...

Barnim_2
Barnim, A District In Germany, Between The Spree, The Oder And The Havel, Which Was Added To The Mark Of Brandenburg During The 13th Century. ...

Barnsley Black Or
Barnsley (black Or Properly Bleak Barnsley), Parlia Mentary And County Borough, West Riding Of Yorkshire, England, 15m. N. Of Sheffield. Pop. (1891) (1921) 53,661; Of The Extended County Borough (census Of 1931) 71,522. It Is Served By The L.m.s. And L.n.e. Railways, And Situated On Rising Ground West Of The ...

Barnstable
Barnstable, A Seaport Town And The County Seat Of Barnstable County, Mass., U.s.a., Extending Across Cape Cod. It Is Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. The Population In 1930 Was 7,271. Cranberries Are Cultivated Extensively, And The Fishing Industry, Including The Raising Of Cotuit Oysters, Is ...

Barnstaple
Barnstaple, Seaport And Municipal Borough, Near The North Coast Of Devonshire, England. Pop. (1931) 14,693. It Stands On The Estuary Of The Taw, Here Crossed By A Stone Bridge Of 16 Arches Said To Date From The 12th Or 13th Century. Barnstaple (berdestaple, Barnstapol, Barstaple, Also Barum) Ranks Among The ...

Barocco
Barocco, A Variant Spelling Of The Word Baroque (see Baroque Architecture) Indicating Generally The Late And Lux Urious Renaissance Styles. ...

Baroda
Baroda, One Of The Most Important Of Indian States, Associated With The Province Of Bombay, But In Direct Relations With The Governor-general. It Consists Of Four Isolated Divisions Interlaced With British Territory Or With Other Indian States. Three Of These Divisions—kadi, Baroda And Nausariare In Gujarat Proper; The Fourth, Amreli ...

Barometer
Barometer. The Earliest Forms Of Barometer Were Devel Oped From The Well Known Experiment Performed In 1643, By Tor Ricelli, Who, Conceiving The Idea That The Atmosphere Had Weight, Used A Mercury Column Long Known, After Him, As The "torricelli Tube," For The Purpose Of Demonstrating The Existence And Magni ...

Barometric Light
Barometric Light, The Luminous Glow Which Appears In The Vacuous Space Above The Mercury In A Barometer Tube When The Tube Is Shaken. It Is A Special Case Of The General Effect That, If A Sealed Tube Containing Mercury And A Rarified Gas Be Shaken, Flashes Of Light Are Produced. ...