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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Bishop Auckland
Bishop Auckland, Urban District, Durham, England, M. S.s.w. Of The City Of Durham, The Junction Of Several L.n.e.r. Branch Lines. Pop. (1931) 12,269. It Is Situated On High Ground Near The Confluence Of' Wear And Gaunless. The Parish Church At Auckland St. Andrews Is Early English. The Fine Palace Of ...

Bishop Stortford
Bishop Stortford, Urban District, East Hertfordshire, England; 3o-1- M. N.n.e. Of London By The L.n.e. Railway. Pop Ulation (1931) 9,509. It Lies On The River Stort, Close To The County Boundary With Essex, And Has Water Communication With London Through The Lea And Stort Navigation. Before The Con Quest The ...

Bishop
Bishop, In Certain Branches Of The Christian Church, An Ecclesiastic Consecrated Or Set Apart To Perform Certain Spiritual Functions And To Exercise Oversight Over The Lower Clergy (priests Or Presbyters, Deacons, Etc.) . The Title Is Derived From The Greek Er-tako7ros, Latin Episcopus, Meaning "overseer." In The Catholic Church Bishops ...

Bishops Castle
Bishop's Castle, Municipal Borough, Shropshire, Eng Land, Situated On A Steep Hillside Above An Important Lowland Route From South Shropshire Into Wales (see Montgomeryshire). Pop. (1931) 1,352. This Historic Road From Ludlow Past Stokesay Was Controlled By The Castle Of The Bishops Of Hereford, Placed Where The Gap Between The ...

Bishops Wars
Bishops Wars, The Name Given In English History To The Two Brief Campaigns Between Charles I. And The Scots In 1639 And 164o, Caused By Charles' Endeavour To Enforce Anglican Ob Servances In The Scottish Church, And By The Determination Of The Scots To Abolish Episcopacy. The Bishops Wars Are ...

Biskra
Biskra, A Town Of Algeria, Arrondissement Of Batna, De Partment Of Constantine, 15o M. S.w. Of The City Of Con Stantine And Connected With It And With Philippeville By Rail, The Rail-head For The Desert. It Lies In The Sahara 36o Ft. Above The Sea At The Exit From The ...

Biskupitz
Biskupitz, A Satellite Town 5m. W. Of Beuthen, In The Prussian Province Of Upper Silesia. Pop. (1925) 17,225. In The Partition Of Upper Silesia In 1921 It Was Retained, With Beuthen, By Germany. ...

Bisley
Bisley, Village, Surrey, England, 31 M. N.w. Of Woking And 29 M. From London. Pop. Of Parish (1931) 1,099. The Ranges Of The National Rifle Association Were Transferred From Wimble Don Here In 1890. (see Rifle.) ...

Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago, The Collective Name Of A Large Number Of Islands Lying North And North-east Of New Guinea, Between I And 7 S., And 146 And 153 E., Which Were A German Protectorate From 1885, But Under The Treaty Of Ver Sailles (1919) Were Made Part Of The Mandated Territory ...

Bismarck
Bismarck, The Capital Of North Dakota, U.s.a., And The County Seat Of Burleigh County, On The East Bank Of The Missouri River, In The South-central Part Of The State. It Is On Federal Highway Io And The Main Line Of The Northern Pacific Railway, And Is Served Also By The ...

Bismuth
Bismuth, A Metallic Element ; It Was Probably Unknown To The Greeks And Romans, But In The Middle Ages It Became Familiar, Notwithstanding Its Frequent Confusion With Other Metals. In 145o Basil Valentine Referred To It By The Name "wismut" ; Some Years Later Paracelsus Termed It "wissmat," And, In ...

Bismuthinite
Bismuthinite, A Somewhat Rare Mineral, Consisting Of Bismuth Trisulphide (bi,s3). It Crystallizes In The Orthorhombic System And Is Isomorphous With Stibnite (sbasa), Which It Closely Resembles In Appearance. It Forms Loose Interlacing Aggregates Of Acicular Crystals, Or As Masses With A Foliated Or Fibrous Struc Ture. An Important Character Is ...

Bison Bantin
Bantin, Bison, Buffalo, Gaur, Gayal, Ox And Yak.) The Second Group, Or Caprinae, Includes The Sheep And Goats, Which Are Smaller Animals Than Most Of The Bovidae, Generally With Horns In Both Sexes, But Those Of The Females Small. In The Males The Horns Are Usually Compressed And Triangular With ...

Bison
Bison, The Name Given To Two Large Animals Of The Ox Family: The European Bison (bison Europaeus) And The American Bison (b. Americanus), The Latter In North America Commonly Called Buffalo. The Bisons Differ From Typical Oxen (bos) In Their Greater Breadth, The Convexity Of Their Foreheads, Their Larger Lirnbs, ...

Bisque
Bisque (a French Word Of Unknown Origin, Formerly Spelt In English "bisk"), A Term For Odds Given In The Games Of Tennis, Lawn Tennis, Croquet, And Golf ; In The Two Former A Bisque Is One Point To Be Taken At Any Time During A "set" At The Choice Of ...

Bissext Or Bissextus
Bissext Or Bissextus, The Day Intercalated By The Julian Calendar In The February Of Every Fourth Year To Make Up The Six Hours By Which The Solar Year Was Computed To Exceed The Year Of 365 Days. The Day Was Inserted After Feb. 24, I.e., The Sixth Day Before The ...

Bistre
Bistre, The French Name Of A Brown Paint Made From The Soot Of Wood ; Now Largely Superseded By Indian Ink. Bistrita, A Town Of Transylvania, Rumania, Capital Of The Department Of Nasaud, Situated On The River Sieul, On The Edge Of The Carpathian Mountains. Pop. (1930), 13,251, Including 5,000 ...

Bit
Bit, A Piece Of Anything. The Word Is Used In Various Special Senses, All Derivable From Its Origin ("to Bite"), Either Literally Or Metaphorically. The Most Common Of These Are (1) Its Use As The Name Of Various Tools; E.g., Centre-bit ; (2) A Horse's "bit," Or The Metal Mouthpiece ...

Bitche
Bitche (ger. Bitsch), Town, France, Department Of Moselle, On The Horn, At The North Foot Of The Vosges Between Hagenau And Sarreguemines. Pop. (1931) 2,792. The Town, Formed Of The Villages Of Rohr And Kaltenhausen In The 17th Century Derives Its Name From The Stronghold (mentioned In 1172 As Bytis ...

Bithur
Bithur, A Town In The Cawnpore District Of The United Provinces Of India, 12 M. N.w. Of Cawnpore City. Pop. (1931) 2,072. The Last Of The Peshwas, Baji Rao, Was Banished To Bithur, And It Was His Adopted Son, The Nana Sahib, Who Became The Villain Of The Cawnpore Tragedy ...

Bithynia
Bithynia, A District In The North-west Of Asia Minor (gr. Btovvia), Adjoining The Propontis, The Thracian Bosporus And The Euxine (q.v.). On The East It Adjoined Paphlagonia, On The West And South-west Mysia, And On The South Phrygia And Galatia. It Is In Great Part Occupied By Mountains And Forests, ...

Bitlis Or Betlis
Bitlis Or Betlis, The Chief Town Of A Vilayet Of The Same Name In Turkey, Situated At An Altitude Of 4, 7oof T., In The Deep, Narrow Valley Of The Bitlis Chai, A Tributary Of The Tigris. The Main Part Of The Town And The Bazaars Are Crowded Alongside The ...

Bitonto
Bitonto (anc. Butunti), Episcopal See, Apulia, Italy, Prov Ince Of Bari, Iom. W. By Steam Tramway From Bari. Pop. (1931), 26,s42 (town) ; 29,731 (commune). Its Fine Romanesque Cathe Dral (1175-1200) Has Escaped Damage From Later Restorations. ...

Bitterfeld
Bitterfeld, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Saxony, 26m. N. Of Leipzig By Rail, On The River Mulde, And An Important Junction Of Railways From Leipzig And Halle To Berlin. Pop. (1933) 21,400. Its Manufactures Include Drain Pipes And Machinery; There Are Several Coal-mines In The Vicinity. ...

Bitterling
Bitterling (rhodeus Amarus), A Little Carp-like Fish Of Central Europe, Belonging To The Cyprinid Family. In It We Have A Remarkable Instance Of Symbiosis. The Genital Papilla Of The Female Acquires A Great Development During The Breeding Season And Becomes Produced Into A Tube Nearly As Long As The Fish ...

Bittern
Bittern, The Name For Wading Birds, Allied To The Heron, From Which They Differ By Their Shorter Neck, With Its Long, Mov Able Feathers In Front, And Their Stouter Build. Solitary And Noc Turnal, They Haunt Swamps And Marshes, Feeding On Fish, Insects And Small Quadrupeds. The Com Mon Bittern ...

Bittern_2
Bittern (from "bitter"), The Mother Liquor Obtained From Sea-water Or Brines After The Separation Of The Sodium Chloride (common Salt) By Crystallization. It Contains Various Magne Sium Salts (sulphate, Chloride, Bromide And Iodide) And Is Em Ployed Commercially For The Manufacture Of Epsom Salts (mag Nesium Sulphate) And Bromine. The ...

Bitterroot
Bitterroot (lewisia Rediviva), A North American Plant Of The Purslane Family (portulacaceae), Native To Mountain Regions From Montana To British Columbia And Southward To Colorado, Arizona And Southern California. Crowning Its Stout Root Is A Thick Perennial Rootstock From Which Rise Small Fleshy Leaves And Short, Jointed Stalks Each Bearing ...

Bitters
Bitters, Aromatized And Often Alcoholic Beverages Contain Ing A Bitter Substance Or Substances, Used As Tonics, Appetizers Or Digestives. The Bitternes's Is Imparted By Such Substances As Bitter Orange Rind, Gentian, Rhubarb, Quassia, Cascarilla, Angostura, Quinine And Cinchona. Juniper, Cinnamon, Carraway, Camomile, Cloves And Other Flavouring Agents Are Also Employed ...

Bittersweet
Bittersweet, A Name For The Woody Nightshade (solanum Dulcamara). (see Nightshade.) Also Applied In The United States To Celastrus Scandens, A Woody Vine, Called More Properly Climbing Bittersweet (q.v.) . ...

Bitumen
Bitumen, The Name Applied By The Romans To The Various Types Of Natural Hydrocarbons, The Word Petroleum Not Being Used In Classical Latin. Classical And Biblical References To Bitu Men Are Of Frequent Occurrence. In Genesis Xi. 3 We Are Told That "slime Had They For Morter" And In Genesis ...

Bituriges
Bituriges (bit-oor'i-gas), A Celtic People, According To Livy (v. 34) The Most Powerful In Gaul In The Time Of Tarquinius Priscus. At Some Period They Split Up Into Two Branches Bituriges Cubi And Bituriges Vivisci. The Bituriges Cubi In Caesar's Time Acknowledged The Su Premacy Of The Aedui, Inhabited The ...

Bivouac
Bivouac, Originally Meant A Night-watch By A Whole Army Under Arms To Prevent Surprise. In Modern Military Parlance The Word Is Used To Mean A Temporary Encampment In The Open Field Without Tents, As Opposed To "billets" Or "cantonment" On The One Hand And "camp" On The Other. Shelter In ...

Biwa
Biwa, A Lake Of South Japan Having An Area Of I8osq.m. Which Is About The Size Of The Lake Of Geneva. It Lies (35 I5' N. 136 5' E.) In A Zone Of Dislocation Which Cuts In A North Easterly To South-westerly Direction Across The Entire Width Of The Japanese ...

Bizerta
Bizerta, A Seaport Of Tunisia, In 37 17' N., 9 So' E. Pop. (1931) 23,26. Next To Toulon, Bizerta Is The Most Im Portant Naval Port Of France In The Mediterranean, In A Com Manding Strategical Position In The Narrowest Part Of The Sea, 714 M. E. Of Gibraltar, 1,168 ...

Bizet Alexandre
Bizet (alexandre Cisar Liopold) Georges '875), French Musical Composer, Was Born At Bougival, Near Paris, Oct. 25, 1838, The Son Of A Singing-master. He Studied At The Paris Conservatoire Under Halevy And In 1857 Won The Grand Prix De Rome For A Cantata Called Cloris Et Clotilde. After The Three ...

Bjornstjerne Bjornson
Bjornson, Bjornstjerne Norwe Gian Poet, Novelist And Dramatist, Was Born At The Farmstead Of B J Orgen, In Kvikne, In Osterdal, Norway. In 1837 His Father, Who Had Been Pastor Of Kvikne, Was Transferred To The Parish Of Noesset, In Romsdal; In This Romantic District The Childhood Of Bjornson Was ...

Black And Yellow Trail
Black And Yellow Trail, A Highway Extending From Chicago, Ill., To Yellowstone Park By Way Of The Black Hills And The Bad Lands Of South Dakota. It Is About 1,570m. In Length. Paved And Improved Through Wisconsin, The Balance Is Graded And Improved With Some Dirt Stretches In Minnesota, South ...

Black Ape
Black Ape, A Black, Short-tailed, Long-faced Macaque In Habiting Celebes, And Forming A Genus By Itself, Cynopithecus Niger. The Nostrils Open Obliquely Some Distance From The End Of The Snout, And The Head Carries A Long Crest. (see Primates.) ...

Black Assize
Black Assize, A Pestilence Which Raged In Oxford Follow Ing The Conclusion Of The Assizes On July 6, 15 7 7. In Five Weeks Some 30o Persons Are Said To Have Succumbed To The Sickness. Among Them Were The Sheriff And A Number Of The Jurors And Court Officials, Which ...

Black Bear Trail
Black Bear Trail, A Highway Connecting Quebec And Ontario, Canada, With Miami And St. Petersburg, Florida. It Has A Total Length Of I,95om. The Road Is Paved From Quebec To North Carolina, And Then Again Through Florida. Beginning At Montreal, It First Follows The St. Lawrence River And Then Passes ...

Black Belt
Black Belt, A Part Of The Southern United States, Extend Ing From Central South Carolina, Across Central Georgia, Through Alabama And Mississippi, So Called Because It Is The Area Of Greatest Density Of Negro Popu Lation. The Black Belt Is Slowly Moving Southward And Westward Into Louisiana, Arkansas And Texas. ...

Black Body
Black Body. The Term Black Is Commonly Applied To Any Substance, Such As Coal Or Pitch, Which Absorbs Nearly All The Light Falling On It And Reflects Very Little. Lampblack Or Smoke-black Consisting Of Very Fine Particles Of Carbon Is Usually Taken As A Typical Example Of A Black Substance. ...

Black Buck
Black Buck (antilope Cervicapra), The Indian Antelope, The Sole Species Of Its Genus. This Antelope Stands About 32 In. High At The Shoulder; The General Hue Is Brown Deepening With Age To Black; Chest, Belly And Inner Sides Of Limbs Pure White, As Are The Muzzle And Chin, And An ...

Black Drop
Black Drop, In Astronomy, An Apparent Distortion Of The Planet Mercury Or Venus At The Time Of Internal Contact With The Limb Of The Sun At The Beginning Or End Of A Transit. It Has Been In The Past A Source Of Much Perplexity To Observers Of Transits, But Is ...

Black Earth Area
Black Earth Area (central), An Administrative Unit In Russia Created By The Soviet Government In May 1928. It Consists Chiefly Of The Provinces Of Voronezh, Kursk, Tambov And Orel, With Part Of The Province Of Tula. The Creation Of This Province Is In Pursuance Of The Russia. Government's Policy Of ...

Black Forest
Black Forest, A Mountain Range Of South-west Ger Many, Mainly In The Land Of Baden, With About A Third In Wurttemberg (ger. Schwarzwald). Area About R,800sq.m.; Total Length, About Loom.; Breadth Varying From I Or 5m. Structurally And Topographically The Black Forest Forms The Counterpart Of The Vosges, Which Stand ...

Black Friday
Black Friday, A Term Applied To Several Fridays Upon Which Serious Upheavals Or Crises Occurred. The Outstanding Financial Black Fridays Are: (i) May I I, 1866, When The Bank Ing House Of Overend And Gurney, Of London, Failed, Resulting In Widespread Business And Financial Distress. (2) Sept. 24, 1869, The ...

Black Haw
Black Haw (viburnum Prunifolium), A North American Shrub Or Small Tree Of The Honeysuckle Family (caprifoliaceae), Called Also Stag-bush And Sheep-berry. It Grows In Dry Soil From Connecticut And Southern New York Westward To Michigan And Southward To Northern Georgia And Eastern Kansas. Although Somewhat Bushy In Habit, With A ...

Black Hawk
Black Hawk [ma `kata Wimesheka `ka, "black Sparrow Hawk"] (1767-1838), American Indian Warrior, Was Born At The Sauk Village On Rock River, Near The Mississippi, In 1767. This Beautiful Territory Was Long Cov Eted By The Whites, And He And His People, Who Were So Much Under British Influence As ...

Black Hills
Black Hills, An Isolated Group Of Mountains In The U.s.a. Covering An Area Of About 6,000 Sq.m. In The Adjoining Corners Of South Dakota And Wyoming. They Rise On An Average Some 2,000f T. Above Their Base, The Highest Peak, Harney, Having An Altitude Above The Sea Of 7, 216f ...

Black Jack
Black Jack, A Bludgeon-like Weapon Consisting Of A Lead Slug Attached To A Leather Thong. The More Carefully Con Trived Black Jacks Contain A Spring Within The Handle Which Serves To Ease The Effect Of The Impact Upon The Wrist Of The One Who Wields The Weapon. The Black Jack ...

Black Letter
Black Letter, The Name Of The Type Copied From The Fifteenth-century Style Of Handwriting Used In Germany, Holland And England. It Was First Employed By Caxton Before 148o, And Was Later Used In All His Books. Black Letter, Also Called Gothic, Did Not Give Way To The Roman Type Revived ...

Black List
Black List. A General Term Used To Describe A List Of Persons Considered Obnoxious For Reasons Good Or Bad. In The World War, The Blockade Of Germany By The Allies Was Rendered Very Difficult By The Free Trading Of Neutral Traders, Especially Those Of Scandinavia, Holland And Switzerland, With The ...

Black Mountain
Black Mountain, Mountain Range And District On The Hazara Border Of The North-west Frontier Province Of India, In 3o' N., 73 E. Length, 25 To 50m. ; Average Height, 8,000ft. It Rises From The Indus Basin Near The Village Of Kiara, And Runs North Parallel To The River. The Tribes ...

Black Rock Desert
Black Rock Desert, An Arid Region In Humboldt And Pershing Counties, Nevada, U.s.a., About Tom. Long And In Some Places 2om. Wide, Embracing An Area Of About I,000 Sq. Miles. The Belt Of Greatest Aridity (less Than 4in. Of Rainfall Annually) Extends From The North-east To The South-west Just East ...

Black Rod
Black Rod (more Fully, "gentleman Usher Of The Black Rod"), An Official Of The House Of Lords, Instituted In 135o. His Appointment Is By Royal Letters Patent, And His Title Is Due To His Staff Of Office, An Ebony Stick Surmounted With A Gold Lion. He Is A Personal Attendant ...

Black Sea
Black Sea, A Body Of Water Between Lat. 41o And 45 N., But Extending To About 47 Near Odessa, Bounded North By South Russia ; West By Rumania, Bulgaria And Turkey ; And South And East By Asia Minor. It Is Also Called Euxine (anc., Pontus Eux Inns) ; The ...

Black Snake
Black Snake (zamenis Constrictor), Called Also Blue Racer And Hoop Snake, A Common North American Colubrine Snake Harmless To Man, Noted For Its Great Speed. It Is Also An Expert Climber And Swimmer. The Black Snake Is Slenderly Built And Sometimes Exceeds 7ft. In Length. Western Specimens Are Lighter, But ...

Black Varnish
Black Varnish, The General Term Used To Cover A Large Range Of Varnishes Which Have Asphalt Or Bitumen As Their Essential And Characteristic Constituent. The Different Varieties, However, Vary Greatly In Their Properties. The General Process Used In The Manufacture Of Black Varnishes Consists In Heating Asphaltums Or Pitches, With ...

Black
Black Is Now Technically Classified As A Colour, Being A Terminal Member Of The So-called Achromatic Series Of Colours, Ranging Through A Scale Of Greys To White. From The Psychological Standpoint Black Is As Positive A Phenomenon As Any Other Colour, And Cannot Be Identified With The Absence Of Visual ...

Blackball
Blackball, A Token Used For Voting By Ballot Against The Election Of A Candidate For Membership Of A Club Or Other Association. White And Black Balls Were Used To Represent Votes For And Against A Candidate For Such Election. The Rules Of Most Clubs Provide That A Stated Proportion Of ...

Blackberry Or Bramble
Blackberry Or Bramble, A Prickly, Fruit-bearing Shrub Known Botanically As Rubus Fruticosus (family Rosaceae), A Native Of The North Temperate Region Of The Old World, And Abundant In The British Isles As A Copse And Hedge-plant. It Is Characterized By Its Prickly Stem, Leaves With Usually Three Or Five Ovate, ...

Blackbird
Blackbird, Name Given To A Bird Originally Known As Ousel (q.v.), Though This Has Since Been Transferred To Other Species. The Blackbird (turdus Merula) Is A Close Relative Of The Thrush (q.v.). It Is One Of The Commonest Of British Birds. The Males, Which Are Said To Preponderate, Are Recognizable ...

Blackburn
Blackburn, Municipal, County, And Parliamentary Bor Ough Of Lancashire, England, 241m. North-northwest Of Manches Ter, Served By The L.m.s. Railway, With Several Lines From All Parts Of The County. Pop. (1931) 122,695. It Lies In The Valley Of A Stream Called In Early Times The Blackeburn, But Now Known As ...

Blackcap
Blackcap (sylvia Atrica/silla), A Small Warbler (q.v.), Notable For The Beautiful Song And Black Cap Of The Male, The Female Having The Top Of The Head Brown. The Rest Of The Plum Age In Both Sexes Is Grey. The Blackcap Is A Summer Visitor To Northern Europe. The Male Often ...

Blackcock
Blackcock (lyruruus Tetrix), A Bird Of The Family Tetra Onidae, Or Grouse, The Female Of Which Is Known As The Greyhen. In Size And Plumage The Two Sexes Offer A Striking Contrast, The Male Weighing About 41b., Its Plumage, For The Most Part, Of A Rich Glossy Black, Shot With ...

Blackfish
Blackfish, The Name Applied To Various Dark-coloured Fishes. In England, It Is Centrolophus Niger, A Scombroid Fish About Eft. Long And Shaped Like A Perch. In The United States, It Most Commonly Refers To The Tautog (q.v.), But Is Also Used Of A Sea Bass (centropristis Striates) Of Atlantic Waters, ...

Blackfoot Indian Religious Ceremony
Blackfoot Indian Religious Ceremony In Glacier National Park The Indians, Dressed In Native Costume, Are Offering Prayer To The God Of The Underwater On The Shore Of Two Medicine Lake The Algonkin Arapaho, Were Closely Associated With Them. Al Though Situated Near The North-western Limit Of The Abundant Range Of ...

Blackfoot
Blackfoot, A Group Of Three Closely Related And Allied Algonkin Tribes In Alberta And Montana, Also Known As Siksika And Comprising The Blackfoot Proper, Piegan And Blood. During The 19th Century The Athabascan Sarsi And The Atsina, A Branch Of By Courtesy Of The Bureau Of Reclamation ...

Blackfoot_2
Blackfoot, A City Of Idaho, U.s.a., On The Snake River, Federal Highway 91, And The Oregon Short Line Of The Union Pa Cific Railway System, About Halfway Between Pocatello And Idaho Falls, At An Elevation Of 4,5o2ft.; The County Seat Of Bingham County. The Population In 193o Was 3,199. It ...

Blackheath
Blackheath, An Open Common In The South-east Of Lon Don, England, Mainly In The Metropolitan Borough Of Lewisham. This High-lying Tract Was Crossed By The Roman Watling Street From Kent, On A Line Approximating To That Of The Modern Shooter's Hill; And Was A Rallying Ground Of Wat Tyler (1381), ...

Blacking
Blacking. The Manufacture Of Blacking, A Compound Used In The Polishing Of Old-fashioned Coarse Leathers, Is A Very Ancient One, And Was At One Time A Large And Flourishing Industry. Black Ing Is Composed Of Charcoal Black, Lamp-black, Sugar, Oil, And Fat In Varying Proportions, And Is Prepared Either As ...

Blacklead
Blacklead, A Name For Graphite (q.v.) Or Plumbago. Preparations Of Graphite Are Commonly Sold As "blacklead," And Were At One Time Largely Used For The Cleaning And Brightening Of Iron Firegrates And Iron Fenders. Many Homes Were At One Time, And Some Still Are, Fitted With Iron Stoves Made Upon ...

Blackleg
Blackleg, A Slang Term In Use Since The I8th Century For A Cheat Or Turf Swindler. Its Modem Use Is As A Term Of Reproach For A Worker Who Refuses To Come Out On Strike With His Fellows, Or, Sometimes, But Less Correctly, For Those Who Decline To Join Their ...

Blackmail
Blackmail, In English Law, A Term Used With Three Special Meanings At Different Times. (i) The Primary Meaning Of "black Mail" Was Rent Paid In Labour, Grain Or Baser Metal, I.e., Money Other Than Sterling Money, Called Reditus Nigri In Contradistinc Tion To Rent Paid In Silver Or White Money ...

Blackpool
Blackpool, Municipal, County And Parliamentary Bor Ough, Lancashire, England. Pop. (1931) Municipal Borough, Parliamentary Borough, 127,303. It Is 46m. N. Of Liver Pool And Is Served By The L.m.s. Railway. The Town Is Almost En Tirely Of 19th And 2oth Century Growth, Its Rapid Development Being Related To That Of ...

Blackwater Fever
Blackwater Fever. So Far This Disease, Which Oc Curs In All Tropical Countries And Occasionally Elsewhere, And Is Often Classed With Malaria, Has Defied The Efforts Of Research To Trace Its Cause. Its Geographical Distribution Covers Tropical Africa, Where It Is Perhaps Most Prevalent, Parts Of Asia, The `'vest Indies, ...

Blackwater
Blackwater, The Name Of Several Streams In England, Scotland And Ireland. The Blackwater In Essex Rises Near Saffron Walden And Flows About 40m. To The North Sea. The Blackwater In Southern Ireland Rises In The Border-bills Of Cork And Kerry, And Flows East To Cappoquin, Where It Turns Abruptly Southward ...

Blackwell
Blackwell, A City Of Kay County (okla.), U.s.a., Mid Way Between Oklahoma City And Wichita, 15m. From The Kansas State Boundary. It Is On Federal Highway 177; The Frisco And The Santa Fe Railways; And The Lighted Airway From Chicago To Dallas. It Has An Intermediate Landing Field. The Population ...

Bladder And Prostate Diseases
Bladder And Prostate Diseases. Cystitis, Or Inflammation Of The Bladder, Which May Be Acute Or Chronic, Is Due To The Invasion Of The Mucous Lining By Micro Organisms, Which Gain Access Either From The Urethra, The Kidneys Or The Blood-stream. Any Condition Leading To Disturbance Of The Function Of The ...

Bladder Wort
Bladder-wort, A Submerged Water Plant, Utricularia Vulgaris, With Finely Divided Leaves Upon Which Are Small Bladders Provided With Trap-doors Which Open Only Inwards. When Small Crustaceans And Other Aquatic Animals Touch The Front Of The Bladder It Alters Its Shape And They Are Sucked In And Are Unable To Escape. ...

Bladder
Bladder, The Membranous Sac In Animals Which Receives The Urine Secreted From The Kidneys. The Word Is Also Used For Any Similar Sac, Such As The Gall-bladder, The Swim-bladder In Fishes, Or The Small Vesicle In Various Seaweeds. ...

Blaeberry Or Whortleberry Bilberry
Bilberry, Blaeberry Or Whortleberry, Known Botanically As Vaccinium Myrtillus (family Ericaceae), A Low-growing Shrub, Found In Woods, Copses And On Heaths, Chiefly In Hilly Districts. The Stiff Stems, From 6in. To 2ft. Long, Bear Small Ovate Leaves With A Serrate Margin, And Small, Globose, Rosy Flowers Tinged With Green. The ...

Blaenafon Or Blaenavon
Blaenafon Or Blaenavon, Urban District, Mon Mouthshire, England. Pop. (1931) 1,o75, In A Cul-de-sac On The North-east Edge Of The South Wales Coalfield, Near The Source Of The Afon Llwyd. Owing To Its Situation On The Ironfield Of The Northern Outcrop Of The Coalfield, Blaenaf On, Like Merthyr And Dowlais, ...

Blagovyeshchensk
Blagovyeshchensk ("annunciation"). (i) A Town In The Far Eastern Area Of Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Repub Lic, On The Left Bank Of Amur River, Near Its Confluence With The Zeya. Lat. 50 20' N., Long. 127 3o' E. Pop. (1933) 63,5oo. It Was Established In 1856 By Muravieff, And Re-named ...

Blair Atholl
Blair Atholl (gael. Blair, A Plain) , Village And Parish, Perthshire, Scotland, 351-m. N.w. Of Perth By The L.m.s. Railway, At The Confluence Of Tilt And Garry. Pop. (1931) 1,557. The Oldest Part Of Blair Castle, A Seat Of The Duke Of Atholl, Dates From 126g; It Was Restored And ...

Blairgowrie
Blairgowrie, Police Burgh, Perthshire, Scotland, On The Ericht, Terminus Of A Branch Line Of The L.m.s. From Coupar Angus, 44m. Distant, 16m. N. By E. Of Perth By Road. Pop. (1930 With Rattray 4,676. The Town Is Modern, And Owes Prog Ress To Water-power Supplied By The Ericht For Flax-spinning ...

Blanc Jean Joseph Charles
Blanc (jean Joseph Charles) Louis , French Politician And Historian, Was Born On Oct. 29 1811, At Madrid, Where His Father Held The Post Of Inspector-general Of Finance Under Joseph Bonaparte. Failing To Receive Aid From Pozzo Di Borgo, His Mother's Uncle, Louis Blanc Studied Law In Paris, Living In ...

Blanch Fee Or Blanch
Blanch Fee Or Blanch Holding, An Ancient Tenure In Scottish Land Law, The Duty Payable Being In Silver Or White Money In Contradistinction To Gold. The Phrase Was After Wards Applied To Any Holding Of Which The Quit-rent Was Merely Nominal. ...

Blanche Of Castile
Blanche Of Castile Wife Of Louis Viii. Of France, Third Daughter Of Alphonso Viii., King Of Castile, And Of Eleanor Of England, Daughter Of Henry Ii., Was Born At Valen Cia. In Consequence Of A Treaty Between Philip Augustus And John Of England, She Was Betrothed To The Former's Son, ...

Blandford Or Blandford Forum
Blandford Or Blandford Forum, Municipal Borough, Dorset, England, On The River Stour. Where The Ancient Road From Salisbury To Dorchester Crosses The Road And Rail Routes Following The River From North-west To South-east. Population 3,371. The Town Is An Old Foundation, But Was Almost Wholly Destroyed By Fire In The ...

Blank Verse
Blank Verse, The Unrhymed Measure Of Iambic Deca Syllable In Five Beats Which Is Usually Adopted In English Epic And Dramatic Poetry. The Epithet Is Due To The Absence Of The Rhyme The Ear Expects At The End Of Successive Lines. In The Beginning Of The I 6th Century, However, ...

Blank
Blank, A Word Used In Various Senses Based On That Of "left White," I.e., Requiring Something To Be Filled In (fr. Blanc, White) ; Thus A "blank Cheque" Requires The Amount To Be Inserted, An Insurance Policy In Blank Lacks The Name Of The Beneficiary, "blank Verse" (q.v.) Is Unrhymed ...

Blankenberghe
Blankenberghe, Seaside Resort, West Flanders, Bel Gium, 12m. N.e. Of Ostend. Pop. (193o) 7,277. There Is A Small Fishing Port And A Considerable Fishing Fleet. Zeebrugge (q.v.) Lies 2m. North. ...

Blankenburg
Blankenburg, A Town And Health Resort Of Germany, In The Land Of Brunswick, Lying At The Northern Foot Of The Harz Mountains, I2m. S.w. Of Halberstadt. Pop. (1933), 12,798. It Has Been In Large Part Rebuilt Since A Fire In 1836, And Possesses A Castle, A Museum Of Antiquities, An ...

Blankenese
Blankenese, A Town On The Elbe In The Prussian Province Of Schleswig-holstein, West Of And Almost Surburban To Altona. Pop. (19 2 5) 13,652. Boatbuilding Is Carried On. ...

Blanketeers
Blanketeers, The Nickname Given To Some 5,000 Oper Atives Who On March Io 1817, Met In St. Peter's Field, Near Manchester, To March To London, Each Carrying Blankets Or Rugs. Their Object Was To See The Prince Regent And Lay Their Griev Ances Before Him. The Habeas Corpus Act Was ...

Blantyre
Blantyre, A Town In Nyasaland, Africa, Is 47' S., 35 3' E., And About 3,50oft. Above Sea-level In The Shire Highlands, 3oom. By River And Rail From The Chinde Mouth Of The Zambezi. Pop. About 6,000 Natives, 25o Whites. Blantyre Is The Principal Com Mercial Centre Of Nyasaland, And Is ...

Blantyre_2
Blantyre (gaelic, "the Warm Retreat"), Parish, Lan Arkshire, Scotland, South-east Of Glasgow, And Containing High Blantyre, Blantyre Works (or Low Blantyre), Stonefield And Sev Eral Villages. Pop. (1931), 17,015. The Whole District Is Rich In Coal. Blantyre Works Was The Birthplace Of David Livingstone 0813-73) And His Brother Charles (1821-73), ...