Home >> Encyclopedia-britannica-volume-3-baltimore-braila >> Isaac Bickerstaffe to John Bell

Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

Loading


Isaac Bickerstaffe
Bickerstaffe, Isaac (c. 1735-c. 1812), British Dram Atist. He Was The Author Of Many Plays And Burlesque Farces Interspersed With Songs, Produced Between 176o And 1771. The Best-known Are Maid Of The Mill (founded On Richardson's Pamela), The Padlock, He W Ould If He Could, Love In A Village, The ...

Isaac De Benserade
Benserade, Isaac De (1613-169i) , French Poet, Was Born In Paris, And Baptized On Nov. 5, 1613. He Enjoyed The Patronage Of Richelieu, And Then Of Anne Of Austria. He Wrote Some Indifferent Plays, But Enjoyed A Great Reputation Until The Failure Of His Version (1676) Of The Metamorphoses Of ...

Isabella Bishop
Bishop, Isabella (1831-1904), English Traveller And Author, Daughter Of The Rev. Edward Bird, Rector Of Tattenhall, Cheshire, Was Born At Boroughbridge Hall, Yorkshire, On Oct. 15 1831. Isabella Bird Began To Travel When She Was 22. Her First Book, The Englishwoman In America (1856), Consisted Of Her Correspondence During A ...

Isaiah Berlin
Berlin, Isaiah (17 2 , An Eminent Rabbi Of Breslau; Author Of Notes On The Talmud Stimulating Critical Study Of That Work. ...

Ivanovich Basil Iii
Basil Iii., Ivanovich Tsar Of Muscovy, Son Of Ivan Iii. And Sophia Palaeologa, Succeeded His Father In 1505. A Crafty Prince, With All The Tenacity Of His Race, Basil Succeeded In Incorporating With Muscovy The Last Remnants Of The Ancient Independent Principalities, By Accusing The Princes Of Ryazan And Syeversk ...

Jacinto Benavente Y Martinez
Benavente Y Martinez, Jacinto (1866— ), Spanish Playwright And Critic, Was Born In Madrid, The Son Of A Physician. He Entered The Law Faculty Of The University There, But, Preferring Literature, Left Without Taking A Degree. His First Critical Work Was Letters Of Women (1893) Which He Followed Up With ...

Jacob Bell
Bell, Jacob (1810-18s9), British Pharmaceutical Chem Ist, Was Born In London On March 5, 181 O. On The Completion Of His Education, He Joined His Father In Business As A Chemist In Oxford Street, And At The Same Time Attended The Chemistry Lec Tures At The Royal Institution, And Those ...

Jacob Or Dionysius Bar Salibi
Bar-salibi, Jacob Or Dionysius, The And Most Voluminous Writer In The Syrian Jacobite Church Of The 12th Century. (jacob Was His Baptismal Name; Dionysius He Assumed When Consecrated To The Bishopric.) Like Bar-hebraeus, He Was A Native Of Malatia On The Upper Euphrates. In 1154 He Was Created Bishop Of ...

Jacopo Bassano
Bassano, Jacopo, Or Giacomo Da Ponte, (151 O-1592 ), Venetian Genre Painter, Was Born At Bassano In 151o, And Died There On Feb. 13, 1592. He Was First A Pupil Of His Father, Francesco Da Ponte, Then Of Bonifazio Veneziano In Venice, A Follower Of The School Of Titian. His ...

Jacques Basnage
Basnage, Jacques (1653-1723), French Protestant Divine, Was The Eldest Son Of The Eminent Lawyer Henri Basnage, Sieur De Franquenay (1615-95), And Was Born At Rouen In Nor Mandy On Aug. 8 1653, And Died At The Hague On Dec. 22 1723. He Studied Classical Languages At Saumur And Afterwards The ...

Jacques Benigne Bossuet
Bossuet, Jacques Benigne French Divine, Orator And Writer, Was Born At Dijon On Sept. 27, 1627, The Son Of A Judge Of The Parlement At Dijon, Afterwards At Metz. The Boy Was Sent To School With The Jesuits Till 1642, When He Went Up To The College Of Navarre In ...

Jacques Bernard
Bernard, Jacques (1658-1718), French Protestant Minister And Publicist, Settled In Holland, Where He Was Pen Sionary Minister Of Gouda, Then Minister At Leyden, And From I706 Professor Of Philosophy And Mathematics There. He Pub Lished Lettres Historiques From 1692 To 1698, After Which Date The Work, Which Gave An Account ...

Jacques Blondel
Blondel, Jacques Francois French Architect, Began Life As An Architectural Engraver. He Was Among The Earliest Founders Of Schools Of Architecture In France; But He Is Now Best Remembered By His Voluminous Work L'architecture Francaise, A Precious Collection Of Views Of Famous Buildings, Many Of Which Have Disappeared Or Been ...

Jacques Bongars
Bongars, Jacques 0554-1612), French Scholar And Diplomatist, Was Born At Orleans And Brought Up In The Reformed Faith. He Served Henry Iv. Of France In A Long Series Of Diplo Matic Missions Both Before And After His Accession To The Throne. Bongars' Works Are: An Abridgement Of Justin's Abridgement Of ...

Jacques Boucher De Crevecoeur
Boucher De Crevecoeur De Perthes, Jacques (1788-1868), French Geologist And Antiquary, Was Born On Sept. 1o, 1788, At Rethel, Ardennes, And Became A Cus Toms Official. He Died On Aug. 5, 1868, At Abbeville, Where He Was Director Of The Douane. His Leisure Was Chiefly Devoted To The Study Of ...

Jacques Emile Blanche
Blanche, Jacques Emile (1862— ), French Painter, Born In Paris. He Acquired A Great Reputation As A Por Trait Painter ; His Art Is Derived From French And English Sources, Refined, Sometimes Super-elegant, But Full Of Character. Among His Chief Works Are His Portraits Of His Father, Of Pierre The ...

Jacques Nicolas Billaud Varenne
Billaud-varenne, Jacques Nicolas 1819), French Revolutionary, Was The Son Of An Avocat At The Parlement Of Paris. In 1785 He Left The Oratorian College Where He Was Prefect Of Studies, Married And Bought A Position As Avocat In The Parlement. Early In 1789 He Published At Amsterdam A Three-volume Work ...

Jakob Bernays
Bernays, Jakob (1824-1881), German Philologist And Philosophical Writer, Was Born At Hamburg, Of Jewish Parents, On Sept. 11, 1824, And Died At Bonn, May 26, 1881. Jakob Studied From 1844 To 1848 At Bonn Under Ritschl. In 1853 He Accepted The Chair Of Classical Philology At The Jewish Theological College ...

Jakob Sigismund Beck
Beck, Jakob Sigismund German Phil Osopher, Born At Danzig And Educated At Konigsberg, Became Professor Of Philosophy At Halle And At Rostock. He Devoted Himself To Interpreting The Doctrine Of Kant, And In 1793 Pub Lished The Erlauternder Auszug Aus Kants Kritischen Schrif Ten, A Compendium Of Kantian Doctrine, In ...

James Barry
Barry, James (1741-1806), British Painter, Was Born At Cork On Oct. Ii, 1741. His Picture Of The "conversion By St. Patrick Of The King At Cashel" (1763) Brought Him The Acquaint Ance And Friendship Of Edmund Burke, Who, With Other Friends, Sent Him Abroad To Study Art. In 1773 He ...

James Beattie
Beattie, James Scottish Poet And Writer On Philosophy, Was Born At Laurencekirk, Kincardine. He Was Educated At The Parish School And At Marischal College, Aber Deen, Where, After Some Years Spent In School Teaching, He Be Came Professor Of Moral Philosophy. Beattie's First Published Work Was Original Poems And Translations ...

James Bogardus
Bogardus, James (1800-1874), American Inventor, Was Born In Catskill, N.y., On March T4, 1800. He Was Appren Ticed To A Watch-maker And His First Inventions Were In Chronom Etry. At 28 He Produced The "ring Flier" Used In Cotton-spinning And, Shortly After, A Grist-mill In Which The Stones Followed The ...

James Boswell
Boswell, James The Biographer Of Samuel Johnson, Was Born At Edinburgh On Oct. 29, 1740. He Was The Eldest Son Of Alexander Boswell, Who On Being Raised To The Bench Took The Title Of Lord Auchinleck. According To The Son's Account, He Had "all The Dignified Courtesy Of An Old ...

James Bowdoin
Bowdoin, James American Political Lead Er, Was Born Of French Huguenot Descent, In Boston, Mass., On Aug. 7, 1726. He Graduated At Harvard In 1745, And Was A Mem Ber Of The General Court Of Massachusetts In 1753-56, And From 1757 To 1774 Of The Massachusetts Council, In Which, On ...

James Bowie
Bowie, James (1796?-1836), American Adventurer And Pioneer. Accounts Of Bowie Are Conflicting, But Apparently He Was Born Between 1790 And 1796 In Georgia (according To Some, Kentucky) And Taken To Louisiana In 1802. There In His Young Manhood He Was Engaged In Smuggling Negro Slaves Into The United States In ...

James Bradley
Bradley, James (1693-1762), English Astronomer, Was Born At Sherborne, Gloucestershire, And Educated At Balliol College, Oxford. His Early Observations Were Made At The Rectory Of Wanstead In Essex, Under The Tutelage Of His Uncle, The Rev. James Pound (1669-1724), Himself A Skilled Astronomer, And He Was Elected A Fellow Of ...

James Carroll Beckwith
Beckwith, James Carroll Ameri Can Portrait-painter, Was Born At Hannibal (mo.), On Sept. 23, 1852. He Studied At The National Academy Of Design, New York City, And In Paris (1873-78) Under Carolus Duran. Returning To The United States In 1878, He Gradually Became A Prominent Figure In American Art. He ...

James Fitzjames Berwick
Berwick, James Fitzjames, Duke Of (1670 1734 ), Marshal Of France, Was The Natural Son Of James, Duke Of York, Afterwards James Ii. Of England, By Arabella Churchill (1648-1730), Sister Of The Duke Of Marlborough. He Was Born At Moulins (bourbonnais) On Aug. 21 1670, And Educated In France. He ...

James Gillespie Birney
Birney, James Gillespie An Ameri Can Leader Of The Political Abolitionists (anti-slavery), Was Twice Candidate For The Presidency Of The United States On The Liberty Party (q.v.) Ticket, 184o And 1844. In The First Instance He Spent The Whole Of His Time As Candidate Speaking In Great Britain Against Slavery ...

James Gillespie Blaine
Blaine, James Gillespie American Congressman, U.s. Senator And Secretary Of State, One Of The Suc Cession Of Americans Whose Ability And Political Acumen Have Led Them Close To The Presidency Of The United States, Only To Be Defeated. In American Political History Blaine Was Known, Devot Edly Or Derisively, As ...

James Gordon Bennett
Bennett, James Gordon American Journalist, Founder And Editor Of The New York Herald, Was Born At Newmills, Banffshire, Scotland, In 1i95. He Was Educated For The Roman Catholic Priesthood In A Seminary At Aberdeen, But In The Spring Of 1819 He Emigrated To America. After Earning A Meagre Living As ...

James Hepburn Bothwell
Bothwell, James Hepburn, 4th Earl Of (c. 1536-1578), Duke Of Orkney And Shetland, Husband Of Mary, Queen Of Scots, Son Of Patrick, 3rd Earl Of Bothwell, And Of Agnes, Daughter Of Henry, Lord Sinclair, Was Born About James Hepburn Succeeded In 1556 To His Father's Titles, Lands And Hereditary Offices, ...

James Scott Bowerbank
Bowerbank, James Scott English Naturalist And Palaeontologist, Was Born In Bishopsgate, London, And Succeeded In Conjunction With His Brother To His Father's Dis Tillery, In Which He Was Actively Engaged Until 1847. About The Year 1836 He And Six Others Founded "the London Clay Club." In The Year 1840 Bowerbank ...

James Theodore Bent
Bent, James Theodore (1852-1897), English Trav Eller, Was The Son Of James Bent Of Baildon House, Near Leeds, Yorkshire, Where He Was Born On March 3o, 1852. He Was Edu Cated At Repton School And Wadham College, Oxford, Where He Graduated In 1875. He Spent Considerable Time In The Aegean ...

Jan Frans Van Bloemen
Bloemen, Jan Frans Van Flemish Painter, Born At Antwerp, Studied And Lived In Italy. At Rome He Was Styled Orizonte, On Account Of His Painting Of Distance In His Landscapes, Which Are Reminiscent Of Gaspard Poussin. His Brothers Pieter (1657-1719), Styled Standaart (from His Military Pictures), And Norbert (167o-1746) Were ...

Jean Balue
Balue, Jean (c• 142i-1491), French Cardinal And Min Ister Of Louis Xi., Was Born Of Very Humble Parentage At Angle In Poitou. He Became Almoner To Louis Xi., In 1465, Bishop Of Evreux, And In 1468 Cardinal. But In That Year Balue Was Corn Promised In The King's Humiliation By ...

Jean Baptiste Bessieres
Bessieres, Jean Baptiste, Duke Of Istria (1768 I 813) , French Marshal, Served For A Short Time In The "constitu Tional Guard" Of Louis Xvi. And As A Non-commissioned Officer Took Part In The War Against Spain. In The Army Of The Eastern Pyrenees And In The Army Of The ...

Jean Baptiste Biot
Biot, Jean Baptiste (1774-1862), French Physicist, Was Born In Paris On April 21, 1774. In I800 He Became Professor Of Physics At The College De France, Through The Influence Of Laplace, From Whom He Had Sought And Obtained The Favour Of Reading The Proof Sheets Of The Mecanique Celeste. In ...

Jean Baptiste Boussingault
Boussingault, Jean Baptiste (1802-1887), French Agricultural Chemist, Was Born In Paris And Spent His Early Manhood In South America. On His Return To France He Held The Chair Of Chemistry At Lyons, And Then One Of Agricultural And Analytical Chemistry In Paris. His Most Important Work, Which Was Translated Into ...

Jean Baptiste George Marie
Bory De Saint-vincent, Jean Baptiste George Marie (178o-1846), French Naturalist, Was Born At Agen. He Was Naturalist With Captain Nicholas Baudin's Expe Dition To Australia In 1798, But Left The Vessel At Mauritius, And Spent Two Years In Exploring Reunion And Other Islands. Joining The Army On His Return, He ...

Jean Baptiste Noel Bouchotte
Bouchotte, Jean Baptiste Noel French Revolutionary, Was Born At Metz On Dec. 25, 1754, And Died On June 8, 1840. He Was Minister Of War Under The Con Vention, And Rendered Some Services In The Organization Of The Republican Armies, Choosing His Officers With Insight, Among Them Kleber, Massena, Moreau ...

Jean Barbeyrac
Barbeyrac, Jean , French Jurist, The Nephew Of Charles Barbeyrac, A Physician Of Montpellier, Was Born At Beziers In Lower Languedoc. Migrating With His Family Into Switzerland After The Revocation Of The Edict Of Nantes, He Studied Jurisprudence At Geneva And Then At Frankfurt-on-main, And Became Professor Of Belles-lettres In ...

Jean Bart
Bart, Jean (1651-1702), French Admiral, The Son Of A Fisherman, Saw His First Service With The Dutch Navy, But On The Outbreak Of The War With France, Entered The French Naval Service. Louis Xiv., Hearing Of His Exploits Against The Pirates Of The North Sea, Made Him Captain Of A ...

Jean Batz
Batz, Jean, Baron De (1 761-182 2) , French Royalist, Was Born In Gascony On Dec. 6, 1761, And Died At Chadieu, Jan. Io, 1822. At The Time Of The French Revolution He Was Grand Seneschal Of The Duchy Of Albret, And In 1789 Was Nominated Deputy At The States ...

Jean Berain
Berain, Jean (163 7--1 71 1) , Known As "the Elder," French Draughtsman And Designer, Painter And Engraver Of Ornament, Was Born On Oct. 28 1637, At Saint Mihiel (meuse) And Died In Paris On Jan. 24 171i. In 1674 He Was Appointed Dessinateur De La Chambre Et Du Cabinet ...

Jean Bodin
Bodin, Jean (153o-1596), French Political Philosopher, Was Born At Angers In 153o. Having Studied Law At Toulouse And Lectured There On Jurisprudence, He Settled In Paris As An Advocate. In 1588, In Refutation Of The Views Of The Seigneur De Malestroit, Comptroller Of The Mint, Who Maintained That There Had ...

Jean Charles Borda
Borda, Jean Charles (1733-1799), French Mathe Matician And Nautical Astronomer, Was Born At Dax. Entering The Army At An Early Age He Transferred Later To The Navy, And In 1782 Was Taken Prisoner At Sea By The English, But Was Immediately Released On Parole. He Contributed A Long Series Of ...

Jean De Bethencourt
Bethencourt, Jean De (c. French Ex Plorer, Sailed From La Rochelle On May 1, 1402, With Two Ships Commanded By Himself And Gadifer De La Salle To Conquer The Canary Islands. Failing In A First Attempt He Secured Help From Henry Iii., King Of Castile, And The Title Of "king." ...

Jean Fran C Ois
Boissonade De Fontarabie, Jean Fran C Ois French Classical Scholar, Was Born At Paris Aug. 12 He Was In The Public Service 1792-95, And Was Restored By Lucien Bonaparte, During Whose Time Of Office He Served As Secretary To The Prefecture Of The Upper Marne. He Then Devoted Himself To ...

Jean Jacques Barthelemy
Barthelemy, Jean Jacques (1716-1795), French Writer And Numismatist, Was Born In Cassis, Provence. In He Became Assistant To M. Gros De Boze, Keeper Of The Royal Collection Of Medals, And In 1753 Succeeded Him. In 1755 He Accompanied The French Ambassador, M. De Stainville, Afterwards Duc De Choiseul, To Italy, ...

Jean Jacques Bernard
Bernard, Jean-jacques ), French Dram Atist, Born At Enghien On July 30, 1888. The Son Of Tristan Ber Nard, He Was At First Strongly Influenced By The Latter's Mocking And Sceptical Humour. This Is Noticeable In His Two One-act Plays Le Voyage A Deux And La Joie Du Sacrifice, And ...

Jean Jacques Boissard
Boissard, Jean Jacques (1528-1602), French An Tiquary And Latin Poet, Was Born At Besancon. He Studied At Louvain And, On Leaving, Went To Italy, Where He Remained For Many Years. He Became Interested In Antiquities, And Formed A Large Collection. He Returned To France, But, Not Being Allowed To Profess ...

Jean Jean Le Meingre
Boucicaut, Jean (jean Le Meingre, Called Bovci Caut) (c. 1366-1421), Marshal Of France, Was The Son Of Another Jean Le Meingre (d. 1368) Also Known As Boucicaut, Marshal Of France. Boucicaut Spent His Life In Fighting. He Had Served In Several Campaigns Before He Joined The Expedition To Hungary (1396), ...

Jean Louis Barthou
Barthou, Jean Louis , French Poli Tician, Was Born At Oloron-sainte-marie Aug. 25, 1862. He Prac Tised As A Lawyer In Pau And In 1889 Was Elected Deputy. He Be Came Minister Of Public Works In The Cabinet Of Charles Dupuy, 1894, In Which Poincare Also Made His Debut As ...

Jean Louis Guez De
Balzac, Jean Louis Guez De (1594-1654), French Author, Was Born At Angouleme. At The Age Of 18 He Travelled In Holland With Theophile De Viaud, With Whom He Later Ex Changed Bitter Recriminations. He Was Early Befriended By The Duc D'epernon And His Son Louis, Cardinal De La Valette, Who ...

Jean Nicolas Bouilly
Bouilly, Jean Nicolas (1763-1842), French Au Thor, Was Born Near Tours. Under The Revolution He Helped To Organize Primary Education, But Retired In 1799. His Numerous Works Include The Musical Comedy Pierre Le Grand (1790), For Gretry's Music, And The Opera Lea Deux Journees (1800), Music By Cherubini; Also L' ...

Jean Pierre Boyer
Boyer, Jean Pierre (1776-1850), President Of The Republic Of Haiti, A Mulatto, Was Born At Port-au-prince On Feb. 28, 1776. He Received A Good Education In France, In 1792 Entered The Haitian Army, By 1794 Was In Command Of A Battalion, And During The British Invasion (1794-98) Distinguished Himself Under ...

Jeanne Julia Bartet Regnault
Bartet (regnault), Jeanne Julia (1854- ), French Actress, Was Born In Paris And Trained At The Conservatoire. In 1872 She Began A Successful Career At The Vaudeville, And In 1879 Was Engaged At The Comedie Francaise, Of Which She Became A Societaire In 1880. For Many Years She Played The ...

Jehan Bodel
Bodel, Jehan (died C. 1210), French Trouvere, Was Born At Arras In The Second Half Of The 12th Century. Very Little Is Known Of His Life, But In 1205 He Was About To Start For The Cru Sade When He Was Attacked By Leprosy. In A Touching Poem Called Le ...

Jeremiah Sullivan Black
Black, Jeremiah Sullivan Ameri Can Lawyer And Statesman, Was Born In Stony Creek Township, Somerset County, Pa., On Jan. 10, 1810. He Was Largely Self-edu Cated, And Before He Was Of Age Was Admitted To The Pennsylvania Bar. He Gradually Became One Of The Leading American Lawyers, And In 1851-57 ...

Jeremy Bentham
Bentham, Jeremy 2) , English Philosopher And Jurist, Was Born On Feb. 15, 1748, In Red Lion Street, Hounds Ditch, London, The Son Of An Attorney. His Father Afterwards Retired To A Country House Near Reading, Where Young Jeremy Spent Many Happy Days. At The Age Of Three The Child ...

Jerom Bosch Or Bos
Bosch Or Bos, Jerom (c. 146o-1516), A Name Given From His Birthplace, Hertogenbosch, To Hieronymus Van Aeken, The Dutch Painter. He Was Probably A Pupil Of Albert Ouwater, And May Be Called The Breughel Of The 15th Century, For He Devoted Himself To The Invention Of Bizarre Types, Diableries, And ...

Jerome Adolphe Blanqui
Blanqui, Jerome Adolphe French Economist, Brother Of L. A. Blanqui, The Revolutionary, Was Born At Nice. He Was A Pupil Of J. B. Say, Whom He Succeeded In The Chair Of Political Economy At The Conservatoire Des Arts Et Metiers In 1833. He Was, From 183o To His Death, Head ...

Jerome Bignon
Bignon, Jerome 0589-1656), French Lawyer, Made His Reputation By His Chorographie Ou Description De La Terre Sainte, (i600). Henry Iv. Made Him Tutor To The Dauphin (louis Xiii.), Under Whose Reign He Held Important Legal Offices. His Other Prin Cipal Works Were Traite Sommaire De L'election Du Pape (16o5), And ...

Joachim Barrande
Barrande, Joachim (r ; ), Austrian Geologist And Palaeontologist, Was Born At Saugues, Haute Loire, On Aug. I 1, 1799, And Educated In The Ecole Polytechnique At Paris. He Was Tutor To The Duc De Bordeaux (afterwards Known As The Comte De Chambord), Grandson Of Charles X., And When The ...

Joannes Bassianus
Bassianus, Joannes, Italian Jurist Of The 12th Cen Tury, Is Said By Corolus De Tocco To Have Been A Native Of Cre Mona. He Was A Professor In The Law School Of Bologna, The Pupil Of Bulgarus (q.v.) And The Master Of Azo (q.v.). His Best Known Extant Treatise Is ...

Joao De Barros
Barros, Joao De (i496-i570), Called The Portuguese Livy, Born At Vizeu, May Be Said To Have Been The First Great Historian Of His Country. Educated In The Palace Of King Manoel, He Composed, At The Age Of 20, A Romance Of Chivalry, The Chronicle Of The Emperor Clarimundo, In Which ...

Joel Barlow
Barlow, Joel American Poet And Politi Cian, Was Born In Redding, Conn., On March He Gradu Ated At Yale In 1778, Did Post-graduate Work There, And Was For Three Years A Chaplain In The Revolutionary Army. In July 1784 He Established At Hartford, Conn., A Weekly Paper, The American Mercury, ...

Johann Albrecht Bengel
Bengel, Johann Albrecht Lutheran Divine And Scholar, Was Born At Winnenden, Wurttemberg, On June 24, 1687. He Studied At The University Of Tubingen And From 1713 To 1741 Was Master (klosterprdceptor) Of The Klosterschule At Denkendorf, A Seminary For Candidates For The Ministry Estab Lished In A Former Monastery. To ...

Johann Beckmann
Beckmann, Johann (1 German Technolo Gist, Was Born On June 4, At Hoya, Hanover. After Two Years Spent In St. Petersburg (leningrad), Teaching In The German Lutheran School Maintained By A. F. B Iisching There, And A Year's Travel In Scandinavia, He Began To Lecture At Gottingen University On The ...

Johann Bernhard Basedow
Basedow, Johann Bernhard Ger Man Educational Reformer, Was Born At Hamburg, The Son Of A Hair Dresser. He Received An Education At The Johanneum In That Town. In 1753 He Was Chosen Professor Of Moral Philosophy And Belles Lettres In The Academy Of Sorb In Denmark. On Account Of His ...

Johann Elert Bode
Bode, Johann Elert (1747-1826), German Astron Omer, Was Born At Hamburg On Jan. 19 1747. He Founded In The Well-known Astronomisches Jahrbuch, 51 Yearly Volumes Of Which He Compiled And Issued. He Became Director Of The Berlin Observatory In 1786, Withdrew From Official Life In 1825, And Died At Berlin ...

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich German Physiologist And Anthropologist, Was Born At Gotha On May 1, 1752. After Studying Medicine At Jena, He Graduated Doctor At Gottingen In 1775, And Was Appointed Extraordinary Professor Of Medicine In 1776 And Ordinary Professor In 1778. He Died At Gottingen On Jan. 22, 184o. He ...

Johann Hartwig Ernst Bernstorff
Bernstorff, Johann Hartwig Ernst, Count Von (1 7 1 2-1 7 72), Danish Statesman, Who Came Of A Very Ancient Mecklenburg Family, Was The Son Of Joachim Engelke, Freiherr Von Bernstorff, Chamberlain To The Elector Of Hanover, And Was Born On May 13, 1 7 12. His Maternal Grandfather, Andreas ...

Johann Heinrich Bernstorff
Bernstorff, Johann Heinrich, Count Von , German Diplomatist, Was Born In London Nov. 14 1862, The Son Of The Prussian Diplomatist, Count Albrecht Von Bernstorff, Who Was Prussian Minister And German Ambassador In London, 18s4-61 And 1862-73. He Entered The Diplomatic Service In 1899, Was Secretary Of Legation Successively At ...

Johann Jakob Bodmer
Bodmer, Johann Jakob (1698-1783), Swiss-ger Man Author, Was Born At Greifensee, Near Zurich, On July 19 1698. In 1725 He Was Appointed Professor Of Helvetian History In Zurich, A Chair Which He Held For Half A Century, And In Became A Member Of The "grosser Rat." He Published (1721– 23), ...

Johann Joachim Becher
Becher, Johann Joachim (1635-1682), German Chemist, Physician, Scholar, And Adventurer, Was Born At Spires In 1635. After A Hard Childhood And Youth, In Which Study Was Difficult Because Of The Necessity Of Supporting His Mother And Brothers, Becher Began An Extraordinary Career In Which The Publi Cation Of Learned Works ...

Johann Kaspar Bluntschli
Bluntschli, Johann Kaspar Swiss Jurist And Politician, Was Born At Zurich, The Son Of A Soap Manu Facturer. Educated At The Politische Institut Of His Native Town And At Berlin And Bonn, He Threw Himself Into Swiss Politics, Plead Ing In His Das V Olk Und Der Souveran (183o) For ...

Johannes Brahms
Brahms, Johannes (1$33-1897), German Composer, Was Born In Hamburg On May 7, 1833. He Was The Son Of A Double-bass Player In The Hamburg City Theatre And Received His First Musical Instruction From His Father. After Some Lessons From 0. Cossel, He Went To Cossel's Master, Eduard Marxsen Of Altona, ...

Johannes Muller
Muller, Johannes, And Medicine, History Of.) The Latter Part Of Miller's Life Was Given Mainly To Zoological Research, And There Is Hardly A Group In The Animal Kingdom On The Knowledge Of Which He Has Not Left His Mark. As A Microscopist He Worked Out The Anatomy Of The Glandular ...

Johannes Or Basilius Bessarion
Bessarion, Johannes Or Basilius (c. 14 7 2) , Titular Patriarch Of Constantinople, And An Illustrious Greek Scholar Who Contributed To The Revival Of Letters In The 15th Century, Was Born At Trebizond, The Year Of His Birth Being Variously Given As Or 1403. He Was Educated At Constantinople, And ...

John Bampton
Bampton, John (169o?—i 751), English Divine, Trinity College, Oxford, M.a. In 1712, Became Canon Of Salisbury, And Died On June 2, 1751. His Will Directs That Eight Lectures Shall Be Delivered Annually At Oxford In The University Church On Sun Day Mornings In Full Term, "between The Commencement Of The ...

John Banavi
Banavi, John (1798-1842), Irish Novelist, Sometimes Called The "scott Of Ireland," Was Born In Kilkenny On April 3 1798. Banim Taught Drawing In Kilkenny And Had An Unhappy Love Affair With One Of His Pupils. The Parents Forbade The Girl's Marriage. She Died, And Banim Was Much Shaken By His ...

John Banister
Banister, John (163o-1679), English Violinist, Was Sent To France By Charles Ii. To Study, And On His Return Was Made Leader Of The King's Band In Succession To Baltzar. On Dec. 3o, 1672, He Gave The First Of A Series Of Concerts At His Own House, And May Be Said ...

John Barbour
Barbour, John (1316?-1395), Scottish Poet, Was Born Perhaps In Aberdeenshire, Early In The 14th Century, Approxi Mately 1316. In A Letter Of Safe-conduct Dated 1357, Allowing Him To Go To Oxford For Study, He Is Described As Archdeacon Of Aber Deen. He Is Named In A Similar Letter In 1364 ...

John Barclay
Barclay, John Scottish Satirist And Latin Poet, Was Born At Pont-a-mousson, Where His Father William Barclay Held The Chair Of Civil Law. His Mother Was A French Woman Of Good Family. His Early Education Was Obtained At The Jesuit College. While There, At The Age Of 19, He Wrote A ...

John Barclay_2
Barclay, John Scottish Divine, Left The Scottish Church In 1772 And Founded Congregations At Sauchy Burn, Edinburgh, And London. His Followers Were Sometimes Called Bereans, Because They Regulated Their Conduct By A Dili Gent Study Of The Scriptures (acts Xvii. I I). They Hold A Modi Fied Form Of Calvinism. ...

John Barnard
Barnard, John, English Musician, Was A Minor Canon Of St. Paul's In The Reign Of Charles I. He Was The First To Publish A Collection Of English Cathedral Music—the First Book Of Selected Church Music (1641). It Contains Some Of The Finest 16th-century Masterpieces By Tallis, Gibbons, Byrd, Morley And ...

John Barnett
Barnett, John (1802-1890), English Musical Composer, Son Of A Prussian Named Bernhard Beer, Who Changed His Name On Settling In England As A Jeweller, Was Born At Bedford, July 15, 5802, And At The Age Of Ii Sang On The Lyceum Stage In London. In 1834 He Published A Collection ...

John Barry
Barry, John An Irish-american Naval Officer, Was Born In Tacumshane, Co. Wexford, Ireland, In He Went To Sea As A Boy And Thus Got To Philadelphia. He Eventually Became Master Of A Vessel There And Acquired A Fortune. When The Revolution Began He Volunteered For Service And Was Put In ...

John Bartholomew
Bartholomew, John (1831-1893 ), Scottish Cartog Rapher, Was Born In Edinburgh, The Son Of A Map Publisher. He Was For Some Time Assistant To The German Geographer, August Petermann, Until In 1856 He Took Up The Management Of His Father's Firm. Among His Numerous Publications Mention May Be Specially Made ...

John Bartlett
Bartlett, John (1820-19o5), American Publisher And Compiler, Was Born In Plymouth (mass.), On June 14, 182o. He Became A Bookseller And Publisher In Cambridge (mass.), Was A Volunteer Paymaster For A Short Time On The South Atlantic Squadron, And From 1865 To 1889, When He Retired, Was A Mem Ber ...

John Bascom
Bascom, John (1827--191 1 ), American Educator And Phil Osophical Writer, Was Born At Genoa (n.y.), On May 1, 1827. A Graduate Of Williams College And The Andover Theological Semin Ary, He Taught At Williams, And At The University Of Wisconsin, Of Which He Was President From 1874 Until 1887, ...

John Baskerville
Baskerville, John English Printer, Was Born At Wolverley In Worcestershire. About 1726 He Became A Writing Master At Birmingham. And He Seems To Have Had A Talent For Calligraphy And For Cutting Inscriptions In Stone. About The Year 175o He Began To Make Experiments In Type-founding, Pro Ducing Types Much ...

John Bastwick
Bastwick, John English Religious Zealot, Was Born At Writtle, Essex, And After A Brief Educa Tion At Cambridge, Wandered On The Continent And Graduated In Medicine At Padua. On His Re Turn He Settled In Colchester. His Celebrity Rests On His Strong Opposition To The Roman Catholic Ceremonial. About 1633 ...

John Bates
Bates, John, An English Merchant Who Was Tried Before The Court Of Exchequer In Nov. 1606, For Refusing To Pay An Extra Duty Of 5s. Per Cwt. On Imported Currants, Levied By The Sole Authority Of The Crown In Addition To The 2s. 6d. Granted By The Statute Of Tonnage ...

John Beaufort
John Beaufort, Earl Of Somerset (c. 1373-141o), Assisted Richard Ii. In 1397 When The King Attacked The Lords Appellants And Made Himself An Absolute Ruler. For These Services He Was Made Marquess Of Dorset, But After The Deposition Of Richard, In 1399, He Was Degraded To His Former Rank As ...

John Beaufort_2
John Beaufort , Earl, Then Duke, Of Somerset, Fought Under Henry V. In The French Wars, And Having Been Taken Prisoner Remained In France As A Captive Until 1437. After The Death Of Richard Beauchamp, Earl Of Warwick, In 1439, He Com Manded The English Forces, And, With His Brother ...

John Belcher
Belcher, John (1841-1913), English Architect, Son Of An Architect Of The Same Name, Was Born In London On July 10, 1841. His First Important Commission—the Royal Insurance Offices In Lombard Street—was A French Renaissance Building (since Pulled Down), In Which He Introduced Much Sculptured Work From The Hand Of Thomas ...

John Bell
Bell, John (1691-1780), Scottish Traveller, Was Born At Antermony, In Scotland, In 1691, And Studied Medicine. In 1714 He Set Out For St. Petersburg, Where, Through The Introduction Of A Countryman, He Was Nominated Medical Attendant To Valensky, Recently Appointed To The Persian Embassy, With Whom He Travelled From 1715 ...