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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 5, Part 2: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Thomas Cole
Cole, Thomas (1801-1848), American Landscape Painter, Was Born At Bolton-le-moors, England, On Feb. 1, 180i. In 1819 The Family Emigrated To America, Settling First In Philadelphia And Then At Steubenville (0.), Where Cole Learned The Rudiments Of His Profession From A Wandering Portrait Painter Named Stein. He Went About The ...

Thomas Shields Clarke
Clarke, Thomas Shields American Artist, Was Born In Pittsburgh (pa.), On April 25, 186o, And Graduated At Princeton In 1882. He Was A Pupil Of The Art Students' League, New York, And Of The Ecole Des Beaux Arts, Paris, Under J. L. Gerome; Later He Entered The Atelier Of Dagnan ...

Thomas Spencer Cobbold
Cobbold, Thomas Spencer English Man Of Science, Was Born At Ipswich In 1828, A Son Of The Rev. Richard Cobbold (1797-1877), The Author Of The History Of Mar Garet Catchpole. From 1868 He Acted As Swiney Lecturer On Geology At The British Museum Until 1873, When He Became Pro Fessor ...

Thomas
Thomas, Duke Of Clarence (c. 1388-1421), Who Was Nominally Lieutenant Of Ireland From 1401-13, And Was In Command Of The English Fleet In 1405, Acted In Opposition To His Elder Brother, Afterwards King Henry V., And The Beauforts During The Latter Part Of The Reign Of Henry Iv.; And Was ...

Tian Eucharist
Tian ; Eucharist.) For 3o Years After St. Paul's Latest Epistle We Are Left Without Information. The First Epistle Of Clement Supplies Nothing New, But 20 Years Later The Epistles Of Ignatius Show A Development. The Five Churches In Asia Which He Addresses Are Equipped With A Hierarchy Of Deacons ...

Timothy Cole
Cole, Timothy American Wood Engraver, Was Born In London In 1852, His Family Emigrating To The United States In 1858. He Established Himself In Chicago, Where In The Great Fire Of 1871 He Lost Everything He Possessed. In 1875 He Removed To New York, Finding Work On The Century (then ...

Tions Colliery Outputs
Tions; Colliery Outputs The Opening And Laying Out Of A Colliery Is Rarely Undertaken Without A Preliminary Examination Of The Character Of The Strata By Means Of Borings, Either For The Purpose Of Determining The Number And Nature Of The Coal Seams In New Ground, Or The Posi Tion Of ...

Turkish Crescent Chinese Pavilion
Chinese Pavilion, Turkish Crescent, Turkish Jingle, Or Jingling Johnny, An Instrument Consisting Of A Pole About 6f T. High Terminating In A Conical Metal Cap Or Pavilion, Hung With Small Jingling Bells And Surmounted By A Crescent And A Star. The Turkish Crescent, Or "jingling Johnny," As It Was Familiarly ...

Ulrich Cilli
Cilli, Ulrich, Count Of (1406-1456), Of Frederick Ii., Count Of Cilli, And Elizabeth Frangepan. About 1432 He Mar Ried Catherine, Daughter Of George Brankovich, Despot Of Serbia. His Influence In The Troubled Affairs Of Hungary And The Em Pire, Of Which He Was Made A Prince By The Emperor Sigismund ...

United States Chinaware
United States Chinaware Earthenware.—the Tableware Made In The United States Represents To A Very Large Extent A High Grade Of White Earthen Ware, Also Called Semi-vitreous Or White Ware. This Product Is Made In 6o Potteries And Its Composition Is Approximately As Fol Lows : English Ball Clay 13%, Feldspar ...

Upper Chindwin
Chindwin, Upper And Lower, Two Districts In The North-west Border Division Of Burma. Upper Chindwin Has An Area Of 16,037 Square Miles. Pop. (1931), 204,982. Lower Chind Win Has An Area Of 3,48o Square Miles. Pop. 383,434. For Further Details See Burma. ...

Uses Of Chlorine
Uses Of Chlorine In The Days Of The Weldon And Deacon Processes The Principal Outlet For Chlorine Was In The Manufacture Of Bleaching Powder (q.v.). Although A Very Considerable Quantity Of This Is Now Pro Duced, Its Place Has Been Taken To A Great Extent By Liquid Chlo Rine Itself. ...

Via Ciminia
Ciminia, Via, An Ancient Road Of Italy, Which Diverged From The Via Cassia At Sutrium, And Led Along The East Side Of The Lacus Ciminius (macaulay's "ciminian Mere," Mod. Lago Di Vico, An Extinct Crater Basin) Out Of Which It Climbed On The North To 2,785 Feet. Thence It Descended ...

Via Claudia Nova
Claudia Nova, Via, An Ancient Road Of Italy, 47m. In Length, Connecting The Via (claudia) Valeria With The Via Caecilia And Via Salaria At Foruli, Near Amiternum And Thus Linking To Gether The Road Systems Of North And South Italy. It Was Built By The Emperor Claudius In A.d. 47. ...

Via Clodia
Clodia, Via, An Ancient High-road Of Italy. Its Course, For The First I I M., Was The Same As That Of The Via Cassia; It Then Di Verged To The North-north-west And Ran On The West Side Of The Lacus Sabatinus, Past Forum Clodii And Blera (mod. Bieda) To Tuscania, ...

Vicat Cole
Cole, Vicat (1833-1893), English Painter, Born At Ports Mouth On April 17, 1833, Was The Son Of The Landscape Painter, George Cole, And In His Practice Followed His Father's Lead With Marked Success. He Became An Academician In 1880, And Died In London On April 6, 1893. Most Of His ...

Vincenzo Civerchio
Civerchio, Vincenzo, An Early 16th Century Italian Painter, Born At Crema. There Are Altar-pieces By Him At Brescia, And At Crema The Altar-piece At The Duomo (15o9) Is His Work. His "birth Of Christ" Is In The Brera, Milan; And At Lovere Are Other Of His Works Dating From 1539 ...

Wholesale Clothiers
Clothiers, Wholesale. The Term Wholesale Clothiers Is Applied To The Makers And Distributors Of "ready-to Wear" Or "machine-made" Woollen And Other Types Of Outer Cloth Ing For Men And Women, Comprising Suits And Overcoats For Men, Costumes, Dresses, Skirts, And Coats For Women. The Industry Now Forms The More Important ...

Wilhelm Von Christ
Christ, Wilhelm Von (1831-1906), German Classical Scholar, Was Born At Geisenheim, On Feb. 8, 1831, And Died On Feb. 8, 1906, At Munich, Where He Had Been Professor From 1860 To 1902. His Most Important Works Are His Geschichte Der Griech Ischen Literatur ( 5th Ed., 1908 1.), A History ...

William Branwhite Clarke
Clarke, William Branwhite Brit Ish Geologist, Was Born At East Bergholt, In Suffolk, On June 2, 1798. He Received His Early Education At Dedham Grammar School And In 1817 Entered Jesus College, Cambridge; He Was Ordained, And Became Curate Of Ramsholt, Suffolk. In 1839, After A Severe Illness, He Left ...

William Christian
Christian, William (1608-1663), Manx Politician, A Son Of Ewan Christian, One Of The Manx Deemsters, Was Born On April 14, 1608, And Was Known As Illiam Dhone, Or Brown Wil Liam. In 1648 The Lord Of The Isle Of Man, James Stanley, 7th Earl Of Derby, Appointed Christian His Receiver-general ...

William Clark
Clark, William (177o-1838), American Soldier And Explorer, The Youngest Brother Of George Rogers Clark, Was Born In Caroline County, Va., But Early Removed To Kentucky. He Entered The U.s. Army As Lieutenant Of Infantry In 1 I92, And Served Under Gen. Anthony Wayne Against The Indians In 1794. In 1803 ...

William Cleland
Cleland, William (1661?-1689), Scottish Covenant Ing Poet And Soldier, Son Of A Gamekeeper, Was Probably Brought Up On The Marquess Of Douglas's Estate In Lanarkshire, And Was Educated At St. Andrews University. He Joined The Army Of The Covenanters, Was Present At Drumclog And Fought At Bothwell Bridge. He Escaped ...

William Cobbett
Cobbett, William (1763-1835), English Author, Jour Nalist And Radical, Is One Of The Most Representative Figures In English Literature, And His Life And Writings Embody The History Of The Common People Between The Revolutions Of The Eighteenth Century And The Dawn Of The Victorian Era. He Was Born At Farnham, ...

William Cockerill
Cockerill, William English Inventor And Machinist, Was Born In England In 1759. He Went To Belgium As A Simple Mechanic, And In 1799 Constructed At Verviers The First Wool-carding And Wool-spinning Machines On The Continent. In 1807 He Established A Large Machine Workshop At Liege. Orders Soon Poured In On ...

William Coddington
Coddington, William (160i-1678), One Of The Founders Of Rhode Island, Was Born In Lincolnshire, England. He Was Sent Out To The Colony At Massachusetts Bay As A Magistrate, Arriving At Salem On June 12, 163o. He Was For Some Time Treas Urer Of The Colony, And Is Said To Have ...

William Frederick Cody
Cody, William Frederick (1846-1917 ), American Scout And Showman, Known Under The Name Of "buffalo Bill," Was Born In 1846 In Scott County, Iowa. He Was A Rider Of The "pony Express," A Mail Service Established In The Spring Of 1860 By The Central Overland California And Pike's Peak Express ...

William George Clark
Clark, William George English Classical And Shakespearian Scholar, Was Born At Barford Hall, Darlington, In March 1821 And Died At York On Nov. 6, 1878. In 1853 Clark Had Taken Orders, But Left The Church In 187o After The Passing Of The Clerical Disabilities Act, Of Which He Was One ...

William Kingdon Clifford
Clifford, William Kingdon Eng Lish Mathematician And Philosopher, Was Born On May 4, At Exeter, Where His Father Was A Leading Citizen. He Was Edu Cated At King's College, London, And At Trinity College, Cambridge, Where He Was Elected Fellow In 1868. In 1871 He Was Appointed Professor Of Mathematics ...

Winston Churchill
Churchill, Winston (1871— ), American Writer, Was Born In St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 10 1871. He Graduated From The United States Naval Academy In 1894, Soon Devoting Himself To Writing. His First Novel, The Celebrity, Appeared In 1898. His Next Richard Carvel (1899), A Novel Of Maryland In The Time ...

Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill
Churchill, Winston Leonard Spencer ), British Statesman, Elder Son Of Lord Randolph Churchill And Jennie, Daughter Of Leonard Jerome, Of New York, U.s.a., Was Born On Nov. 3o, 1874. He Was Educated At Harrow And Sandhurst. Entering The Army In 1895, His Principal War Service Was With The Malakand Field ...

Woollen Goods
Woollen Goods The Finishing Of Woollen Goods Requires In General Plant And Processes Entirely Different From Those Described In Connection With Cotton. The Methods Employed Naturally Vary With The Nature Of The Fabric: For Example, Worsted Fabrics (woven From Yarns Produced From The Longest Staple Fibre, And Containing The Maximum ...

Words Viewed As Deeds
Words Viewed As Deeds One Of The Most Stupendous Elements In Civilization Has Hitherto Been Only Casually Mentioned—words. Without Language Civiliza Tion Could Hardly Even Have Begun And Certainly Could Never Have Attained Its Higher Forms. Speech Underlies Thinking And Con Scious Planning And Research. It Does More. It Creates ...

Zoa
Zoa And Scyphozoa. 2. The Medusa. Those Coelen Terates Popularly Known As "jelly Fish" Are Scientifically Christened Medusae, The Name Referring To The Resemblance Borne By The Long Mobile Tentacles Of Some Of These Animals To The Writhing, Snaky Tresses Of The Gorgon Me Dusa. The Body Of A Medusa ...