Home >> Encyclopedia-of-architecture-1852 >> Capital to Colosseum

Encyclopedia of Architecture by Peter Nicholson (1852)

Capital
Capital, (capitello, Italian ; From The Latin, Caput, The Head) The Assemblage Of Mouldings Or Ornaments Above The Shaft Of A Column, On Which The Entablature Rests ; In Other Words, The Head Of The Column. Capital.; Are Variously Com Posed, Some With Simple Mouldings, Others With Mouldings, Foliage, And ...

Capitol
Capitol, A Celebrated Rock, Or Hill, At Rome, Whereon Stood Many Ancient Edifices, With The House Of Romulus, &c. Among The Many Celebrated Edifices That Formerly Occupied This Hill, The Principal Was The Asylum, Erected By Romulus In Order To People His New City. The House Of Romulus Was Composed ...

Carcase Roofino
Carcase Roofino, That Which Supports The Covering By A Grated Frame Of Timber-work, Consisting Of Three Tiers Of Timber, Parallel To Each Other, And To The Sloping Surface Of The Covering. The Most General Disposition Of The Tim Bers Is The Following : The First Tier And Support Is A ...

Carpentry
Carpentry, The Art Of Employing Timbers In The Con Struction Of Buildings. The Important And Useful Art To Which The General Name Of Carpentry Is Given, Is So Intimately Connected With The Comforts And Requirements Of Man, In Every Stage Of Civilized Society, That No Apology Can Be Necessary For ...

Caryatid Order
Caryatid Order, An Order Of Architecture, Whose Entabla Ture Is Supported By Female Figures Instead Of Columns : The Figures Themselves Are Called •oryttlithr, Cur Ales, Or Curia/es. The Caryatie Order Differs From The Persian In Having The Entablature Supported By Females, Whereas In The Latter It Is Supported By ...

Case Ii
Case Ii. Figure 11.—when The Point F, Is Taken In One Of The Extreme Lines Of The Direction, A D. On.d F, As A Diagonal, Complete The Parallelogram D Ere; Draw F Ii Per Pendicular To D B, And F I To D C; Then Because G F H And ...

Casing
Casing Or' Txmaint-worx Is When The Outside Of A Timber Building Is Plastered All Over With Mortar ; After Which It Is Made To Resemble Stone-work, By Striking It, While Wet, With The. Edge Of A Trowel, Or Other Implement. Guided By A Rule. This Operation Is Best Performed On ...

Casting Of Bronzes
Casting Of Bronzes, Is Thus Performed : The Figure To Be Cast From Must Have A Mould Made On It, Consisting Of A Mix Ture Of Plaster-of-paris And Brick-dust, In The Proportion Of Not More Than One-third Of The Former, To Two-thirds Of The Latter. The Thickness Of This Mould ...

Castle
Castle, In A Modern Sense, Is A Place Fortified Either By Nature Or By Art, In A City Or Country, To Keep The People In Their Duty, Or To Resist Au Enemy. In The More Extensive Interpretation Of The Word, It Includes The Various Methods Of Encampment, But In Its ...

Cathedral
Cathedral, (from The Greek, Kabedpa, A Chair ; Derived From Ica0e;opat, Sedeo, 1 Sit,) The Head Church Of A Diocese, Wherein Is The See Or Seat Of A Bishop. During The First Ages Of The Church, Cathedrals Were Pro Bably More Numerous Than Other Churches, As Wo Know That There ...

Ceiling
Ceiling (from The Laths, O/tor The Sky, Or (ware, To Cover), The Inside Of 1 He Roof, Or Top Of An Apartment, Opposed To The Surthee Of The Floor. Ceilings May Be Either Flat, Or Coved, Or Both. Coved Ceilings Are Sometimes Concave Round The Margin And Flat In The ...

Cella Izage
Cella Izage, The Number Of Cellars Which A Dwelling House Requires, Whether One Or Many. Celtit Druidical Arcii1tecturt. A Term Applied To A Class Of Structures Composed Of Rough Unhewn Stones Of Great Size, The Erection Of Which Is Generally Attributed To That Tinnily Of Mankind Classed Tinder The Name ...

Cement
Cement. The Word Cement May Be Defined As Any Glutinous Or Other Substance, Capable Of Uniting Bodies In Close Cohesion, Or Making Them Adhere Firmly Together, So As To Form Of The Whole One Solid Mass—as Mortar, Glue, Solder, Asphaltum, &c. Ceriteuts Are Of Various Kinds, Lout, For Conve Nience, ...

Centre
Centre, In Building. Is A Combination Of Timber-beams, So Disposed As To Form A Frame, The Convex Side Of Which, Hen Boarded Over, Corresponds To The Concavity Of An Arch; Or The Wooden Mould, Used For Turning An Arch Of Stone Or Brick During The Time Of Erection. Centre Of ...

Chalk
Chalk, An Opaque Mineral, Of A Yellowish White, Or Rather Of A Snow Colour, Of A Fine Earthy Fracture, Without Lustre, Breaking Into Blunt-edged Angular Fragments ; When Contaminated With Iron, It Has More Or Less Of An Ochrey Tinge, And Stains The Fingers ; But When Pure It Is ...

Chancel
Chancel, That Part Of A Church Which Is Appropriated To The Clergy And Others Officiating In The Public Services. The Term Comes From The Latin, Cancellus, Which, In The Lower Latin, Is Used In The Same Sense, From Cuncelli, Latt Ices, Or Cross-bars, Which Anciently Partitioned The Chancel From The ...

Chapel
Chapel, Is Also A Building Adjoined To A Church, As A Part Thereof, Having Only A Desk, &c. To Read Prayers In, And, In The Nomish Churches, An Altar, &c. To Celebrate Mass On ; Hut Without Any Baptistry Or Font. The Eighteen Chapels On The Sides Of King's College ...

Chinese Architecture
Chinese Architecture, That Which Is Used By The Inhabitants Of China, And Employed In Their Temples And Other Edifices. It Would Be Very Difficult To Give Such A Definition As Should Point Out The Species Of Architecture Practised By The Chinese; We Must Recourse To The Descriptions Of Those Who ...

Chit
Chit, An Instrument For Cleaving Laths. Ch 0111, (from Xopoc. Greek, Chorus ;) That Part Of The Church In Which The Chttir Or Singers Are Located, And The Services For The Most Part Performed. The Term Is Some Times Made Equivalent To Chancel, And Defined As That Portion Of The ...

Church
Church, (greek, Kvptov Omoc, The Lord's House,) A Christian Edifice Set Apart Tor The Public Celebration Of Divine Service. Churches Vary In Size, Magnificence, And Architectural Features. According To Their Rank And Situation ; And Are Denominated Accordingly : Thus We Have Metropolitan, Patriarchal, Cathedral, Cardinal, Conventual, Collegiate, Monastic, And ...

Church Yard
Church-yard, The Space Of Ground Surrounding The Church, Used As A Cemetery Or Burial-ground. The Entrance To Our Old Church-yards Was Frequently Through A Gate Covered With A Projecting Roof, Called The Lyeh-gate, Under Which The Coffin Was Rested Before Entering The Ground ; And Opposite The Porch, Was A ...

Ci Aplet
Ci Aplet, A Small Ornament Cut Into Olives, Beads, ; A Sort Of Fillet. Cliapter-lioitse (from Capita/um), A Place Belonging To A Cathedral, Or Collegiate Church, Wherein The Assemblies Of The Clergy Were Held. The Greater Number Of Chapter-houses Were Connected With The Cloisters Of The Church To Which They ...

Ci Nz El
Ci Nz]; El, A Term Used By Some For A Niche Or Hollow In A Wad. To Contain A Statue. Bust. Nc. Conisei., A Block Of Stone Or Other Material Projecting Moon The Flee Of A Wall, And Used To Support A Superineumbent Weight, Such As The Beams Of A ...

Ciievet
Ciievet (french), The Eastern End Of A Church, When Of A Circular Or Polygonal Form : Equivalent To Apsts, Which See. Cl] Evaon-\vui K, A Zig-zag Ornament, Somtimes Called The Dancette, Usual In The Archivolts Of Saxon And Norman Arches. The Outline Of Chevron-work Is A Conjunction Of Right Lines, ...

Ciiristopiier Wren
" Ciiristopiier Wren. " In The Year Irt`a5, Sir Christopher Wren Was Elected And Returned A Ifflrgess For• The Borough Of Plympton, In The County Of Devon, And Served In That Parliament Tt Idol] Began At Westminster On The Of Alay, 16;35 In The First Year Of James Il In ...

Cima Cymat1um
Cymat1um, Cima, Cyma, Ur Sima (from Trynartov, Undula, The Diminutive Of /mita, A. Ware) A Moulding, N% Hose Sec Tion Is A Curve Of Contrary Flexure ; It Is Commonly Denominated By Workmen An Ogee. This Is The Strict Sense In Which The Term Ought To Be Employed, Though Vitruvius ...

Circle
Circle, (front The Latin, Eirculus), A Plane Figure Con Tained Under One Line, Called The Circumference, Which Is Such That All Lines Drawn To It, From A Certain Point Within The Figure, Are Equal ; And The Point From Which The Lines May Be Tints Drawn, Is Called The Centre ...

Cistern
Cistern, An Artificial Reservoir Or Receptacle For Holding Water, Beer, Or Other Liquor, As In Domestie Uses, Breweries, And Distilleries. Cisterns Of Earth Must Be Lined With Good Cement, To Make Them Retain The Water, And The Bottoms Should Be Covered With Sand To Keep It Sweet. Water For The. ...

Citadel
Citadel, Is Also A Small Fortification, Consisting Of Four, Five, Or Six Sides, With Bastions, By Which It Is Distinguished From A Castle, And Usually Joined To Towns, And Sometimes Erected On Commanding Eminences Within Them. Citadels May Be Either Square, Rectangular, Pentagonal, Hexagonal, Or, Indeed, Of Any Figure ; ...

Cizona
Cizona (from The Latin) A Membe• Of The Cornice, With A Broad Vertical Thee, And A Hold Projection. The Solid, Out Of Which It Is (lrmed, Is Generally Reeessed Upwards From Its Soffit ; Hence The Italians Call Itdgt.ceio/ut;os And Logrinintio8, The French, /arc/tier. And The English Workmen, Drip, From ...

Claude Perrault
Perrault, Claude, An Eminent Architect, Born At Paris In 1613. L Le Was Brought Up To The Medical Profession, And Took His Degree As Doctor Of The Faculty Of Paris In 1641. He Practised Little, However, Excepting Among His Friends And The Poor ; And Having A Decided Taste For ...

Clement
Clement, A Celebrated French Architect, Who Flourished In The Former Part Of The Seventeenth Cen Tury, Was A Native Of Dreux, But Settled At Paris, Became Architect To Louis X111., And Acquired Much Thine By Carry Ing Into Execution, With Tiriot, A Parisian Mason, The Plan Suggested By Cardinal Richelieu, ...

Cloister
Cloister, (latin, Clausum, Enclosed, Shut In ;) A Covered Range Of Building Attached To A Monastic Or Collegiate Estab Lishment, Forming A Passage Of Communication Between The Various Buildings, More Especially Between The Church And Chapter-house. Cloisters Were Employed As Places Of Medi Tation And Recreation By The Inmates Of ...

Club Chambers
Club-chambers. As The Building We Are About To Describe Is The First Attempt To Provide A Superior Kind Of Accommodation For Gentlemen Who Are Accustomed To Reside In Chambers, By The Erection Of An Edifice Especially Planned For, And Adapted To The Purpose ; We Think A Notice Of The ...

Club Iiouse
Club-iiouse. Under This Term Are Designated The Splendid Establishments Which Have Sprung Up At The West End Of The Metropolis Within The Last Few Years. Called Into Existence By The Requirements Of A Highly Refined State Of Society, The Clubs Of London Represent An Assemblage Of Gen Tlemen Composed Of ...

Coffer Dam
Coffer-dam, A Hollow Darn, Constructed Of A Double Range Of Piles, With Clay Rammed Between, For The Security And Convenience Of The Workman While Digging Out And Building The Foundation Of An Ent•ance-lock To A Dock, Basin, Or Canal, When It Cannot Otherwise Be Laid Dry. In Bridge-building, The Term ...

Coi Passes
Co\i Passes, (from The French, Compas) A Mathematical Instrument Fiur Describing Circles And Ellipses, Or Their Arcs; Also For Measuring And Proportioning Distances. Compasses For Drawing Are Of Four Kinds : Those With Two Legs, Moveable On A Joint, By Which The Extremities Can Be Extended To Any Distance, Not ...

College
College, A Public Building, Endowed With Revenues For The Education Of Youth And Their Instruction In The Various Branches Of Science And Literature. An Assembly Of Colleges Constitute A University. Our Colleges Consist, Fm• The Most Part, Of One Or More Quadrangular Areas, Surrounded By Ranges Of Buildings, Which Comprise ...

Colonnade
Colonnade, (from The Italian Colonna,) A Range Of Attached Or Insulated Columns, Supporting An Entablature. The Interval Between The Columns, Measured By The Inferior Diameter Of The Column, Is Called The Intercolumniation, And The Whole Area Hetween Every Two Columns Is Called An Inter Column. When The Intercolumniation Is One ...

Colosseum
Colosseum. Although It Scarcely Falls Within Our Pro Vince To Describe Places Of Amusement Considered Merely As Such, The Structure Known Under The Name At The Head Of This Article, Deserves, From Its Peculiar Form, And The Extreme Taste Displayed In Its Interior Decorations, Something More Than A Passing Notice. ...