ARCHITECTURAL FORMS Having considered the general method in the drawing of architectural plans, we shall now consider some of the general forms employed to represent different parts of the work.
In Plate A are given some general forms for representing materials.
Fig. 1 represents brick. A section of a brick wall should be sectioned as shown, by parallel lines at 45 degrees, slanting down to the left. It might be well to repeat here what has been said about the use of colored inks for drawing. Except for dimension lines, avoid the use of colors. The materials may be indicated as shown by varying the texture of the line and also by different forms of dotting.
Fig. 2—We use alternating lines—solid and dashes—at 45 degrees to represent rubble stone such as is found in most basements.
Fig. 3—We use solid lines running at 45 degrees to each other and in opposite directions, to represent cut-stone work such as sills for windows and doors, chimney caps, and any kind of finished or dressed stone.
Fig. 4 represents concrete. This symbol is composed of small, wavy lines, with occasional triangular shapes to represent the stone. This symbol may be used to represent the concrete such as would be used in a solid wall or reinforced concrete for floors and other similar constructions.
Fig. 5 illustrates the method of showing terra-cotta. This is the same as for brick, with the lines running in the opposite direction.
For representing an interior partition of a frame building, the method shown in Fig. 6 is perhaps the most satisfactory. Plaster is repre sented by parallel lines to opposite sides of the wall.
Very often, in fireproof buildings, partitions are built of hollow tile and plastered on both sides. Fig. 7 illustrates the method of indicating
such a partition.
Where a brick wall is furred on the inside and then plastered, we use the ordinary symbol for the brick wall, and show the plaster away from the wall, as in Fig. S.
Very often, instead of using the partition as shown in Fig. 7, it will be built up solid of plaster 2 inches thick with a layer of expanded metal imbedded. This partition is shown in Fig. 9. It will be found a very satisfactory partition, requiring less floor space, and equal in every way to any other fireproof partition.
On the basement plan, various lines of pipe should be shown. There should be a porous tile drain, in damp soils, all around the outside of the basement walls, at the footing line. Such drains are constructed of porous farm tile, laid with butt joints and no cementing of any kind. The tile being porous, the water in the soil perco lates through the walls of the tile, and is carried away. These drains are indicated as shown in Plate B.
For the sewer connections inside the build ing, and extending at least six feet outside the basement wall, the pipe should be cast-iron and have calked joints. Such pipes are shown on the basement plan as in Plate B. Connected to this cast-iron pipe outside the basement wall, a vitrified tile drain should be used, with cemented joints. Such pipe is also shown in Plate B. All these pipe lines should be shown in black on the drawing.
There are certain lines used in a drawing for reference, such as axis lines—that is, when a room or building is symmetrically arranged around a center line. In order to make such axis lines distinct from general lines, they are usually made as shown in Plate B.
When there are offsets or projections on a wall, such work is measured from certain lines established as building lines (see Plate B). Usually the outside wall line of the first story is taken as this reference line; and the basement wall line, the second-story line, the eave line, etc., are all measured as projecting from this line.