Home >> Business Encyclopedia And Legal Adviser >> Coasting Trade to Marine Insurance

Business Encyclopedia and Legal Adviser

Coasting Trade
Coasting Trade Includes All Trade By Sea From One Part Of The United Kingdom To Another, Ships Thus Engaged Being Known As Coasting Ships. No Goods May Be Carried Coastwise Except Such As Are Laden For That Purpose At Some Port Or Place In The United Kingdom. The Master Of ...

Codicil
Codicil Is A Testamentary Document Altering Or Modifying A Will. It May However Take Effect Without A Will, Even If Its Language Implies That A Will Exists. A Codicil Ratifying A Will Amounts To A Republication Of That Will, And Both Ought To Be Considered Together As One Will. The ...

Collecting
Collecting The Purposes For Which Collecting Societies And Industrial Insurance Companies May Issue Policies Of Assurance There Are Now Included, By Virtue Of The Assurance Companies Act, 1909, Insuring Money To Be Paid Fbr The Funeral Expenses Of A Parent, Grandparent, Grandchild, Brother, Or Sister. And Policies Effected Before The ...

Combination In Trade
Combination In Trade Is Found In Its Main Examples In Joint Stock Companies, Co-operative Societies, And Partnerships. Apart From These, However, Are Those Trade Combinations, The Object Of Which Is Either The Control Of The Production Of Certain Commodities With A View To Obtaining A Monopoly, Or The Restriction In ...

Commercial
Commercial Is Not In England Any Branch Of The Law Specially Separated From The Rest, And Known As Commercial Law. Nor Is There, As In France For Example, In Addition To A Commercial Code, A Court Specially Established To Administer Such Law. There Is, Of Course, The Com Mercial Court ...

Commercial
Commercial Traveller.—there Is Not Any Law Especially Appli Cable To Commercial Travellers As A Class, The Nature Of Their Employment Bring Ing Them Within The General Law Relating To Master And Servant (q.v.). As, However, A Commercial Traveller May Be Employed By Several Distinct Persons, Frequently Receives His Remuneration Either ...

Commercial Intelligence Office
Commercial Intelligence Office Is The Name Given To A Sub-department Of The Board Of Trade, Established In 1899, For The Purpose Of Collecting Commercial Information And Disseminating It Among The Trading And Manufacturing Classes. The Information Is Collected By The Board Of Trade Itself, And From The Various Departments Of ...

Companies Their Formationand
Companies : Their Formation And Companies With Which It Is Proposed To Deal In This Article Are Those Formerly Formed Under The Companies Acts, 1862 To 1900, Of Which Statutes The Act Of 1862 Was The Chief, And Those Now Formed Under The Repealing And Consolidat Ing Act Of 1908. ...

Compensation
Compensation Is R, Term Used To Describe The Recompense Awarded To An Individual In Return For Some Right Or Property He Has Been Forced By Statute To Give Up To Another. The Common Law Has Never Allowed The Rights Or Property Of Any One To Be At The Mercy Of ...

Con The Business Encyceoivedia
Con The Business Encyceoivedia 327 I To Their Removal As Soon As Possible. The Advicetalso Gives Notice As To When And How The Carriage Is To Be Paid, And That Any'objections As To Weights Or Charges Must Be Made Within Three Clays From The Date Thereof; Also That, So Long ...

Conciliation
Conciliation. — In Order To Preve...t And Settle Disputes Between Employers And Workmen By Conciliation Or Arbitration, Provision Is Made By The Conciliation Act, 1896, For The Establishment Of Boards Of Conciliation. Such A Board Would Be An Association Or Body Authorised By An Agreement In Writing Made Between Employers ...

Conflict Of
Conflict Of Laws.—under This Title Are Usually Considered The Rules Which Regulate The Rights And Obligations Of Private Individuals When They Are Affected By The Separate Internal Laws Of Distinct Countries Having Independent Jurisdictions. The Rules Of This Class Which Are Observed By The English Courts Are A Part Of ...

Consanguinity
Consanguinity Is The Term Applied To Relationship By Blood, As Distinguished From Affinity, Or Relationship By Marriage. Marriage Is Essential, However, To Legal Consanguinity, For Without Marriage No Legal Can Be Created, As In The Case Of A Bastard. But Marriage Would Not Be Essential If Considering The Subject From ...

Consignment
Consignment Note.—this Is The Name Applied In Commercial Practice To At Least Two Different Documents, Though Each Of These Have Sufficiently The Same Object In Common To Make The Term Equally Applicable In Both Cases. The First Is A Letter Written To The Merchant Or Manufacturer From Whom Goods Have ...

Conspiracy
Conspiracy Is A Criminal Offence Which Consists Of The Intention And Agreement Of Two Or More Persons To Do An Unlaufill Act, Or To Do A Lawful Act By Unlawful Means. When Two Or More Persons Agree To Carry The Intention Into Effect The Very Plot Has Been Said To ...

Consular Invoice
Consular Invoice. When Exporting Goods To Certain Foreign Countries, Such As The United States Of America, Portugal, Chili, And Other South American Countries, It Is Necessary For The Exporting Merchant To Make Out An Invoice Of The Goods In A Prescribed Form, And Make 0, Declaration Before The Local Consul ...

Contagious
Contagious Diseases.—in This Article The Diseases Of Animals Only Will Be Dealt With ; Those Of Mankind Will Be The Subject Of The Article Entitled Infectious Diseases. The Law And Regulations On This Subject Are Now Contained In The Diseases Of Animals Act, 1894, And In The Orders Of The ...

Contempt Of Court
Contempt Of Court Is A Wilful Disobedience Of The Rules, Orders, Or Process Of A Court Of Law, Or A Distorbance Of Or Interference With Its Pro Ceedings. Contempts By Resistance To The Process Of A Court, Such As The Refusal Of A Sheriff To Return A Writ, Or Wilful ...

Drawings Paintings
Paintings, Drawings, Photographs, Engravings.— Paintings, Drawings, Photographs.—until The Enactment Of The Fine Arts Copyright Act, 1862, The Authors Of Paintings, Drawings, And Photo Graphs Had No Copyright In Their Works. By That Act, However, Such Authors And Their Assignees In Respect Of Works Not Sold Or Disposed Of Before The ...

Endowment Assurance
Endowment Assurance Is The Subject Of An Article Elsewhere, And Certain Risks Undertaken By Life Assurance Companies Hardly Need Special Reference In Such A Work As This. Examples Of The Latter Are " Names And Arms " Policies, Which Indemnify Against Loss Caused By A Person Failing To Use A ...

How To Draw Up
How To Draw Up A Letter-heading The First Thing To Be Considered In Connection With The Despatch Of Any Letter, Whether It Be An Answer To A Complaint Or A Circular Designed To Attract New Customers, Is The Paper Upon Which It Is Written And The Printed Heading That The ...

How To Duplicate A
How To Duplicate A Circular-letter Probanly No Department Of Printing Has Been Developed So Largely Dining The Last Few Years As That Concerned With The Printing Of Imitation Typewritten Letters. Indeed, Such A State Of Perfection Has Been Reached That Although When Only A Few Copies Are Required It May ...

How To Lay Oitt
How To Lay Oitt A Letter In Insuring That A Circular-letter Will Convey As Good A First Impression As Possible, The Actual Arrangement Of The Typing Is Often Quite As Important As The Paper Upon Which It Is Printed And The Heading That Surniounts It. Even The Most Delicately Designed ...

How To Write Letters
How To Write Letters Collecting Accounts The Collection Of Accounts Is Probably One Of The Most Difficult, And At The Same Time One Of The Most Important, Tasks That Faces The Writer Of Business Letters. Although The Individual Amounts Involved May Not Be Large, When Considered Collectively The Sum Involved ...

How To Write A
How To Write A Successful Letter The First And Most Important Step In The Writing Of A Successful " Form," Or Circular, Letter Is To Think. Sit Down Quietly And Consider The Matter Froni Every Point Of View. Try To Appreciate How The Man You Are Writing To Will Look ...

In Witness
In Witness Whereof, We The Assurers Have Subscribed Our Names And Sums Assured In N.b.—corn, Fish, Salt, Fruit, Flour, And Seed Are Warranted Free From Average, Unless General, Or The Ship Be Stranded ; Sugar, Tobacco, Hemp, Flax, Hides, And Skins Are Warranted Free From Average Under Five Pounds Per ...

Letters Avouncing Start Of
Letters Avouncing Start Of Business The First Occasion In Connection With Any Business Upon Which A Circular Letter Can Be Sent Out Is Its Establishment, And This Letter Probably Needs More Consideration Than Any Other That May Be Sent Out Later. It Will Almost Always Be The First Intimation That ...

Letters Recovering Old Customers
Letters. Recovering Old Customers One Of The Most Important Uses To Which Form Letters Can Be Put Is The Endeavour To Recover Old Customers Whose Patronage Has For Some Reason Been Removed From The Firm. Such Old Customers Can Be Divided Into Two Classes, The First Consisting Of Customers Who ...

Letters Seeking Employment All
Letters Seeking Employment All Employers Of Labour Are Agreed Upon The Deadly Sameness Of The Letters They Receive From Applicants For Situations. The Most Important Point, Therefore, In Writing Such A Letter Is To Devise Some Opening Sentence That Will Be Sufficiently Out Of' The Rut To Attract The Attention ...

Letters To New Residents
Letters To New Residents In The District No Firm Employing Circular Letters As A Means Of Obtaining Business Will Neglect The New Residents Who Are Continually Moving Into The District. Nearly Always The Names Of These Intending Residents Are Obtainable Fairly Easily, And In The Great Majority Of Cases They ...

Lien
Lien Has Been Defined, In Its Most Limited Signification, As A Right Of Detaining The Property Of Another Until Some Demand Is Satisfied. It Is The Right, For Example, Of A Creditor Who Is In Possession Of Property Belonging To His Debtor, Under Certain Circumstances, To Hold It Until His ...

Life Saving
Life-saving Applianoes.—certain Rules Known As The Rules For Life-saving Appliances Are Made By The Board Of Trade Under The Authority Of The Merchant Shipping Act, 1894. These Rules Are Concerned With Some Or All Of The Following Matters :—(a) The Arranging Of British Ships Into Classes, Having Regard To The ...

Light Locomotives
Light Locomotives And Motor Use Of These Vehicles Is Regulated By The Locomotives On Highways Act, 1896, And The Motor Car Act, 1903. These Two Statutes, W Hich Are Cited As The Motor Car Acts, 1896 And 1903, Though Conferring Upon The Local Government Board And Certain Local Authorities The ...

Lights On
Lights On In A Street Highway Or Road To Which The Public Have Access Must, During The Period Between One Hour After Sunset And One Hour Before Sunrise, Be Provided With A Lamp Or Lamps In Proper Working Order And Properly Lighted. The Lamps Must Be So Constructed And Capable ...

Limitation Op Shipowners
Limitation Op Shipowners' Liability.—the Owner Of A British Sea-going Ship, Or Of Any Share Therein, Is Not Liable At All For Any Loss Or Damage Happening Without His Actual Fault Or Privity In The Following Cases :—(i) Where Any Goods, Merchandise, Or Other Things Whatsoever Taken In Or Put On ...

Limitation Of Actions
Limitation Of Actions. — Originally There Was Nothing In The Law Of England—apart From The Operation Of The Maxim Actin Personalis Moritur Cum Persona, And The Ancient Rules Incident To The Feudal System, And The Old Limitations To Actions For Trespass To Property—to Prevent A Person Who Had A Claim ...

Livery Stable Keeper
Livery Stable Keeper — Jobmaster — Taxes.—a Livery Stable Is A Place, Not Part Of The Business Of An Inn, Where Horses Are Groomed, Fed, And Let On Hire, And Where Also Vehicles Are Generally Let. A Livery Stable Keeper Does Not Require Any Licence To Carry On Business As ...

Lloyds
Lloyd's, The Centre Of The Marine Insurance World, Is The Name Of A Society Incorporated By Special Act Of Parliament In 1871, With The Object Of Carrying On, By Its Members, The Business Of Marine Insurance. Incident Ally To This Object It Undertakes The Protection Of The Interests Of Its ...

Local Marine
Local Marine Boards.—committees, Knorm As Local Marine Boards, Are Established In The Principal Ports Of The United Kingdom For The Purpose Of Carrying Into Etrect, Under The Superintendence Of The Board Of Trade, The Provisions Of The Merchant Shipping Act,1891. 'nese Boards Are Constituted In The Manner Provided By The ...

Locomotives On Highways
Locomotives On Highways Are The Subject Of Three Statutes Known As The Locomotives Acts, 1861, 1865, 1898 And Also The Iiighways And Locomotives (amendment) A.ct, 1878. The Special Legislation Relating To Motor Cars And Light Locomotives Is Referred To In Another Article. Only Those Road Locomotives Which Do Not Come ...

Log Book
Log-book Is A Book In Which Is Entered The Daily, Progress Of A Ship Ett Se.a, With Notes On The Weather And Incidents Of The Voyage. One Log, Called The Official Log, Must Be Kept In Every Ship, Except Ships Employed Exclusively In Trading Between Ports On The Coast Of ...

Machinery
Machinery: When To Put It In.—there Is An Economic Law Govern Ing Question Of Changing Machinery. Old Machinery Wears Out And Gets Out Of Date And Has To Be Replaced By Newer Machinery That Will Do The Work Better And Quicker. In Some Cases New Machinery Has To Be Put ...

Mail Order
Mail Order Mail Order Business In All Proba Bility Has Its Happy Hunting Ground In The United States Of America, And It May Sacclv Be Assumed That It Will Never Attain The Same Degree Of Importance In The United Kingdom. The Reason Of This Is Not Far To Seek. The ...

Mail Ships
Mail Ships. —13y The Mail 'ships' Act, 1891, Where A Conveution As To Mail Ship Has Been Made With A Foreign Country, The King In Council Can Order That The Act Shall Apply To Such Convention, Subject To Any Conditions, Exceptions, Or Qualifications Contained In The Order. The Order Must ...

Malicious
Malicious Action Lies Against Any Person Who Maliciously, And Without Reasonable And Probable Cause, Prosecutes Another, Whereby The Party Prosecuted Sustains An Injury, Involving Damage Either In Person, Property, Or Reputation. This Definition Is Perhaps, Strictly, Not Wide Enough. There Are Other Legal Proceedings Besides Abortive Criminal Prosecutions Which Necessarily ...

Manufacturers
Manufacturers' Accounts.—a Manufacturer Is One Who, By The Application Of Labour, Converts Raw Materials Into Finished Products For Sale ; The Labour Employed Was Originally Entirely Manual, Or Physical, But Appliances, Albeit Crude, Make Their Appearance At A Very Early Stage, And As They Are Brought Nearer To Perfection And ...

Manufacturing Chemist
Manufacturing Chemist : How To Become A.—the Applica Tion Of Chemistry To Industrial Processes Gives Employment To Many Chemists Who Have Undergone A Thorough Training For Their Work. They Find Em Ployment In Gasworks, Breweries, Chemical Works, And Other Manufacturing Concerns, While As Analytical Chemists They Are Chiefly Employed In ...

Many
Many Traders Fail To Make Any Real Effort To Induce Good-class Customers To Open Accounts, Although They May Be Perfectly Willing To Open Accounts When A C-ustomer Himself Suggests Such An Arrangement. The Maintenance Of An Account Has Many Advantages For The Trader As Well As For The Customer, If ...

Mar The Business Encyclopiedia
Mar The Business Encyclopiedia 129 Of Age Must First Obtain The Consent Of His Father. If He Or She Has Not A Father Then The Consent Of A Guardian Must Lie Obtained, Or In The Absence Of A G,uardian The Consent Of The Mother. In The Case Of A Marriage ...

Margarine
Margarine Is Defined By The Margarine Act, 1907, As Meaning "any Article Of Food, Whether Mixed With Butter Or Not, Which Resetnbles Butter And Is Not Milk-blended Butter." No Such Substance Can Be Lal4ully Sold Except Under The Name Of Margarine, And Under The Conditions Set Forth In That Act. ...

Margarine And
Margarine And Is Defined By The Butter And Mar Garine Act, 1907, As Meaning "any Article Of Food, Whether Mixed With Butter Or Not, Which Resembles Butter And Is Not Milk-blended Butter." Milk-blended Butter, That Is To Say, "any Mixture Produced By Mixing Or Blending Butter With Milk Or Cream ...

Marginal
Marginal Credit.—by This Name, Or By The More Exact Term, "marginal Letter Of Credit," Is Known One Of The Means At Time Disposal Of An Importer For The Payment Of Goods He Has Bought From Abroad. The Buyer, Say In London, First Opens A Credit With His Bankers Here, That ...

Marginal Notes
Marginal Notes Should Be Distinguished From Marginal Credits (q.v.). They Are Used Under Such Circumstances As The Following: F. & Co., A London Firm Of Exporters For Instance, Having Exported Goods To India, May Desire To Sell Or Discount The Bills Of Exchange They Have Drawn Upon The Consignees In ...

Marine Insurance
Marine Insurance May Fairly Lay Claim To The Premier Position Amongst The Many Different Classes Of Insurance Now In Vogue. Upon At Least Two Grounds It May Base This Claim : Its Age, And The Universal Precision With Which Its Principles Have Developed. As To Its Age There Is No ...