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Collier's New Encyclopedia, Volume 9

Tissue
Tissue, A Very Fine Transparent Silk Stuff Used For Veils; White Or Colored. It Was Formerly Interwoven With Gold Or Silver Threads And Embossed With Figures. Also A Very Thin Kind Of Paper And Cloth Interwoven With Gold. In Entomol Ogy, A European Geometer Moth, Scotosia Dubitata. The Fore Wings ...

Tithe
Tithe, Etymologically A 10th, His Torically A 10th Part Of The Titheable Produce Of The Land Paid To The Clergy. The Payment Of Tithe To The Clergy Orig Inated In The Recognition Of A Moral And Religious Duty. The Discharge Of This Acknowledged Obligation Acquired The Force Of Custom, Then ...

Titian
Titian (tish'un), Or Tiziano, Vecellio, (tet-se-5.'no Va-cherle-o), One Of The Most Distinguished Of The Great Italian Painters, And Head Of The Vene Tian School; Born In Pieve De Cadore, In The Carnic Alps, In 1477. He Studied Under Giovanni Bellini Of Venice, And In 1507 Was Associated With The Painter ...

Titus
Titus, A Companion Of St. Paul, Though Not Mentioned In The Acts Of The Apostles. He Seems To Have Been Con Verted By The Apostle (tit. I: 4), Proba Bly At Antioch A. D. 50 Or 51, And In The Same Year Accompanied Him To Jerusa Lem, And Was Present ...

Tobacco
Tobacco, A Very Important Plant, Belonging To The Natural Order Atropa Cece, Or Night-shade Order. The Introduc Tion Of The Use Of Tobacco Forms A Singu Lar Chapter In The History Of Mankind. According To Some Authorities Smoking Was Practised By The Chinese At A Very Early Date. At The ...

Tokyo
Tokyo, Formerly Called Yentio, The Capital Of Japan, And Chief Residence Of The Mikado; On A Bay Of The Same Name; On The S. E. Coast Of Hondo, The Largest Of The Japanese Islands, And Connected By Rail With Yokohama And Kanagawa. The Bulk Of The Houses Are Of Wood, ...

Toledo
Toledo, A City Of Ohio, The County Seat Of Lucas Co. It Is On The Maumee River, On Both Sides. The River Is Crossed By Many Bridges. Toledo Is The Third Railroad Center In America, And Is The Terminus Of Many Important Railway Lines, Including The Pennsylvania, The Hocking Valley, ...

Toledo_2
Toledo (to-la'tho), A Famous City Of Spain; Capital Of A Province, And Long The Capital Of The Whole Country; On The N. Bank Of The Tagus, By Which It Is En Compassed On Three Sides, 40 Miles S. S. W. Of Madrid. It Is Situated On A Num Ber Of ...

Tonnage
Tonnage, In Regard To Ships, A Measure Both Of Cubical Capacity And Of Dead-weight Carrying Capability. The Term, Used By Itself, May Have Reference Severally To "builders' Old Measurement" Tonnage (b. 0. M.), "register" Tonnage, "displacement" Tonnage, "freight" Ton Nage, Etc., Each Of Which Expressions Is More Or Less Current ...

Tools And Machinery
Tools And Machinery. The History Of Tools Goes Back To The Very Beginning Of Human Life. First, Of Course, Tools Were Used Exclusively For Agricultural Purposes, And For A Long Period Were Of The Most Primitive Nature. As Human Activities Became More Com Plex, The Use Of Tools Spread Rapidly. ...

Tooth
Tooth, One Of The Hard Bodies In The Mouth, Attached To The Skeleton, But Not Forming Part Of It, And Developed From The Dermas Or True Skin. True Teeth Consist Of One, Two, Or More Tissues, Differing In Their Chemical Composition And In Their Microscopical Appearances. Dentine, Which Forms The ...

Toronto
Toronto, A City Of Canada, The Capital Of The Province Of Ontario. It Is On The North Shore Of Lake Ontario, On An Inlet Called The Bay Of Toronto. The City Has A Water Frontier Of About 10 Miles From E. To W. And Extends In Land From N. To ...

Torpedo
Torpedo, In Ichthyology, The Type Genus Of Torpedinidx, With The Charac Ters Of The Family. There Are Six Species Distributed Over The Atlantic And Indian Oceans; Three Of These Occur In The Medi Terranean, And Two, T. Marmorata And T. Hebetans, Are Sometimes Found On The British Coast. The Electric ...

Torpedoes
Torpedoes. The Torpedoes Known To Modern Warfare Are All Automobile; That Is To Say, They Run By Their Own Power, Differing In This Respect From Pro Jectiles Fired From Guns, Which Otherwise They Rather Closely Resemble. And Not Only Do They Run By Their Own Power, But They Carry A ...

Torquato Tasso
Tasso, Torquato, An Italian Epic Poet; Born In Sorrento, Italy, March 11, 1544. He Was Early Sent To The School Of The Jesuits At Naples, And Subse Quently Pursued His Studies Under His Father's Superintendence At Rome, Ber Gamo, Urbino, Pessaro, And Venice. At The Age Of 16 He Was ...

Torquay
Torquay, A Watering Place Of South Devon, England; Occupying A Cove On The N. Side Of Tor Bay, 23 Miles S. Of Exe Ter And 220 W. S. W. Of London. Tor Abbey Was Founded Here For Premon Stratensian Monks In 1196; And Tor Bay Is Famous In History As ...

Torrens Land System
Torrens' Land System, A Plan Of Land Transfer Drawn Up By Sir Robert Torrens, And By Him Put In Opera Tion In Australia. It Is Now Used In All The Australian Provinces, In Tasmania And New Zealand, And In British Co Lumbia And Ontario, And Has Been At Tempted In ...

Tortoise
Tortoise, In Zoology, A Name For Merly Taken To Include All The Chelonians, But Now, Unless Qualified By An Adjective, Confined To The Individuals Of The Family Testudinielte. Tortoises, In The Wider Sense, Are Sluggish Reptiles, Long-lived, And Extremely Tenacious Of Life Under Ad Verse Surroundings, And Have Survived From ...

Touch
Touch, In Fine Arts, The Peculiar Handling Usual To An Artist, And By Which His Work May Be Known. In Music, The Resistance Made To The Fingers By The Keys Of A Pianoforte Or Organ. Also, The Pe Culiar Manner In Which A Player Presses The Keyboard, Whether Light, Pearly, ...

Toulon
Toulon, A French Naval Arsenal Of The First Class, In The Department Of Var; Beautifully Situated On A Deep Inlet Of The Mediterranean, Formed By The Penin Sula Of Sopet; 40 Miles S. E. Of Mar Seilles. It Is Built At The Foot Of The Pharon Hills, Which Protect The ...

Tower Of London
Tower Of London, The Most Ancient And Historically The Most Inter Esting Pile In The English Metropolis; A Mass Of Buildings On The N. Side Of The Thames, Immediately To The E. Of The Ancient City Walls, Its Ramparts And Gates Surrounded By A Dry Ditch In Pen Tagonal Shape; ...

Trade Mark
Trade Mark, The Name Or Mark Under Which Any One Trades. It Is A Mode Of Connecting Certain Goods In The Mind Of The Public With A Particular Manufac Turer Or Seller; And Its Function Is To Give A Purchaser A Satisfactory Assurance Of The Make And Quality Of The ...

Trade Wind
Trade Wind, In Meteorology, In The Plural, Certain Ocean Winds, Blowing Constantly In One Direction Or Very Near Ly So, Can Be Calculated On Beforehand By The Mariner And Are Therefore Bene Ficial To Trade. They Exist On All Open Oceans To A Distance Of About 30░ N. And S. ...

Tragedy
Tragedy, A Dramatic Poem Repre Senting An Important Event, Or A Series Of Events, In The Life Of Some Person Or Persons, In Which The Diction Is Elevated, And Which Has Generally A Tragic Or Fatal Catastrophe; That Species Of Drama Which Represents A Tragical Situation Or A Tragical Character. ...

Transit
Transit, In Astronomy, The Passage Of A Heavenly Body Over The Meridian. Also The Passage Of One Of The Inferior Planets, Mercury Or Venus, Over The Sun's Disk, Mercury Being So Near The Sun, And So Difficult To Observe With Accuracy, Its Transits Are Not Nearly So Important To Astronomers ...

Transit Instrument
Transit Instrument, An Instru Ment Designed Accurately To Denote The Time When A Heavenly Body Passes The Meridian. It Consists Of A Telescope Sup Ported On A Horizontal Axis, Or Pivots, The Extremities Of Which Terminate In Cylindrical Trunnions Resting In Metallic Supports Shaped Like The Upper Part Of The ...

Transmigration
Transmigration, In Comparative Religions, Metempsychosis; The Doctrine Of The Passage Of The Soul From One Body Into Another. It Appears Among Many Savage Races In The Form Of The Belief That Ancestral Souls Return, Imparting Their Own Likeness To Their Descendants And Kindred, And Tylor Thinks That This Notion May ...

Transmission Of Electric Power
Transmission Of Electric Power. Under This Heading Are Con Sidered Methods Of Conveying Electrical Energy From One Locality To Another. The Need For Such Transmission Arises Chiefly From Economic Causes. In The Center Of A City, Electricity Can Seldom Be Gener Ated Except At High Cost. It Is A Common ...

Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation. The Mean Ing Of The Theological Term Transubstan Tiation Is Made Apparent In The Follow Ing Canon Of The Council Of Trent: "if Any One Shall Say That, In The Most Holy Sacrament Of The Eucharist, There Re Mains The Substance Of Bread And Wine Together With The Body ...

Transvaal Colony
Transvaal Colony, Formerly The South African Republic; Since 1910 A State Of The Union Of South Africa; Area, 110,450 Square Miles; Lying Between The Vaal And The Limpopo Rivers; Bounded N. By British South African Territory, E. By Portuguese East Africa And Zulu Land, S. By Natal And The Orange ...

Transylvania
Transylvania, A Former Grand Duchy And Crown-iand Of The Austro Hungarian Monarchy; Joined To Rumania In December, 1918; Surrounded By Hun Gary, The Bukovina, Moldavia, And Wal Lachia; Area, 22,312 Square Miles; Pop. (1919) 2,678,867. Transylvania Is So Called From Its Position Beyond The Wooded Carpathians; Its Interior Is A ...

Trappist
Trappist, A Religious Order, Cele Brated For Its Extraordinary Austerities, Is So Called From An Abbey Of The Cis Tercian Order, Found In The Middle Of The 12th Century, In The Narrow Valley Of La Trappe, Near Mortagne, In The Norman Department Of OrneŚcalled "the Trap" Because Of Its Inaccessibility. ...

Trebizond
Trebizond, The Principal Turkish Port On The Black Sea; On The N. E. Coast Of Asia Minor, And The Second Com Mercial City Of The Empire; 110 Miles N. W. Of Erzerum. It Is Finely Situated On The Steep Slope Of The Kolat Dagh (800 Feet High) Facing The Sea, ...

Tree
Tree, In Botany, Any Woody Plant Rising From The Ground, With A Trunk, And Perennial In Duration; An Arborescent Plant As Distinguished From A Shrub, An Under-shrub, And An Herb. The Classifi Cation Of Plants Which At First Suggests Itself As The Most Natural One Is Into Trees, Shrubs, And ...

Trench Warfare
Trench Warfare. Like Every Thing Else In Military Affairs, The Use Of The Trench Received A Great Development During The Recent Great War. Under The Old Conditions The Trench Was Simply An Excavation In The Ground Long Or Short, Broad Or Narrow, The Earth From Which Was Thrown Directly In ...

Trenton
Trenton, A City Of New Jersey, The Capital Of The State, And The County-seat Of Mercer Co. It Is On The Delaware River, The Delaware And Raritan Canal, And On The Main Line Of The Pennsylvania And Of The Philadelphia And Reading Rail Roads. The City Is Connected By Electric ...

Trespass
Trespass, In Law, A Physical Inter Ference With The Person Or Property Of Another. However Innocent The Act, If It Be Voluntary, A Legal Wrong Is Done. Thus, If Pursued By A Wild Beast You Deliberately Take Refuge In Another Man's House, You Commit A Trespass; But If You Rush ...

Treves
Treves, A City Of Rhenish Prussia; On The Moselle; In A Valley Between Low Vine-covered Hills Of Ruddy Sandstone; 69 Miles S. W. Of Coblenz And 111 S. S. W. Of Cologne. The River Is Crossed Here By An Eight-arch Bridge, 623 Feet Long, Whose Roman Piers Date From 25 ...

Triangle
Triangle, In Building, A Gin Formed By Three Spars; A Staging Of Three Spars. In Draughting, A Three-cornered Straight Edge, Used In Conjunction With The T Square For Drawing Parallel, Perpendicu Lar, Or Diagonal Lines. It Has One Right Angle, The Two Others Being Each Of 45░, Or One Of ...

Triassic System
Triassic System. This Forms The Basement Group Of The Mesozoic Or Sec Ondary Strata, And Was Formerly Asso Ciated With The Permian System Under The Name Of The New Red Sandstone. The Term Trias Has Reference To The Three Fold Grouping Of The System In Germany, Where The Strata Are ...

Tribune
Tribune, In Roman Antiquities, Properly The Chief-magistrate Of A Tribe. There Were Several Kinds Of Officers In The Roman State That Bore The Title. (1) The Plebeian Tribunes, Who Were First Created After The Secession Of The Com Monalty To The Mons Sacer (a. U. C. 260), As One Of ...

Trichiniasis
Trichiniasis, A Disease Produced By The Presence Of Trichina' Within The Human System, And Within The Bodies Of Other Animals Liable To Infestation. The First Well-marked Case Occurred At Dres Den In 1860, The Patient Being A Servant Girl, Who Was Admitted To Hospital, Hav Ing Taken Ill On Jan. ...

Trieste
Trieste, A City Of Italy And Most Considerable Trading Town On The Adri Atic; At The Head Of The Gulf Of Trieste, An Arm Of The Gulf Of Venice; 370 Miles S. S. W. Of Vienna. In 1849 It Was Con Stituted An Imperial Free City, And At Tached And ...

Trigonometry
Trigonometry, Originally The Branch Of Geometry Which Had To Do With The Measurement Of Plain Triangles. This Gradually Resolved Itself Into The In Vestigation Of The Relations Between The Angles Of The Triangle, For The Simple Reason That All Triangles Having The Same Set Of Angles Are Similar, So That ...

William Howard Taft
Taft, William Howard, 27th President Of The United States; Born In Cincinnati, 0., Sept. 15, 1857; Was Grad Uated At Yale College In 1878, At The Law School Of Cincinnati College In 1880; And Was Admitted To The Bar In 1881. He Was Collector Of Internal Rev Enue In The ...

William Make Peace Thackeray
Thackeray, William Make Peace, An English Novelist; Born In Calcutta, India, July 18, 1811. At The Age Of Seven Thackeray Was Sent To Eng Land For His Education, And Was Placed At The Charterhouse School, London, After Ward Continuing His Studies At Cam Bridge. He Left The University Without Taking ...

William Tell
Tell, William, The Champion Of Swiss Liberty; Was A Native Of Burglen, In The Canton Of Uri. He Was Distin Guished By His Skill In Archery, His Strength And Courage. He Joined The League Of The Three Forest Cantons Formed To Free The Country From Aus Trian Tyranny. The Austrian ...

Zachary Taylor
Taylor, Zachary, An American Statesman, 12th President Of The United States; Born In Orange Co., Va., Sept. 24, 1784. He Was The Son Of A Virginia Colonel, Who Served In The Revolutionary War. The Family Removed To Kentucky In 1785. In 1808 He Was Appointed A Lieutenant Of Infantry, And ...