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Sheriff
Sheriff, The Shire-reve (scyr-ge Refa), From The Saxon Word Recifan, "to Levy, To Seize," Whence Also Breve. The German Word Is Graf. The Gerefa Seems To Have Been A Fiscal Officer. In The Saxon Period He Represented The Lord Of A District, Whether Township Or Hundred, At The Folkmote Of ...

Ships
Ships. The Law Of England Relating To Merchant Ships And Seamen Is Partly Founded On Principles Of Maritime Law Common To The Whole Civilised World, And Partly On Acts Of Parliament. The Sub Ject May Conveniently Be Divided Into Four Parts : 1. That Relating To The Ownership Of Ships ...

Shire
Shire, From The Saxon Schyran, To Divide (whence Also To Shear), Is The Name Of Districts Into Which The Whole Of Great Britain And Ireland Is Di Vided. The Word Shire Is In Most Cases Equivalent To County, A Name Often Substituted For It In Great Britain, And Always In ...

Slander
Slander Consists In The Malicious Speaking Of Such Words As Render The Party Who Speaks Them In The Hearing Of Others Liable To An Action At The Suit Of The Party To Whom They Apply. The Mere Speaking Of The Defamatory Words Instead Of The Writing Of Them Is That ...

Slavery Slave
Slave, Slavery, Slave Trade. The Word Slavery Has Various Acceptation, But Its Complete Meaning Is The Condition Of An Individual Who Is The Property Of Another Or Others. Such Was The Condition Of The " Servi," Or Slaves Among The Romans And Greeks ; Such Is Still That Of The ...

Smuggling
Smuggling Is The Clandestine In Troduction Of Prohibited Goods ; Or The Illicit Introduction Of Goods By The Eva Sion Of The Legal Duties. Excessive Duties Present A Temptation To Men To Evade Them; And The Law Loses A Great Part Of Its Moral Influence When It First Tempts To ...

Soccage
Soccage (more Correctly Socage) In Its Original Signification, According To Bracton, Littleton, And Others, Is Service Rendered By A Tenant To His Lord By The Soc (soke) Or Ploughshare. The Term Was Afterwards Extended To All Services Ren Dered Which Were Of An Ignoble Or Non Military Character, And Were ...

Social Contract
Social Contract, Oa Ori Ginal Contract. Blackstone I. P. 48) Writes As Follows Though Society Had Not Its Formal Be Ginning From Any Convention Of Indivi Duals Actuated By Their Wants And Fears, Yet It Is The Sense Of Their Weakness And Imperfection That Keeps Mankind Together, That Demonstrates The ...

Social Contract
] Social Contract. The Origin Of " Lawful By Implication Contains The Notion That Some Governments Are Not Lawful, Whereas All Men Must And Do Admit That All Govern Ments Which Can Maintain Themselves Are, Governments, And The Term Lawful Is Not Applicable To That Power Which Can De Clare ...

Soldier
Soldier Is A Term Applied To Every Man Employed In The Military Service Of A Prince Or State, But It Was At First Given To Such Persons Only As Were Express Y En Gaged For Pay, To Follow Some Chief In His Warlike Expeditions. Caesar Mentions A Band Of 600 ...

Sovereignty
Sovereignty. Supranus Is A Low Latin Word, Formed From Supra, Like Sub Tranus, Another Low Latin Word, Formed From Subtra. (ducange In Vv.) These Words However, Though They Do Not Be Long To Classical Latinity, Are Formed Ac Cording To The Same Analogy As The Clas Sical Word Supernus From ...

Spirits Wine And
Spirits. [wine And Sellars.] Spy. In The Discussion Of This And Many Other Questions Of International Law, The Terms Right, Law, Lawful, And Others Of The Same Class, Must Be Under Stood In A Different Sense From Their Proper Technical Meaning. What Writers On International Law Speak Of As A ...

Stage Carriage Hackney Coach Cabriolet
Stage-carriage. Hackney Coach. Cabriolet. A Stage Car Riage Is Defined By The 2 And 3 Wm. Iv. C. 102, As A Carriage Of Any Construction For Conveying Passengers For Hire To Or From Any Place In Great Britain, Which Shall Travel At The Rate Of Not Less Than Three Miles ...

Stamp Acts Stamps
Stamps, Stamp Acts. Stamps Are Impressions Made Upon Paper Or Parchment By The Government Or Its Of Ficers For The Purposes Of Revenue. They Always Denote The Price Of The Particular Stamp, Or In Other Words, The Tax Levied Upon A Particular Instrument Stamped, And Sometimes They Denote The Nature ...

Standing Orders Bill In
Standing Orders. [bill In Parliament. From The Latin Stan Num, " Tin." This Term Sometimes De Notes A Tin-mine, Sometimes The Tin-mines Of A District, Sometimes The Royal Rights In Respect Of Tin-mines Within Such Dis Trict. But It Is More Commonly Used As Including The Tin-mines Within A Particu ...

Staple
Staple, "anciently Written Estaple, Cometh," Says Lord Coke, " Of The French Word Estape, Which Signifies A Mart Or Market." It Appears To Have Been Used To Indicate Those Marts Both In This Country And At Bruges, Antwerp, Calais, &c., On The Continent, Where The Principal Pro Ducts Of A ...

States General
States General. His Term Is From The French Etats Generous, The Assembly Of The Three Orders Of The King Dom : The Clergy, The Nobility, And The Third Estate. The States General Of France Were Convoked In 1614 Under Louis Xiii., And They Did Not Meet Again Till 1785. The ...

Statistics
Statistics Is That Department Of Political Science Which Is Concerned In Collecting And Arranging Facts Illustrative Of The Condition And Resources Of A State. To Reason Upon Such Facts And To Draw Conclusions From Them Is Not Within The Province Of Statistics; But Is The Business Of The Statesman And ...

Statistics Of Agriculture
Agriculture, Statistics Of. In Several Countries Of Europe There Is A Department Of Government Organized Either For Collecting The Statistics Of Agri Culture Or Superintending Institutions Which Have Immediate Relation To That Branch Of Industry. In France These Duties Devolve Upon A Department Of The Minister Of Commerce And Agriculture. ...

Statistics Of Copper
Copper, Statistics Of. Copper Was At First Obtained In This Country In Small Quantities In Working The Tin-mmes In Cornwall; But About The Close Of The Seventeenth Century Mines Were Set At Work Purposely For Copper. The First Application Of The Steam-engine In Drawing Water From Copper-mines Was In 1710, ...

Statute
Statute. Bills Which Have Passed Through The Houses Of Lords And Com Mons And Received The Royal Assent Be Come Acts Of Parliament, And Are Some Times Spoken Of Collectively As Forming The Body Of Statutes Of The Realm. But A More Restricted Application Of The Word Is Generally In ...

Statute Ireland
Statute (ireland). In Ireland, The Method By Which The Early Irregular Convocations, Called Parliaments, Passed Their Acts, Appears To Have Been A Close Imitation Of The English Practice. The Authenticated Printed Statutes Begin In The Year 1310-3 Edw. Ii. After Five Short Acts Of This Parliament There Is A Hiatus ...

Statute Of Frauds
Statute Of Frauds. This Name Is Applicable To Any Statute The Object Of Which Is To Prevent Fraud, But It Is Particularly Applied To The 29 Car. Ii. C. 3, Which Is Entitled The Sta Tute Of Frauds And Perjuries.' One Object Of The Statute Was To Prevent Disputes And ...

Statutes Of Limitation
Statutes Of Limitation. There Appear To Have Been No Times Limited By The Common Law Within Which Actions Might Be Brought; For Though It Is Said By Bracton (lib. 2, Fol. 228), That, Omnes Actions In Mundo Infra Certa Tempura Limitationem Habent ;" Yet With The Exception Of The Period ...

Stock Company
Stock Company.] Any Person Of Sound Mind And Not Under Any Legal Disability May Be A Part Ner. An Infant May Enter Into This, As Into Any Other Trading Contract Which May Possibly Turn Out To His Advantage. It May However Be Avoided By Him On Coming Of Age, Though ...

Stoppage In Transit
Stoppage In Transit U Is The Seizure By The Seller Of Goods Sold On Credit During The Course Of Their Passage (transitus) To The Buyer. This Principle Is Said To Have Been Established About 1690 In The Court Of Chancery (2 Vern., 203); And It Has Since Been Acknow Ledged ...

Subpimna
Subpimna. [evil:macs.] Subsidy, From Subsidiwn, A Latin Word Signifying Aid Or Assistance. " Sub Sidies," Says Lord Coke, " Were Antiently Called Anxilia, Aides Granted By Act Of Parliament Upon Need And Necessity ; As Also For That Originally And Principally They Were Granted For The Defence Of The Realm ...

Succession
Succession. This Is A Legal Term Derived From The Roman " Successio," Which Signifies A Coming Into The Place Of Another, And Successor Is He Who Comes Into Such Place. The Roman Terns Signifies A Coming Into The Place Of Another So As To Have The Same Rights And Obligations ...

Suicide
Suicide Is The Death Of A Person Caused By His Own Act, Voluntary Or Invo Luntary. A Rescript Of Hadrian Expressly Di Rected That Those Soldiers Who, Either From Impatience Of Pain, From Disgust Of Fife, From Disease, From Madness, From Dread Of Infamy Or Disgrace, Had Wounded Themselves Or ...

Suit
Suit Is A Legal Term Used In Different Senses. The Word Recta, Which Is The Latin Form, Is From " Seqncr," To Follow ; And Hence The General Meaning Of The Word May Be Deduced. 1. A Snit In The Sense Of Litigation, Is A Proceeding By Which Any Legal ...

Supply Parliament Supremacy
Supply. [parliament.] Supremacy Is A Term Used To De Signate Supreme Ecclesiastical Authority ; And Is Either Papal Or Regal. Papal Supremacy Is The Authority Exercised Un Til Nearly The Middle Of The Sixteenth Century By The Pope Over The Churches Of England, Scotland, And Ireland, As Branches And Integral ...

Surety
Surety. A Surety Is One Who Un Dertakes To Be Answerable For The Acts Or Omissions Of Another, Who Is Called His Principal. Such Undertaking Must Be In Writing, And It May Be Either By Bond Or By Simple Writing. A Contract Is Not Binding Unless Made Upon Some Sufficient ...

Tack
Tack Is The Technical Term In Scot Land For A Lease, Whether Of Lands Or Edi Fices; The Rent Is Called The Tack-duty, And The Tenant The Tacksman. The Scot Tish System Of Leases Having Lately At Tracted Some Attention, And Being Intrinsi Cally Important, A Separate Sketch Of Its ...

Tailzie
Tailzie, In The Law Of Scotland, Is The Technical Term Corresponding With The English Word Entail, Which Now Generally Supersedes It In Colloquial Use, Even In Scotland. The Early History Of Entail Law In Scotland In Some Respects Resembles That Of England But In Later Times They Diverged From Each ...

Tainder
Tainder And Escheat. In Criminal Cases Forfeiture Is Three ' Fold :-1. Of Real Estates Absolutely, As For High Treason ; If Freehold, To The King ; If Copyhold, To The Lord. 2. Of The Profits Of The Real Estate, If Freehold, To The Crown During The Life Of The ...

Tariff
Tariff, A Table Of Duties Payable Ou Goods Imported Into Or Exported From A Country. The Principle Of A Tariff De Pends Upon The Commercial Policy Of The State By Which It Is Framed, And The De Tails Are Constantly Fluctuating With The Change Of Interests And The Wants Of ...

Taxation Tax
Tax, Taxation. A Tax Is A Pot'. Tion Of The Produce Of A Country Or Its Value, Applied To Public Purposes By The Government. Taxation Is The General Charging And Levying Of Particular Taxes Upon The Community. In A Free State It Is Assumed That All Taxation Is Necessary For ...

Taxes
Taxes. The General Objects, Cha Racter, And Principles Of Taxation, And Of Different Classes Of Taxes, Are Treated Of Under The Head Of Taxation. In This Place It Is Proposed To Give A Short Sum Mary Of The Amount And Description Of Taxes Paid In Great Britain And Ireland, Whether ...

Tenant And Landlord
[tenant And Landlord.] Tenants In Tail, As They Have Estates Of Inheritance, Are Entitled To Commit Every Kind Of Waste; But This Power Continues And Can Be Exercised Only During The Life Of The Tenant In Tail. When It Is Said That A Tenant In Tail May Commit Every Kind ...

Tenant And Landlord
Tenant And Landlord. The Word Tenant, In The More Limited Legal Sense, Which Is Also The Popular Sense, Is One Who Holds Land Under Another, To Whom He Is Bound To Pay Rent, And Who Is Called His Landlord. The Word Land Means Not Only Land Itself, But Also All ...

Tender
Tender. A Tender Is The Offer To Perform Some Act. In Practice It Gene Rally Consists In An Offer To Pay Money On Behalf Of A Party Indebted, Or Who Has Done Some Injury, To The Creditor, Or To The Party Injured. A Tender To The Amount Of 40g. May ...

Tenths
Tenths Are The Tenth Part Of The Yearly Value Of All Ecclesiastical Livings. They Were Formerly Claimed By The Pope ; And His Claim Was Sanctioned, In This Country, By An Ordinance In The 20th Year Of Edward I., When A Valuation Of All Livings Was Made, In Order That ...

Tenure
Tenure,. The General Nature Of Tenure And Its Origin And History In Eng Land Are Explained In The Article Feudal Lew. A Few Remarks May Be Made Here Ou Tenure As At Present Ekisting By The Law Of England, For Which Purpose A Short Recapitulation Is Necessary. All Land Was ...

Tenure By Knights Service
Knight's Service, Tenure By, Otherwise Called Tenure In Chivalry, Or Per Service De Chivaler, Per Servitium Militare, Was, From The Times Immediately Succeeding The Norman Conquest In The Eleventh Century To The Period Of The Civil War In The Seventeenth, Considered The First And The Most Important, As It Was ...

Term
Term. The Law Terms Are Those Portions Of The Year During Which The Courts Of Common Law Sit For The Despatch Of Business. They Are Four In Number, And Are Called Hilary Term, Easter Term, Trinity Term, And Michaelmas Term: They Take Their Names From Those Festivals Of The Church ...

Tesit
Tesit And Dower. Of Estates Less Than Freehold There Are Three Kinds—estates For Years, At Will, And By Sufferance. An Estate For Years (which Includes An Estate From Year To Year) Is Personal Property, And, Like Other Chattels [thistrets], Upon The Death Of The Owner, Without Having Dis Posed Of ...

Theatre
Theatre. Before The Reign Of Eli Zabeth Theatrical Representations Appear To Have Been Subject To No Legal Restraint Beyond The Liability Of Those Who Con Ducted Them To The Vagrant Laws. But, Although Players, As Such, Were Subject To No General Legal Restrictions, It Is Probable That The Practice Of ...

Tion
Tion. This Term Denotes A Small Schedule Of Paper Or Parchment Contain Ing The Names Of Jurors Returned By The Sheriff Or Other Ministerial Officer For The Trial Of Issues In Courts Of Common Law. The Enrolment Of The Names Upon This Schedule Is Called Impanelling A Jury ; The ...

Tional Law
Tional Law.] A Term In Nor Man French, Literally Signifying Leave To Elect,' Which Is Appropriated To The King's Writ Or Licence To A Dean And Chapter To Elect A Bishop, At The Time Of The Vacancy Of The See. The Right Of Nominating To Bishoprics Was In Most Countries ...

The Ceaus
Ceaus, The, At Rome, Was A Num Bering Of The Roman People, And A Valua Tion Of Their Property. It Was Held Little Campus Martins, After B.c. 432. (liv. Iv. 22 ; Varro, De R. R. Iii. 11.) Every Roman Citizen Was Obliged, Upon Oath, To Give In A Statement ...

The Corporation Of Trinity
Trinity Ouse Of De Tford Strond, The Corporation Of —its Full Title Is, The Master, Wardens, And Assistants Of The Guild, Fraternity, Or Brotherhood Of The Most Glorious And Undivided Trinity, And Of Saint Clement, In The Parish Of Deptford Strond, In The County Of Kent '—an Institution To Whose ...