Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 17 >> Compensatory to Le Menteur

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 17

Compensatory
Compensatory Damagz.— A• Term Used In Civil Law To Define Such Damage As' May Have Been Estimated As A Fair Equivalent For The Injury Received. Compursmar.— (a) Legal Right And Authority To Act; (b) Also Used In Regard To Evidence To Denote Its Legal Fitness To Be Heard. C.omplunourr.— The ...

Corfu
Corfu Ct.— Used Legally To Indicate The Opposition Existing Between The Laws Of Various Jurisdictions When An Effort Is Made To Apply Them In Reference To Each Other. Cowvomon.— A Term Used In Civil Law To Denote The Extinc Tion Of An Obligation Owing To The Fact That The Two ...

Country Exported To 1914
Country Exported To 1914 Bags 1915 Bags United States 5,817,628 5,880,619 Prance 1.902.647 1,808,815 Sweden 245.851 1,346,839. 240,844 688,252 Great Britain 272,493 479.701 Norway 36.375 306,669 Denmark 45,413 279,865 Argentina 240,932 261.457 British South Africa 123,690 183.457 Greece 7.500 117,800. Ryipnt 106,475 111,843 51,820 85,310 Uruguay 35,654 S2,763 Algeria 72,758 ...

Distiuct 1914 15 1915 16 1916 17
Distiuct 1914-15 1915-16 1916-17 Macoris 75,970 91,738 112,273 Santo Domingo 20,205 21,925 33,906 Asua 3,472 5,071 5,812 Total 99,647 118,734 151.991 The Imports Of Raw Sugar Into The United States From The Dominican Republic Were 1,927 Tons In 1914, 34,012 Tons In 1915 And 47,992 Tons In 1916. Peru.- The ...

Engineers
Engineer's The Air-valve Arrangement Located On The Right Side Of The Cab, By Means Of Which The Engineer Operates The Driving-wheel And Other Brakes On The Locomotive, And Also The Several Sets Of Air-brakes Attached To The Cars Of The Train. See Truck. Bars Suspended At Their Middle Points Underneath ...

Faust
Faust A High Cut House Shoe Similar To A "romeo" With V-shaped Cuts At The Sides, Instead Of U-shaped And No Goring. Far.— A Sheet Made Of Fibres Of Wool, Hair, Fur, Etc., Matted Together And Rolled Fiat, Usually With Sizing To Give It Con Sistency. It Differs From A ...

France
France. The Greater Part Of The French Libraries Originated In The Collections Of Religious Orders And The Medieval Universities. These Collections, Many Of Which Date Back To The 14th And 15th Centuries, Remained Relatively Intact Until The Revolution, During Which The Libraries Suffered In Common With All Of The Institutions ...

French Size
French Size Maiming.— This Term Applies To A System (which Probably Did Not Originate In France) Of Marking American Or English Size And Widths. It Is Applied. In Fact, To A Variety Of Systems, The Principal Feature Being That It Is A Cipher Or Secret Method, Which Does Not Reveal ...

Fuels
Fuels. As A General Rule The Major Operating Cost In The Operation Of Steam Locomotives Is For Fuel Which To A Considerable Extent Comprises Different Kinds Of Many Grades. The Kind Of Fuel Used Plays An Important Part In The Pro Portioning Of The Boiler And Furnace And Should Wood ...

Germ An
Germ An Ebt Piss. The German Empire Has A Great Number Of Large Libraries. This Is Due In The Main To The Existence Of The Many Separate States That Form The Empire, The Rulers Of Which Have Encouraged The Formation Of Libraries In Their Capital Cities. The Interest, Likewise, Taken ...

Grate
Grate A Bar Attached To The Movable Grate-bars Of Shaking Or Rocking Grates, By Which They Are Moved Back And Forth With A Rocking Motion, Thus Dis Turbing The Fire Over The Whole Area Of The Grate, To Effect Proper Combustion. It Is Operated By Means Of A Suitable Lever ...

Great Britain
Great Britain. The English Kings Apparently Were Indif Ferent Lovers Of Books. So Far As Is Known, None But George Iii Formed A Library Worthy Of The Name. In One Case The Power Of The King Reacted Injuriously Upon British Libraries, For As A Result Of The Conflict Of Henry ...

Helium
Helium, The Lightest Of The Group Of So Called °inert Gases° Discovered In The Air By Rayleigh And Ramsay, Was First Observed By Janssen In 1868, When, In Studying The Spectrum Of The Solar Chromosphere, He Found A Line In The Yellow (i.e., Coincident With Two Of The Sodium Lines) ...

Hydrogen
Hydrogen (gr., °producing Waters In Reference To The Fact That In Burnin7 In Air Or Oxygen Hydrogen Forms Water-vapor) A Gaseous Element, Discovered By Paracelsus In The 16th Century. In The Year 1766, Cavendish, An Eng Lish Chemist, Investigated This Gas More Thor Oughly, And Gave It The Name Of ...

Ii S
Ii. S. • 971,206, 1908, A. Mesaerachrnidt. German • 280,964. 1913 H. Dicka. French • 461,480, 1913 British • 18,028, 1913 A. Messerschmidt. U. S. • 1,109,448,•914german • 279.726, 1913, Naher And Noding. For Further Data On This Method Of Produc Ing Hydrogen, Consult: German Patent, 263,391, 1912, Measersclunidt. 268,062, ...

Ii Synthetic
Ii. Synthetic Paocesses.—the World's Re Quirements For Nitrogen Compounds In The Last Few Years, 1914 To 1918, Were So Great That The Destructive Distillation Processes Were Insuffi Dent To Meet The Demand. As A Result, Several Processes For The Fixation Of Atmospheric Nitro Gen Developed In The Last Two Decades ...

Italy
Italy. The Library History Of The Kingdom Of Italy Has Its Roots In Antiquity. Here Was Estab Lished The First Western Monastery, Monte Cassino Whose Library Still Exists. This Was Founded By Saint Benedict In 529. It Was In Italy That Petrarch, Boccaccio, Poggio And Their Confreres Began The Search ...

J Lesley
Lesley, J. Peter, American Geolo Gist: B. Philadelphia, 17 Sept. 1819; D. Milton, Mass., June 1903. He Was Graduated At The University Of Pennsylvania In 1838, For The Next Three Years Was Engaged As Assistant In The First Geological Survey Of Pennsylvania. In 1844 He Was Graduated At The Princeton ...

James Wilford Garner
James Wilford Garner, Professor Of Political Science, University Of Illinois. Law, Criminal. See Criminal Law. Law, Customary. See Customary Law. Law, International. See International Law. Law, Maritime. See Maritime Law. Law, Military, A Term, Which, In Its More Restricted Sense, Describes The Legal System That Regulates The Organization And Government ...

Lam
Lam Stat.—. A Strip Of Leather Applied Up The Front Of A Lace Shoe To Strengthen And Reinforce The Eyelets Or Eyelet Boles. Iatstonic.— An Iron Plate Which The Cobbler Holds In His Lap And Upon Which He Beats Soles In Order To Give Them A Rounded Or To Solidify ...

Latin America
Latin America. The Continuous Social And Political Unrest And The Upheavals That Have Marked The Course Of Affairs In The Latin American Countries Have Had An Injurious Effect Upon The Development Of Libraries. Prior To The Establishment Of The Various States, The Only Collections Were In The Religious Institutions. These, ...

Latin Kingdom Of Jerusalem
Latin Kingdom Of Jerusalem, Kingdom Established And Maintained By The Crusaders In Jerusalem In 1099-1187, And After Ward Re-established Around Saint-jean D'acre And Maintained Until 1291. The Kingdom Was The Common Property Of Christendom And Dur Ing Its Two Centuries Of Existence Its Character Was International. The French, However, Were ...

Latin Language
Latin Language, The. One Of The Indo-european Family Of Languages, Spoken In Latium And Especially In Rome; And Extended With The Roman Rule Over The Ancient World; The Source From Which The Romance Languages (italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese) Are De Rived. As One Of The Indo-european Languages Latin Shows A ...

Latin Literature
Latin Literature. Within The Brief Limits Of The Following Sketch It Will Not Ha. Possible To Describe Fully The Characteristics Of Single Writers (for These Special Articles Must Be Consulted); Only A General History Of Latin Literature Will • Be Given, With A Summary Esti Mate Of Its Value. A ...

Latin Literature Of The
Latin Literature Of The Mid Dle Ages. The Very Greatness Of The Roman Empire Gives The Reason For Its Dis Solution, Even Apart From The Barbaric Invasions, And The Vicissitudes Attending This Dissolution Were Reflected In The Cultivated And The Popular Language Alike. There Was This Exception, How Ever; The ...

Latin Union
Latin Union, The. The Institution Of The Latin Union Marks An Important Epoch In The History Of Bimetallism, For, While It Was The Gold Discoveries Of California And Australia Which Were The Direct Cause Of The Organization Of This Monetary Convention, It Was The Down Ward Tendency In The Price ...

Latitude
Latitude. The Astronomical Latitude Of A Place Is The Altitude Of The Celestial Pole On The Declination Of The Zenith. From The Me Chanical Point Of View It May Be Defined As The Angle Between The Plane Of The Earth's Equator And The Observer's Plumb-line Or Vertical. Neither Of These ...

Laube
Laube, Lou'bz, Heinrich, German Novel Ist And Dramatist: B. Sprottau, Silesia, 18 Sept. 1806; D. Vienna, 1 Aug. 1884. He Studied Theology At Halle And Breslau, And Settled In Leipzig In 1832. He Engaged In Literary Work And An Active Participation In The Movement Known As °dasjunge Deutschland.* His Political ...

Laud
Laud, Lad, William, English Prelate: B. Reading, Berkshire, 7 Oct. 1573; D. London, 10 Jan. 1645. He Was Educated At Saint John's College, Oxford-, Took Priest's Orders In 1601; Became Vicar Of Stanford, Northamptonshire, 1607, And Rector Of West Tilbury, Essex, 1609• Was Made Archdeacon Of Huntingdon In 1615 And ...

Lauder
Lauder, Harry (real Name Maclen Nan), Scottish Singer: B. Portobello, 4 Aug. 1870. He Was Employed In A Flax-spinning Mill When A Boy And Later Worked In The Coal Mines. His Natural Talent For Music And Gift For Entertaining Soon Won Him Considerable Reputation As An Amateur Entertainer And He ...

Lauderdale
Lauderdale, James Maitland, 8th Earl Of, Scottish Statesman: B. Ratho, Mid Lothian, 26 Jan. 1759; D. Thirlestane Castle, Berwickshire, 13 Sept. 1839. He Studied At The University Of Edinburgh, Trinity College, Oxford And Glasgow University, Read Law At Lincoln's Inn And In 1780 Became A Member Of The Faculty Of ...

Lauderdale_2
Lauderdale, John Maitland, Duke Of, Scottish Politician: B. Lethington, 24 May 1616; D. 20 Or 24 Aug. 1682. He Was The Eldest Surviving Son Of John, 1st. Earl Of Lauderdale, And Made His Entrance Into Public Life As A Staunch Supporter Of The Presbyterian Cause. He Embraced The Covenant And ...

Laughing Philosopher
Laughing Philosopher, A Char Acterization Of Democritus Of Miletus (q.v.). He Laughed At The Follies Of Man And Is Dis By This Epithet From The Sweeping Osopher,) Heraclitus, Who Mourned For Uman Depravity And Infatuation. Laughlin, Lanin, James Laurence, American Political Economist And Educator: H. Deerfield, Ohio, 2 April.1850. He ...

Laughter
Laughter, In Physiological-psychology, An Expression Of Emotion, Consisting Chiefly In Certain Convulsive And Partly Involuntary Activ Ities Of The Muscles Of Respiration By Means Of Which After An Inspiration The Explosion Of Air From The Lungs In A Series Of Interruptions Pro Duces A Succession Of Short Abrupt Movements Of ...

Laundry Machinery
Laundry Machinery. Laundry Machinery As It Is Understood From The Com Mercial Standpoint Includes A Class Of Mechani Cal Devices Developed During A Comparatively Recent Period, To Supplant The Primitive Proc Esses Of Laundering That Have Existed During All Time. While The Use Of Laundry Machinery In Crude Forms Dates ...

Laurel In Art And
Laurel In Art And Symbolism. The Laurel Was Dedicated By The Ancients To Apollo. The Very Earliest Belief Of The Mys Terious Virtues Of The Laurel Was That It Had Purifying Qualities. Ancient Writers Say That Apollo Purified Himself With Laurel After Python, The Snake Monster Who Was M Parnassus ...

Laurens
Laurens, Wrens, Henry, American Pa Triot And Statesman: B. Charleston, S. C., 1724; D. There, 8 Dec. 1792. He Was A Mercantile Clerk In London And Charleston And In The Latter Place Established A Successful Business. An Opponent Of Royal Aggression, He Was In Volved In Numerous Disputes With The ...

Lauria
Lauria, Lou're-; (luria Or Loria) Ruggiero Di, Spanish-italian Admiral: B. Castle Of Lauria, Lauria, Basilicata, 13th Century; D. Valencia, 2 Jan. 1305. Of His Early Life Little Is Known. His Father Was An Adherent Of King Manfred Of Sicily, And His Mother, Bella Of Lauria, Accompanied Constanza, The Daughter Of ...

Laurier
Laurier, Lo'ri-a, Sul Wilfrid, Canadian Statesman: B. Saint Lin, Quebec, 20 Nov. 1841; D. Ottawa, 17 Feb. 1919, The Only Son Of Carolus Laurier, Whose Ancestors Came From France In The Latter Half Of The 17th Century, And Of Marcille Martineau. He Received His Early Education At L'assomption College, And ...

Lausanne
Lausanne, Rizan, Switzerland, Capital Of The Canton Of Vaud; Situated On The Jorat Mountain Range On The River Flon, One Mile North Of Lake Geneva At A Junction Of Rail Ways From Geneva, Brieg And The Simplon, Freiberg And Bern, And From Vallorbe For Paris. There Is A Funicular Railway ...

Laval
Laval, La'var, France, Capital City Of The Department Of Mayenne, On The Mayenne River, 46 Miles East Of Rennes And 188 Miles By Rail Southwest Of Paris. The Town Is Built Upon Both Sides Of The River, The Ancient Portion Occupying The Hills To One Side While The Mod Ern ...

Laval University
Laval University,' Montreal, Ada, Was Founded At Quebec, In 1852, By The Seminary Of That City, Which Gave It The Name Of Its Own Founder, Mgr. Francois De Montmo Rency-laval, First Bishop Of Quebec. The Di Rectors Of This Institution Obtained Then From Her Majesty Queen' Victoria A Charter Which ...

Lavender
Lavender, A Genus (lavandula) Of Perennial Herbs, Sub-shrubs And Shrubs Of The Order Labiate', Consisting Of 20 Species, Native To The Mediterranean Region And South Western Asia. The Best Known Are True Laven Der (l. Vera) And Spike Lavender (l. Spica), Which Like Other Members Of The Genus Have Narrow ...

Lavengro
Lavengro. George Borrow's Gro,) Published In 1851, And Its Sequel, Romany Rye' (1857), Constitute Virtually A Single Work Dealing With The Author's Experi Ences As A Wanderer In Englan'd And Particularly With His Adventures Among The Gypsies. Within The Scope Of The Picturesque And Whimsical Narrative Is Contained A Strange ...

Lavoisier
Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 16-ron La-vwa-ze-a, French Chemist: B. Paris, -26 Aug. 1743; D. There, 8 May 1794. He Was The Son Of A Wealthy Tradesman; Was Educated At The Cellege Mazarin; Studied Mathematics And Astronomy Under Lacaille, Chemistry In The Laboratory Of Rouelle And Botany Under Jus Sieu. In 1766 ...

Lavrov
Lavrov, F', Peter Lavrovitch (mutiny), Russian Revolutionist, Scientist And Scholar: B. Province Of Pskov, 2/14 June 1823; D. Paris, 6 Feb. 1900. He Received A Military Education At Saint Petersburg And Became Colonel Of Artillery And Instructor In Mathe Matics At The Academy Of Artillery, Re Maining There For 22 ...

Law Me
Law (m.e., Lawe; A.s., Lagu). The An Glo-saxon Form Is Of Rare Occurrence, Except In Compounds; But From These, And From The Cognate Icelandic Log, Pl. Lag—i.e., °things Ly Ing In Due Place," Like Strata Of Slate, For In Stance — The Original Meaning Of Lagu As, *that Which Lies ...

Law Merchant
Law Merchant, The. The Law Mer Chant Was A System Of Law Which Grew Up In Europe During The Middle Ages For The Regula Tion Of The Dealings Of Mariners And Merchants In All The Commercial Countries Of The World. It Comprised Mpeh Of What Is Found In The Modern ...

Lawn
Lawn, Finely Woven White Goods, Cotton Or Linen, Of An Open Texture, Plain Or Printed. The White 'sleeves, Which Form A Part Of The Dress Of A Bishop In The English Church, Are Made Of 'lawn. A Modern Game, Played On Grass, Gravel, Cinder Or Asphalt Courts, With Balls And ...

Lawns
Lawns: Their Preparation And Care, A Closely-mown Turf Maintained For Ornament In Parks And Private Grounds. It May Or May Not Be Dotted With Trees, Shrubs Or Other Specimen Plants, Or Even With Flower Beds. These Are, However, Mere Incidents, And Since They Usually Detract From The Natural Beauties Of ...

Lawrence
Lawrence, James, American Naval Of Ficer: B. Burlington, N. J., 1 Oct. 1781; D. 5 June 1813. He Entered The Navy As A Midship Man 4 Sept. 1798; In 1800 Was Made Acting Lieutenant And In April, 1802, Lieutenant, And Served During The War With Tripoli; He Was First Lieutenant ...

Lawrence
Lawrence, Mass., City, And One Of The County-seats Of Essex County, On Both Sides Of The Merrimac River, And On The Boston And Maitte Railroad, 26 Miles Northwest Of Bos Ton. It Is One Of The Notable And Leading Manu Facturing Cities In The Valley Of The Merrimac River. Built ...

Lawrence_2
Lawrence, ' John Laird Mair, Isr Baron Lawrence, English Viceroy And Gov Ernor-general Of India: B. Richmond, York Shire, 24 March 1811; D. London, 26 June 1879. He Was A Younger Brother Of Sir Henry Mont Gomery Lawrence And Of Sir George Saint Patrick Lawrence, Both Of Whom Attained Dis ...

Laws Of War
Laws Of War, The. A Comparison Of The Laws Of War As They Exist To-day With Those Which Governed The Conduct Of Belligerents 100 Years Ago Will Reveal One Striking Difference, Namely, Whereas, The Law To-day Is In Large Part Written, A Century Ago It Was For The Most Part ...

Laxative
Laxative, A Term Applied To Medicines And Articles Of Food Which Without Causing Irritation Evacuate The Contents Of The Intestines. The Terms Aperients, Lenitives And Eccoproctics Are Also Employed To Cover The Same Meaning. Laxative Articles Of Food, The Use Of Which Causes Daily Intestinal Evacuations, Contain Con Siderable Quantities ...

Laxenburg
Laxenburg, Lower Austria, Village Nine Miles South Of Vienna, On The .schwechat River. Its Palace Is One Of The Summer Homes Of The Austrian Imperial Family. The Imperial Park, Which Is Open To The Public, Consists Of 1,000 Acres, Covers 17 Islands, In The Scirwechat River And Was Laid Out ...

Layard
Layard, Li'ird, Snt Austen Henry, Eng Lish Traveler And Archaeologist: B. Paris, 5 March 1817; D. London, 5 July 1894. He Was Of A Family Originally French; Was Partly Edu Cated In Italy; Began To Study Law, But Gave Up This Work And Entered Upon A Course Of Travels In ...

Laymans Missionary Move Ment
Layman's Missionary Move Ment, A Movement Which Grew Out Of A Mis Sionary Prayer Meeting Held In The Chapel Of The Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church In New York 15 Nov. 1906, Planned To Commemorate The Centennial Of Famous Haystack Prayer Meeting Held At Williamstown, Mass., From Which The Modern Missionary ...

Lazarillo De T6rmes
Lazarillo De T6rmes, Ly6 Di Tor'mas, The First Of The Picaresque Or Rogue Novels And The Most Complete Early Ex Ample Of Modern Realistic Fiction, Takes Im Portant Rank In The History Of Literature As A Satiric Picture Of Spanish Life During The Re Naissance, Of Vividness, Directness And Power. ...

Lazarus
Lazarus (abridged Form Of The He Brew Name Eleazar, • God Has Helped"), Name Of Two Persons In The New Testament. 1. Lazarus Of Bethany, Brother Of Martha And J Mary, And A Friend Of Esus. John Xi, Xii, Narrates The Miracle Of Esus Raising Lazarus From The Dead After ...

Lazarus_2
Lazarus, Emma, American Poet; B. New York, 22 July 1849; D. There, 19 Nov. 1887. Trained At Home Under The Personal Direction Of Her Father, Moses Lazarus, A New York Mer Chant Of Prominence In The Social And Busi Ness World, She Early Displayed Intellectual Promise. From Her Childhood Books ...

Lb Subur
Lb Subur, Jean. Francois, Li Slyer, Shot Frari-swa, French Composer: B. Drucat-ples Siel, Near Abbeville, 15 Jam .1760; D. Paris, 6 Oct. 1837. At Six He Was Placed At The Musical School Of The Cathedral Of Amiens And After Completing His Studies Was Made Director Of Music In The Cathedrals ...

Lbssing
Lbssing, Gotthold Ephraim, German Dramatist And Critic: 1,..kaincilz, Upper Lusatia, Saxony, 22 Jan. 1729; D. Brunswick, 15 Feb. 1781. In 1741 He Was Sent To The School Of Saint Afra At Meissen. He Was A Diligent Student, Who, According To His Tutor, Was A Horse That Needed Double Fodder. He ...

Le Diable Boiteux
Le Diable Boiteux, It Bwi'te, Limping. Devil' (1707), By Sage, Seems From Its Title A Translation Or Adaptation Of
Le Menteur
Le Menteur, N Mon'ter Liar,' 1642), By Pierre Corneille, Is The First Good French Comedy, The First To Emancipate This Form Of Drama From Mediaeval Or Misunder Stood Classical Tradition. The Liberation Came, With The Comedy Itself, From Spain. This Is In Part Translated From (la Verdad Sospe Chosa,' By ...