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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 17

Le
Le °endre De Monsieur Poi Rler, Le Shindr' De Ine'syer Pwa'ryer ('mr. Poirier's Is Regarded As A Model Of The Modern French Comedy , Of Manners And By Some As 'supreme In This Class Since • 'the Marriage Of Figaro.' Jules Sandeau (1811-82) Furnished The General Scheme For It; Ilmite ...

Le Moyne
Le Moyne, Jean Baptiste, Sieur' De Blenyille., French Administrator In America: B. Villemarie, Canada, 23 Feb. 1680; D. Paris, 1768. He Was A Son Of Charles Le Moyne (q.v.). In 1729, Upon The Death Of His Brother, Charles, Baron De Longueuil (q.v.), He Suc Ceeded To The Title; But He ...

Lead
Lead, Led, Or Leads, Mrs. Jane (ward), English Mystic: B. County Of Nor Folk, 1623; D. Stepney, 19 Aug. 1704. She Came Of An Excellent Family And At 16 Is Said To Have Heard A Miraculous Voice During The Christ Mas Festivities In Her Father's House, After Which Time She ...

Lead
Lead, One Of The Most Useful Metallic Elements, Well Known In Chemistry And In The Arts. From Early Times References To It Are Found In Literature. It Is Mentioned In Exodus Xv, 10• Numbers Xxxi, 22; Job Xix, 24; And Ezekiel Xxvii, 12, And Is Supposed To Have Been Imported ...

Lead Pencils
Lead Pencils. The Earliest Mention Of What • Are Known To-day As Lead Pencils Ap Pears In Records Dating Back To 1565'.—not Long After The Discovery Of The Noted Graphite Mine At Borrowdale. England, In 1554. This Mine Furnished The Material For The First Lead Pencils. The Graphite Was Sawed ...

Leake
Leake, Snt John, English Admiral: B. Rotherhithe, 1656; D. Greenwich, 21 Aug. 1720. He Entered The Navy And In 1673 Was Serving Under His Father On Board The Royal Prince. He Became Commander Of The Firedrake In 1688 And Served Under Admiral Herbert In The Action Off Bantry Bay, 1 ...

Leander
Leander Mccormick Observa Tory. The Leander Mccormick Observa Tory Of The University Of Virginia Owes Its Origin To The Generosity Of The Late Leander J. Mccormick Of Chicago. The Chief Instrument Is The 26-inch Refractor, Both Lens And Mount Ing The Work Of Alvan Clark And Sons. The Lens When ...

Leander Clark College
Leander Clark College, Before 1906 Known As Western College, Is Located At Toledo, Iowa. It Was Founded By The Iowa I Conference Of The United Brethren In Christ ; Was Incorporated In 1856; And Was Opened To Students In 1857. It Was First Located At West Ern, Linn County, But ...

Learned Ladies
Learned Ladies, The ('les Femmes Savantes9, One Of The Most Readable, Vivacious And Often Acted Comedies Of Moliere, Was First Produced 11 March 1672 And Published In 1673. The Theme Is Related To That Of 'les Pre Cieuses Ridicules,' But Is Not The Same. The At Tack There Was On ...

Lease
Lease, A Species Of Contract Granting The Possession Of Lands, Tenements, Or Incorporeal Hereditaments, For Life Or A Limited Term Of Years, Or During The Pleasure Of The Contracting Parties. The Grantor Is Called The Lessor And The Grantee The Lessee. A Lease May Be In Writ Ing Or By ...

Leasehold
Leasehold. A Leasehold Is An Estate Held Under Or By Virtue Of A Lease. An Estate For Years Usually Commences By Means Of A Written Lease. It Is Important To Distinguish Between A Lease And-an Agreement To Lease, The Former Being A Completed Contract And The Latter Only A Stipulation ...

Least Squares
Least Squares, Method Of. A Mathematical Process For Treating The Results Of Scientific Observation So As To Free Them As Far As Possible From The Effect Of Error. The Familiar Idea Of Measurements Either Regards Them All As Perfectly Exact When Made, Or At Least Sufficiently Near Perfect Exactness. For ...

Leather
Leather, Chamois. What Is Known In The Market As Chamois Skin Is Really An Oil Tanned Sheep Or Lamb Skin Lining. The Supply Of Skins From The Chamois Animal Is Very Limited; Enough Could Not Be Obtained In A Year To Supply The United States For More Than A Single ...

Leather
Leather, Manufacture And Uses Of. Of All The Ancient Industries That Of The Manu Facture Of Leather Is One Of The Most Interesting On Account Of The Convertibility Of An Easily De Composed Sdbstance Into One Which Resists Pu Trefaction. The Manufacture Of Leather Is As Old As History Itself. ...

Leather Substitutes
Leather Substitutes. Owing To The Increasing Demand For Leather In The Facture Of Shoes, Belting And Harness, The Ply Of Thin Sections Of Hides Suitable For Upholstery, Bookbinding, Travel Goods, Etc., Has Steadily Decreased And Its Cost Increased. The Result Has Been The Introduction Of Various Leather Substitutes. These Are ...

Leavenworth
Leavenworth, Kan., The County-seat Of Leavenworth County And One Of The Most Important Cities In The State, 26 Miles North West Of Kansas City, On The West Bank Of The Missouri River, Here Spanned By Two Fine Iron Bridges, Accommodating Railway And Ordinary Traffic. The Missouri Pacific, Union Pacific, Atchison, ...

Leaves
Leaves, In The Ordinary Sense Of The Word, Are The Structures On Which Devolves The Duty Of Nourishing The Plant. They Invariably Arise As Lateral Protuberances From The Grow Ing-points Or Terminal Vegetative Cones Of The Shoots, That Is, From A Part Of The Plant Which Is Still In An ...

Lebanon
Lebanon, Mountains Of, Syria, Two Nearly Parallel Mountain Ranges Which, Com Mencing At About Lat. 25' N., Stretch South Southwest Toward Palestine, Enclosing Between Them A Valley About 70 Miles Long By 15 Miles Wide, Now Simply Distinguished By The Name Of El-bukaa, Uthe Valley, D But Known Anciently By ...

Lebensohn
Lebensohn, Abraham Bar (pseud. Adam), Russian Hebrew Poet And Grammarian: B. Vilna, Russia, About 1789; D. There, 19 Nov. 1878. He Was Educated As A Talmudist, Became Interested In Hebrew Gram Mar At 11, And At 13, In Accordance With The Prevailing Custom, He Was Married. He Lived With His ...

Leblanc
Leblanc, Nicolas, French Chemist: B. Issoudun, Department Of Indre, 1742; D. Saint Denis, 16 Jan. 1806. He Studied Medicine, Was Appointed Surgeon To The Duke Of Orleans And, After The Revolution, Administrator Of The De Partment Of The Seine. His Name Is Associated With The Process Of Converting Common Salt ...

Lebrija
Lebrija, Spain, City In The Province Of Seville, 44 Miles Southwest Of Seville, On The Left Bank Of The Guadalquivir And The Eastern Border Of Marshes. Called Las Marismas, And On The Seville-cadiz Railway. It Has A Ruined Moorish Castle And A Church Which Was Originally A Mosque, And Which ...

Leclerc
Leclerc, Charles Victor Em Manuel, French General: B. Pontoise, 17 March 1772; D. San Domingo, 2 Nov. 1802. He Entered The Cavalry Service In 1791 And Was Aide-de-camp To General Lapoype. At The Siege Of Toulon He Won The Interest Of Napoleon, Who Thereafter Held Him In High Regard. Leclerc ...

Lecompton Constitution
Lecompton Constitution, In Kansas History A Form Of Territorial Govern Ment, Adopted By A Convention Held At Lecomp Ton, Kan., In 1857, The Legality Of Which In Both Form And Action Became A Matter Of Dispute And Caused National Discussion And Congres Sional Action. For Several Years Prior To 1857 ...

Leconte De Lisle
Leconte De Lisle, Charles Marie Rene, Sharl Mare Re-ni Le Vint De Re, French Poet: B. Saint Paul, Ile De Bourbon (now Re Union), 23 Oct. 1818; D. Louveciennes, 17 July 1894. When A Young Man He Went To. France, Studied Law At Rennes And After A Course Of Travel ...

Lectionary
Lectionary (lat. Lectionarium), Orig Inally A Service-book Of The Church Of The Middle Ages, So Termed As It Contained The Les Sons (lectiones) Or Passages Of Scriptures, Read In The Church Service. The Roman Catholic Lectionary Contained The Epistles And Gospels Of The Roman Missals, Sometimes Also All The Les ...

Lectureships
Lectureships, Endowed. The Lec Ture Platform Has Provided Many Opportunities For Extended Influence And Instruction. Recog Nizing Their Value, Lectureships Are En Dowed, Mainly, In Connection With Various Edu Cational Institutions. The Income From The In Vested Funds Is Sufficient To Pay The Lecturer For His Work And His Expenses. ...

Ledrain
Ledrain, 16-drati', Engine, French Archeologist: B. Sainte-suzanne, Mayenne, 1844; D. Paris, 1910. He Was Educated For The Priesthood But Devoted. Himself To Researches In Oriental Archeology. He Was For Many Years A Curator In The Department Of Oriental Antiquities At The Louvre And Also Served As A Professor In The ...

Ledyard
Ledyard, John, American Traveler: B. Groton, Conn., 1751; D. Cairo, Egypt, 17 Jan. 1789. He Entered Dartmouth College In 1772, With A. View Of Fitting Himself For Missionary Duty Among The Indians. The Restraints Of This Mode Of Life Proving Irksome, He Absented Himself At One Time From College Fot ...

Ledyard
Ledyard, William, American Soldier: B. Groton, Conn., About 1750; D. Fort Griswold, Conn., 7 Sept. 1781. He Held The Commission Of Colonel In The Militia Of Connecticut, And During The Marauding Expedition Of Arnold In September 1781 Was In Command Of Forts Trumbull And Griswold, Which Protected New London. He ...

Lee Family
Lee Family, The, A Family Of Virginia, Some Of Whose Members Have Been Conspicuous In Public Affairs At Almost Every Stage Of Ameri Can History.' Among All The Eminent Names Of The South There Is None That Outranks This In The Number Or Prominence Of Those Who Repre Sent It ...

Leeches
Leeches, Highly Specialized Amielida Constituting The Order Hirudinea Or Di.rcophora. They Are Distinguished From Most Other Anne Lids By The Nearly Complete Obliteration Of The Axiom Or Body-cavity, Owing To The Develop Went Of Parenchymatous Connective Tissue, Muscles, Etc., The Presence Of An Anterior Or Oral Sucker And A Posterior ...

Leeds
Leeds, England, A Municipal, Parliamen Tary And County Borough And Large Manufactur Ing City, In The West Riding Of Yorkshire, On The River Aim 1851/2 Miles North Of London. The River,' Which Is Passing Through The City Is Spanned By Eight Bridges, Is Navigable From Its Mouth In The Humber, ...

Leempoels
Leempoels, 1en/spools, Jef (joseph), Belgian Painter: B. Brussels, 15 May 1867. He Studied At The Brussels Academy Of Art Under Portaels And Stallaert And Specialized As A Por Trait And Figure Painter. He Received The Great State Medal At Vienna In 1895 And Was Awarded Gold Medals At Saint Louis ...

Leeuwarden
Leeuwarden, La!war-den, The Nether Lands, Holland, Capital City Of The Province Of Friesland, 31 Miles West Of Groningen, On The Canal Between Harlingen And Groningen. The Town Grew Around The Courts Of The Friesian Stadtholders And Is Comparable To The Hague For Its General Attractiveness; Possesses Many Handsome Buildings And ...

Lefebvre
Lefebvre, Jules, French Painter: B. Tournan, Seine-et-marne, 10 March 1836; D. Paris, 24 Feb. 1912. He Was Apprenticed To The Trade Of His Father Who Was A Baker, But Through His Mother's Interest He Was Sent To Paris And Became The Pupil Of Leon Coignet. His 'death Of Priam,' Exhibited ...

Lefebvre Desnouettes
Lefebvre-desnouettes, Le-fav'er Di'-npo'et', Charles, Count, French Cavalry General: B. Paris, 14 Sept. 1773; D. At Sea, 22 April 1822. He Volunteered In The Revolution Ary Army In 1792 And In 1798 Had Risen To The Rank Of Captain, And Was Appointed Aide-de Camp To Napoleon. He Won Promotion At Both ...

Leffmann
Leffmann, Henry, 'american Chemist: B. Philadelphia, 9 Sept. 1847. He Was Gradu-. Ated Fromjefferson. Medical College In 18w. And From The Pennsylvania College Of Dental. Surgery In 1884. He Was Elected Assistant Professor Of Chemistry At The Philadelphia Cen- • Tral High School And Served From 1876 To 1880. He ...

Lefranc
Lefranc, Abel Jules Maurice, French Historian: B. Elincourt-sainte-marguer-. Ite, Oise, 27 July 1863. He Was Educated At Paris And At The Universities Of Leipzig And Berlin. He Was Secretary, And Later Professor, Of The College Of France, Was Exchange Pro Fessor At The University Of Chicago In 1913• And Was ...

Legacy
Legacy, A Gift Of A Chattel, Money, Or Other Personal Property Made Through The Will Of A Person Deceased. Such Bequests Are Either Specific Or General; A Specific Legacy As The Name Indicates Is Confined To The Gift Of A Specific Article, As A Piece Of Plate, A Painting, Etc.; ...

Legal Tender
Legal Tender, In Its Widest Sense, An Offer To Perform A Contract According To Speci Fied Conditions. It Also Designates The Coin And Paper Money Which A Creditor May Be Com Pelled To Accept In Payment Of Debts. Gen Erally Speaking, All Kinds Of United States Money Are Legal Tenders ...

Legerdemain
Legerdemain, Lej-er-de-man, The Art Of Deceptive Juggling; Variously Styled Pres Tidigitation, Thaumaturgy Or Sleight Of Hand; Or Less Correctly, Magic. Properly, Magic (q.v.) Is The Name For Necromancy, Divination, Sorcery Or Unusual And Apparently Supernat Ural Things Accomplished By The Aid Of Occult Powers Or Discarnate Spirits. The Term Magic ...

Legion Of Honor
Legion Of Honor, French Order Of The (l'ordre De La Legion D'honneur), An Order Created By Bonaparte, First Consul, On 19 May 1802 (29 Florial, Year X), To Reward Distinguished Services Rendered In Military And Civil Life. The Emblem Of The Legion D'honneur Is A Star With Five Twofold-rays, The ...

Legislation
Legislation. The Term °legislation" In Its Most Restricted Sense Has Reference To The Enactments Of A Legislative Body (see Legislature). In A Larger Sense, Legislation Embraces The Totality Of General Rules Of Law Binding Upon The Community, Whether They Emanate From A Legislative Body, From The People Acting By Way ...

Legislative Reform
Legislative Reform. Growth Of Popular Distrust Of Legislatures.— No One Can Say That American State Legislatures Have Been Denied The Opportunity To Prove Themselves Worthy Of The Confidence And Respect Of The American People. At The Close Of The Revolu Tionary War A Reaction In Political Opinion Set In Which ...

Legislature
Legislature. In The Most General Sense Of The Term A Legislature Is Any Law-mak Ing Body, Whether Congress, Parliament, Land Tag Or Other Assembly Of Representatives Charged With The Enactment Of General Rules Of Conduct Binding Upon The Inhabitants Of The State. In A Narrower Sense The Term Is Descrip ...

Legitimacy
Legitimacy. As A Law Term °legiti Macy') Is Employed Mainly To Describe The Status Of Children Born In Lawful Wedlock. The Mean Ing Of The Term Will Be Best Understood By The Condition Of Illegitimate With That Of Legitimate Children. A Child Born Out Of Wedlock Is Nut/us Fi/ius; It ...

Legitimation
Legitimation, The Act Of Conferring Legitimacy (q.v.) On A Person Born Out Of Wed Lock. It Is Effected By Act Of The Legislature, By Adoption Or By The Subgequent Marriage Of The Father And Mother Of The Bastard. The Latter Means, However, Can Only Be Had Provided The Father And ...

Legouis
Legouis, 1e-goo'e, Emile, French Literary Critic: B. Honfluer, Calvados, 1861. He Studied At The Universities Of Caen And Paris, Was Appointed Lecturer And Professor At The Uni Versity Of Lyons In 1885 And In 1904 Became Professor Of English Language And Literature At The Sorbonne. He Was Exchange Professor At ...

Leguminosze
Leguminosze, A Group Of Plants For Merly Considered A Family, But Now Generally Divided Into Three Families. The Term, However, Is A Convenient One And Is Retained For The Group As A Whole. The Plants Are Herbs, Shrubs And Trees Widely Distributed In All Cli Mates But Most Numerous In ...

Lehigh University
Lehigh University, An Institution At South Bethlehem, Pa., Founded By Asa Packer (q.v.) In 1866. His Endowment Of The University, Including An Appropriation Of Land, Totaled About $3,000,000, Said To Be The Largest Donation By One American To The Cause Of Education Up To That Time. The Original Object Of ...

Lehigh Valley Railroad Com
Lehigh Valley Railroad Com Pany, The, Was Incorporated By An Act Of The Legislature Of Pennsylvania, 21 April 1846, As The Delaware, Lehigh, Schuylkill And Susque Hanna Railroad Company; Its Name Was Changed To Lehigh Valley Railroad Company 7 Jan. 1853. The Lehigh Valley Railroad System Is To Day A ...

Leibnitz
Leibnitz, Llb'nitz, Gottfried Wilhelm Von, The Most Universal Scientific Genius Of Modern Times: In Leipzig, 21 June 1646; D. Hanover, 14 Nov. 1716. He Early Lost His Father, A Professor Of Moral Philosophy In The Local University, And Depended For His Childish Education Mainly Upon Undirected Omnivorous Private Reading. Having ...

Leicester
Leicester, England, County Town Of Leicestershire, On The River Soar, A Southern Tributary Of The Trent, 99 Miles North West Of London, On The Midland Railway And On Branches Of The Great Northern And London And Northwestern Railways And On The Leices Ter Canal. It Was The Roman Rat* And ...

Leicestershire
Leicestershire, England, North Mid Land County, Bounded By Derby On The North West, Nottingham On The North, Lincoln And Rutland On The East, Northhampton On The Southeast And Warwick On The Southwest, Where It Likewise Touches Staffordshire. The Area Of The County Is 819 Square Miles. The Surface Is Undulating, ...

Leighton
Leighton, Frederick, Baron, English Painter: B. Scarborough, 3 Dec. 1830; D. Lon Don, 25 Jan. 1896. He Received Some Lessons In Art At Paris As Early As 1839, And Then Fol Lowed Further Instruction At Rome. At 14 He Entered The Royal Academy Of Berlin And Subsequent Art Studies Were ...

Leighton_2
Leighton, Robert, Anglican Archbishop, Son Of Alexander Leighton (q.v.) : B. Prob Ably London, Possibly Unshaven, Forfarshire, 1611; D. London, 25 June 1684. He Took His A.m. At The University Of Edinburgh In 1631 And Afterward Traveled In France, Acquiring The Language, And Through His Association With Relatives Of Roman ...

Leipzig
Leipzig, Lip'tsig, Or Leipsic, Ilp'slk, Germany, The Largest Town Of Saxony And The Third Largest In The German Empire, Situated In A Broad, Fertile Plain At The Confluence Of The Rivers Elster, Pleisse And Parthe. The City Comprises The Inner Town, The Inner And Outer Suburbs (vorstadte), The More Outlying ...

Leipzig_2
Leipzig, Battles Of, Three Important Battles, Two Of H Were In The Thirty Years' War, And One In The Napoleonic Wars. (1) The First Battle Of Leipzig Is Also Known As The Battle Of Breitenfeld From The Plain About A Mile From The City, Upon Which It Was Fought. It ...

Leipzig_3
Leipzig, Colloquy Of, Conference Held In Leipzig By The German Lutherans And Calvin Ists 3-23 March 1631 For The Purpose Of Secur Ing Harmony Between The Two Churches, And A Resultant Union To Resist The Execution Of The Edict Of Restitution. The Landgrave, William Of Hesse, The Elector Christian William ...

Leisler
Leisler, Lis'ler, Jacob, American Colo Nial Political Leader: B. Frankfort-on-the-main, Germany; D. New York, 16 May 1691. He Came To America As A Private Soldier In The Service Of The Dutch West India Company, And Was For A Time Engaged In Trade At Albany, And Later Settling In New York, ...

Leith
Leith, Scotland, A Seaport And Parlia Mentary Burgh In The County Of Midlothian, Encircled On Three Sides By Edinburgh, On The South Shore Of The Firth Of Forth, On The Water Of Leith. It Is Connected With Edin Burgh By Leith Walk—originally A Line Of Earthworks Built During The Cromwellian ...

Leitmotiv
Leitmotiv, Lietno-tef, In, Music,, The Leading Theme, The Characteristic Phrase, Which, Occurs Over And Over Again In The Same Com Position, In Reference To The Same Person, Phrase Of Feeling Or Scenic Complication Of In Tense Passion Or Action. The Phrase Strikes The Note Of These Several Crises Or Conjunctures ...

Leland
Leland, Charles Godfrey, American Author: B. Philadelphia, 15 Aug. 1824; D. Florence, Italy, 20 March 1903. He Showed Poetic Talent In Youthful Contributions To News Papers And A Growing Genius, Marked By Un Usual Versatility, Dunng His College Days At Princeton, Where He Was Graduated In 1846. He Studied Afterward ...

Leland Stanford Junior Uni
Leland Stanford Junior Uni Versity, A Coeducational Institution At Palo Alto, California, About 30 Miles Southeast Of San Francisco, In The Santa Clara Valley. The University Campus Comprises 9,000 Acres Of Land, Partly In The Level Of The Valley And Partly Rising Into The Foothills Of Tie Santa Moreno Mountains, ...

Lelewel
Lelewel, Lel'ev-el, Joachim, Polish His Torian, Geographer And Numismatist : B. War Saw, 22 March 1786; D. Paris, 29 May 1861. His Family Was Of Prussian Origin, But His Father Was Naturalized As A Polish Citizen. He Was Educated At Vilna, Taught At Krzemieniec, Volkynia, And In 1814 Became Lecturer ...

Lely
Lely, Wit Sat Dutch Painter: B. Soest, Westphalia, 1618; D. London, 30 Nov. 1680. His Real Name Was Pieter Van Der Fees, But He Assumed As His Artistic Title A Nickname, Lely, Or Rather Le Lys, Which Had Been Borne By His Father. He Was The Pupil Of Peter Greb ...

Lemberg
Lemberg, Lem'berg, Austria, The Capital Of The Crownland Of Galicia, And The Fourth City Of Austria, On The Peltew, 470 Miles By Rail Northeast Of Vienna. Founded In The 13th Century And Formerly Surrounded By Walls, The City Notwithstanding Has A Modern Appearance, The Walls Having Been Replaced By Boulevards ...

Lemberg_2
Lemberg, University Of, Austria, Situ Ated In The City Of The Same Name, Founded By Joseph Ii In 1784, And The Third Largest Univer Sity In The Country. It Originated From A Jesuit School Whose Charter • Dated From 1661 But Which Did Not Receive Papal Sanction Until 1758, 26 ...

Lemming
Lemming, A Short-tailed, Rat-like Animal, Related To The European Voles And American Meadow Mice, Which Inhabits The High Moun Tains Of Scandinavia. Its Technical Name Is Myodes 'menus, And Closely Related Species Are Found In Northern Siberia And In Arctic Amer Ica. In General Appearance These Animals Are More Like ...

Lemon
Lemon, A Small Tree Or Spreading Shrub (citrus Lin)onia) Of The Family Rutacew. It Is A Native Of India, But Has Been Introduced Into Tropical And Subtropical Countries Through Out The World, Especially Those Of The Mediter Ranean Region, Whence It Was' Imported Into Florida And California. In Florida The ...