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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 19

Mohammed
Mohammed ("the Praised Ones; Also Written: Mahomet; Muhammad, The Arabic Form; Mahmoud; Mehemet, Etc.), Prophet And Founder Of Islamism, General Called By Chris Tians Mohammedanism (but Not By The Follow Ers Of The Faith Of Islam) : B. Mecca, Arabia, Probably In April 569 To Some Authorities 570 And 571 ...

Mohawk
Mohawk, A River Whose Head-waters Rise In Mohawk Hill In The Southern Part Of Lewis County, N. Y. It Flows South To Rome, Where East By South, With Many Curves, It Con Tinues To The Hudson River, Which It Enters At Cohoes, Nine Miles Above Albany. It Is About 160 ...

Mohawks
Mohawks, A Tribe Of North American Indian, The Easternmost Of The Six Nations, Named Collectively By The French, The Iroquois. According To Their Own Tradition, Confirmed By Those Of Other Tribes, They Were The Eldest Peo Ple In The Confederacy Of The Six Nations And Styled Themselves Kaniengehaga, "people Of ...

Mole
Mole, A Small Insectivorous Mammal Of The Family Talpidce. They Are Related To The Still Smaller Shrews (soricida), From Which The Typical Species May Be Distinguished By Having The External Ears So Short That They Are Completely Concealed In The Fur, The Fore Feet Broad And Shovel-like, The Skull Provided ...

Molecular Theory
Molecular Theory, In Physics And Chemistry, The Theory Which Teaches That Mat Ter, However Homogeneous It May Appear To Be, Is In Reality A Heterogeneous Aggregate Of Ultra Microscopic Particles Called "molecules." In A Crude Form This Idea Was Entertained And De Fended, Even Before The Christian Era, By Cer ...

Molino Del Rey
Molino Del Rey, Mo-le'no Del Ra, Battle Of, In The Mexican War (q.v.). Having Captured Vera Cruz (q.v.) In March, Gen. Winfield Scott (q.v.) Continued On Toward His Objective Point — Mexico City — And On The Way Fought And Defeated The Mexicans In The Battles Of Cerro Gordo, Contreras ...

Moller
Moller, Friedrich Max (known As Max Muller), English Philologist: B. Dessau, Ger Many, 6 Dec. 1823; D. Oxford, 28 Oct. 1900. His Father Was Wilhelm Muller (q.v.), A Famous German Lyrist, And His Maternal Great-grand Father Basedow, The Eductional Reformer. His Bringing Up Was In His Mother's Hands, As His ...

Mollusca
Mollusca, One Of The Great Divisions Or Phyla Of The Animal Kingdom, Containing The Oys Ters, Clams, Snails, Slugs, Squid And Cuttlefish. The Group Is Sharply Marked Off From All Others And Is Characterized By The Following Features: The Body Is Primarily Bilaterally Symmetrical With The Mouth And Anus At ...

Molting
Molting, The Change Of Skin, Or Of Such Cutaneous Or Partially Cutaneous Appendages As Hair Or Feathers, Which Occurs Annually Or Periodically In Animals Of Many Sorts, Such As Arthropods, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Etc. It Is A Process Often Perilous To The Animal, Being Not Infrequently Attended By Loss Of ...

Moltke
Moltke, Helmuth Karl Bernhard, Her Moot Kirl Bern'hart Molt16, Cousr Vox, Ger Man Soldier : B. Parchim, Mecidenbu Rg Schwerin, 26 Oct. 1800; D. Berlin, 24 April 1891. In 1805 His Father Removed To Lubeck, Where Young Moltke Shortly Afterward Saw His Home Looted And Burned During The French Invasion ...

Molybdenite
Molybdenite, Mollbide-nite, A Native Sulphid Of Molybdenum Crystallizing In Tabular Or Hexagonal Forms. It Commonly Occurs In Granite, Gneiss And Other Crystalline Rocks. In The United States It Is Found In The New Eng Land States, And In New York, Pennsylvania, Colorado And California. It Also Occurs In Canada, In ...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum, M6-1113'de-ntim, A Pure White Metal, Softer Than Steel, Malleable And Capable Of Being Forged And Welded. It Can Be Filed And Polished And May Be Drawn Into Ribbons Arid Fine Wire. Metallic Molybdenum Is Used In Various Electrical Contact Making And Breaking Devices, In X-ray Tubes, In Voltage Rectifiers, ...

Moment
Moment Of A Dynamical Quantity Is The Importance Of That Quantity In Regard To Its Dynamical Effect Relatively To A Given Point Or Axis. The Moment Of A Force About A Point Is The Product Of Its Amount Into Its Perpen Dicular Distance From The Point. The Tendency Of The ...

Mommsen
Mommsen, Mom'ze'n (christian Mat Thias) Theodor, German Epigraphist And His-, Torian: B. Garding, Schleswig, 30 Nov. 1817; D. Charlottenburg, Near Berlin, Prussia, 1 Nov. 1903. He Was A Student Of Jurisprudence And Philology At The University Of Kiel; Took His Ph.d. In 1842; Published With His Brother Tycho And His ...

Monarchy
Monarchy (fr. Monarchie, From Lat. Monarchic, From Greek Povapxia, Rule Of One, Sole Power). In The Course Of History, The Word Monarchy Has Been Subjected To So Many Interpretations And Has Been Applied To So Many Different Kinds Of Governments That An Exact Definition Or A Classification Of Its Main ...

Monastic Architecture
Monastic Architecture. East The Buddhist Priests' Monasteries, Known As Viharas, Either Adjoined Or Were In Cluded In The Chaitya-house (building Surround Ing The Shrine). The Most Ancient Monasteries Are No Longer In Existence, But We Know That The Jetavana Monastery Of Srivasti In The 5th Century A.n. Had Splendid Buildings ...

Monastic Art
Monastic Art. In Its Final Analysis Art Is The Visible, Concrete Proof Of The Develop Ment And Stage Of Advance Or Decay Of Civiliza Tion. And The Most Prominent Fact In Connec Tion With The History Of Art Of The Christian Era Is That The Holy Flame Of The Spirit ...

Monde Le
Monde (le) Oil L'on S'ennuie, Le Mond Oo Loit Son'nwe ('the Society That Bores' 1881) By Edouard Pailleron, Is Still, What After 15 Years It Seemed, "on The Whole The Most Brilliant Comedy Of Modern Days" (athena'um, 27 Jan. 1906). It Is Not Only An Extremely Keen And Witty Satire ...

Monet
Monet, Mo'n'a, Claude, French Painter: B. Paris, 14 Nov. 1840. He Opened A New Road To Landscape Painting By His Application Of Scien Tific Principles Deduced From The Laws Of Light. His Work, A Magnificent Verification Of The Opti Cal Discoveries Made By Helmholtz And Chev Reul, Forms The Very ...

Monetary Conferences
Monetary Conferences, Inter National. In Addition To The Monetary Conven Tions (q.v.) Held Among European Nations, Four Great International Monetary Conferences Have Been Held, Three At Paris 1867, 1878 And 1881, And One At Brussels In 1892. Encouraged By The Success Of The Latin Union (q.v.), France Invited All The ...

Money
Money. Money Is A Term Used To Describe The Standard Of Value And A Very Important Part Of The Medium Of Exchange Of A Country. By A Standard Of Value Is Meant Any Commodity, Which Is Used To Measure And Express The Ratios In Which Other Commodities Exchange For Each ...

Mongolia
Mongolia, China, A Vast Northern Cen Tral And Eastern Colonial Territory, Between Lat. 35° And N., And Long. 82° And 123° E, Bounded On The By Asiatic Russia, East By Manchuria, South By China Proper, And West By Suagaria And East Turkestan; Estimated Area, About 1,367,600 Square Miles. The Central ...

Monica
Monica, Saint, Mother Of Saint Augus Tine (q.v.) : B. Africa 332; D. Ostia 387. A Christian Who, In Accordance With The Wishes Of Her Parents, Also Christians, Married A Pagan. She Devoted Nearly All Her Life To The Conversion Of Her Husband And Son Augustine. Her Self Sacrifice Was ...

Monitor
Monitor, The, An Ironclad, The First Of A Class Of Naval Vessels Designated As Monitors (see Warships). It Was Designed And Built For The United States Government In 1861-62 Under Direction Of The Engineer John Ericsson (q.v.), Who Adopted As The Most Essential Fea Ture Of Its Construction The Revolving ...

Monitor Lizard
Monitor Lizard, The Type Of A Family Of Pleurodont Lizards (varnidci). They Are Found In Africa, The Eastern Archipelago, Etc., And Are The Largest Of Modern Lizards, Some Species Attaining A Length Of Six Or Eight Feet. The Skin Is Covered With Very Small Juxtaposed Scales And Tubercles Dorsally, While ...

Monitor And Merrimac
Monitor And Merrimac. The Contract For The Construction Of The Monitor Was Entered Into By The Navy Department In The Hope That She Could Be Completed Before The Merrimac, Then Building By The Confeder Ates At The Norfolk Navy Yard, Could Be Finished, And That The Monitor Would Be Able ...

Monk
Monk, Mfink, Or Monck, George, Duke Of Albemarle, English General And Naval Com Mander; The Restorer Of The Stuart Dynasty: B. Potheridge, Devon, 6 Dec. 1608; D. Newhall, Essex, 3 Jan. 1670. At 17 He Enlisted And Served In The Cadiz Expedition Under Sir Rich Ard Grenville, A Relative; Then ...

Monkeys
Monkeys, A General Name For The Ani Mals Of The Highest Mammalian Order, The Pri Mates (q.v.), Excepting Mankind And The Lemurs; Ordinarily Also Excepting The Anthropoid Apes (see Am) And The Baboons (q.v.). The Term In Fact, Then, Is Suitably Limited To Three Families, Considered In Their Broadest Sense, ...

Monmouth
Monmouth, Mon'milth, James, Doxn Or, Royal 'pretender And Claimant To The English. B. Rotterdam, 9 April 1649; D. London,, 25 July 1685. He Was The Natural Son Of Charles Ii And Of Lucy Walters, As Seems Certain From The King's Open Recognition Of Him, Although He So Closely Resembled Robert ...

Monmouth_2
Monmouth, Battle Of, In American History, A Celebrated Engagement Between The American And British Forces, The Former Com Manded By General Washington And The Latter By Sir Henry Clinton, Which Took Place At Free Hold, Monmouth County, N. J., 28 June 1778. On 18 June Sir Henry Clinton, Acting Under ...

Monna Vanna
Monna Vanna. In 1902 Maurice Mae Terlinck, Who For A Dozen Years Had Been Com Posing Tenuous Dramas Of The Imagination, Ex Pressive Of Vague Fears, And Symbolic Of The Coming Of Death, Turned In 'monna Vanna' To More Usual Type Of Play. In Place Of An Airy Plot But ...

Mono
Mono, The Common Name In Guatemala For' The Central American Howling Monkey (mycetes Villosus). Monocacy, Battle On The, An Engagement During The Civil War When On 4-5 July 1864, General Early With 20,000 Con Federate Troops, After Driving The Union Forces, Under General Sigel, From The Lower Shenan Doah Valley, ...

Monogram
Monogram (monos, Single Or Only, And Gramma, Meaning "a Single A Character Or Cipher Composed Of One, Two Or More Letters Interwoven, Being A Sort Of Abbreviation Of A Name, Used As A Seal Or Badge, In Coats Of Arms, Etc. Monograms Were Much Used On Coins By The Greeks ...

Monophysites
Monophysites (from Greek Monos, Single, And 'hysis, Nature), Those Followers Of The Opinion In The Early Church Which Ascribes But One Nature To Christ In Contradistinction To The Orthodox Doctrine That He Was Both Divine And Human, True God And True Man. The Monophysites Were Mainly Confined To The Eastern ...

Monopoly
Monopoly (greek, Mono Polio, Single Or Sole Selling) Is An Exclusive Right, Secured To One Or More Persons, To Carry On Some Branch Of Trade Or Manufacture, In Contradis Tinction To A Freedom Of Trade Or Manufacture Enjoyed By All The World. The Most Frequent Monopolies Formerly Granted Were The ...

Monorail
Monorail, A Single-rail Type Of Railway Designed For Economy Of Construction, In Creased Speed And For Mountainous Regions. The First Idea Of A Single-rail Railway Dates Back To 100 Years Ago, And Many Such Are Now Being Used In Various Parts Of The World. The First Car Run On A ...

Monotheism
Monotheism (greek Single Ork God), In Religion, The Belief That God Is One Or That There Is Only One God. Several Religious Beliefs Are In Opposition To This Tenet : Polytheism, Which Holds That There Are Many Gods; Atheism, Which Denies The Existence Of God Altogether; And Scepticism Or Agnosticism, ...

Monroe
Monroe, James, Fifth President Of The United States: B. In Westmoreland County, Va., 28 April 1758; D. New Yoric, 4 July 1831. His Father, Spence Monroe, Was Descended From Hector Monroe, An Officer Of Charles I; While His Mother, Eliza Jones, Of King George County, Was Of Welsh Descent. Monroe ...

Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine, The. The Term "monroe Doctrine* Has Been Popularly Used For A Variety Of Principles Intended To Explain• Or To Define The Policy Of The United States Toward Latin-american Countries. The Same Words Have Had Very Different Meanings At Different Periods Of Our History, But Are Now Generally Used ...

Monstrosity
Monstrosity. In Anatomy And Physi Ology Any Deviation In Form Or Function So Great As To Be Noticeable May Be Termed A Monstrosity By The Extension Of The Term. But It Is Customary To Consider As True Monstrosi Ties Only Such Deviations From The Normal As Are Excessive. Supernumerary Fingers, ...

Mont
Mont Pelte, Moil Pa-la. See Nue, Mont. Mont-de-piett, Moil-de-044a (in Italian Monte Di Pieta), An Authorized Licensed Or Government Pawnshop; A Bank Of Charity Which Lends Money On Pledges At A Low Rate Of Interest, And Whose Aim Is Purely Philan Thropic. The Chief Customers Of Such Institu Tions, Which ...

Mont Saint Michel
Mont-saint-michel, Mfin-sia-me Shel, France, A Famous Seat Of Leirning And Pilgrimage Resort Of Normandy As Early As The 12th Century, Now An Equally Celebrated Tourist Resort. It Consists Of A Collection Of Medieval Houses, Hostelries, Ecclesiastical Buildings, And Fortifications, Grouped On A Conical Rock In The Bay Of Cancale Or ...

Montaigne
Montaigne, Mon-tan' (fr. Mon-tan Ye), Michel Eyquem De, French Essayist: B. Château Montaigne, Perigord, 28 March 1533; D. There, 11 Sept. 1592. He Was Educated By His Father After A Fashion All His Own, Learning Lat'n From House Servants Who Never Spoke French, And Being Roused From Bed Every Morn ...

Montaignes Essays
Montaigne's Essays, Florio's Trans Lation Of. The Interest Of Florio's Translation Of The Essays Of Montaigne Is Manifestly Due In The First Place To Montaigne And Only Very Secondarily To Florio. The World Has Never Failed To Find The Good-natured And Wise Father Of The Modern Essay Both Amusing And ...

Montana
Montana, Mfin-trna, The °treasure State* (admitted To The Union 8 Nov. 1889), Is Bounded North By Canadian Provinces, East By North Dakota And South Dakota, South By Wyoming And Eastern Idaho, West By Idaho. Capital, Helena; Area, 147,182 Square Miles; Population (1910) 376,056; Percentage Of In Crease In 10 Years, ...

Montana National Bison Range
Montana National Bison Range And Herd.—the Range Is In Western Montana, Along The Northern Pacific Railroad Between Ravalli And Dixon. The Tract Set Apart For The Home Of The Herd Con Tains Approximately 20,000 Acres, With Both Grazing Land And Timber. In The Centre Is A Mountain About 2,500 Feet ...

Montana State College Of
Montana State College Of Agriculture And Mechanic Arts, Made One Of The Component Parts Of The Uni Versity Of Montana In 1913, Founded In 1893, Is Located At Bozeman. It Was Endowed By A Land Grant Of 140,000 Acres, Of Which 41,543 Acres Have Been Sold, The Cash And Deferred ...

Montana State University
Montana State University, Originally The University Of Montana, Made One Of The Component Parts Of The Latter By Legisla Tive Act Of 1913, Is Located At Missoula. It Was Endowed By A Grant Of Land, 46,560 Acres, From Congress In 1892. Of This Amount 30,668 Acres Have Been Sold, The ...

Montcalm
Montcalm, Mont-kam' (fr. Mon-kalm), Louis Joseph De Saint Voran, Loo-e De Sin Va'-raii, Marquis De, French Soldier: B. Near Nimes, 1712; D. Quebec, Canada, 14 Sept. 1759. He Entered The Army At 14, Distinguished Himself In The War For The Austrian Succession And Gained The Rank Of Colonel In The ...

Montemayor
Montemayor, Monte Mor Jorge, Spanish-portuguese Poet And Novel Ist: B. About 1520; D. 1561. His Real Name Was Montemor, But It Assumed The Spanish Form Montemayor In Spain. There Is Little Definitely Known Of The Life Of Montemayor. He Was One Of The Poet Musicians Of His Day Who Found ...

Montenegro
Montenegro, Man-te-na'gro (native, Thernagora; Turkish, Karadagh, Black Moun Tain), A Former Kingdom Northwest Of Turkey, Bounded North By Bosnia And Herzegovina, East By Bosnia, South By Albania And West By The Adriatic Sea And A Strip Of Dalmatia. Its Area Was Increased By The Treaty Of Ber Lin Of July ...

Montepin
Montepin, Mon'ta'pan, Xavier Arnon, Count De, French Writer: B. Apretnont, 18 March 1824 ; D. Paris, 30 April 1902. He Was One Of The Most Fertile And Successful Representa Tives Of The Strung-out Feuilleton Novel Writers Of Small Literary Merit. Most Of His Novels Ap Peared In Fragments In The ...

Monterey
Monterey, Moh-te-ri, Cal., City In Mon Terey County, On Monterey Bay And On The Southern Pacific Railroad, About 100 Miles South By East Of San Francisco. The Site Of The City Was First Discovered By Juan Rodri Guez Cabrillo In 1542. In 1602 It Was Rediscov Ered By Viscaino, Who ...

Monterey_2
Monterey, Mexico, Capital Of The State Of Nuevo Leon, Situated At The Foot Of The Sierra Madre Mountains At An Altitude Of 1,800 Feet Above Sea-level, An Important Railroad Cen Tre For Trade And Commerce With The United States, 168 Miles From The Texas Boundary. The Most Notable Industry Is ...

Monterey_3
Monterey, Battle Of, In American His Tory; In The Early Part Of The War Between The United States And Mexico, Monterey, Which Oc Cupies A Strong Natural Position And Was Well Fortified By Art, Was Held By The Mexican Gen Eral Ampudia, With About 10,000 Regular Troops. In August 1846, ...

Montesquieu
Montesquieu, Charles Louis De Secondat, Baron De La Bride Et Di, French Philosophical Historian: B. At La Bride, Near Bordeaux, 18 Jan. 1689; D. La Bretle, 10 Feb, 1755. He Was Of A Noble Family, Received An Excellent Education And Studied Law Which Was The Family Traditional Profession. From His ...

Montessori
Montessori, Mon'tes-so're, Maria, Ital Ian Educator: B. Rome, About 1872. She Was Educated To Be A Physician, And While Studying Applied Herself Especially To The Investigation Of Nervous Diseases In Children, And To The Problem Of Evolving A Form Of Training That Would Draw Out The Capabilities Of Those Of ...

Montevideo
Montevideo, Mon-t-vld'e-8 (sp. Mon Ta-ve'cli-o), Uruguay, Capital Of The Depart Ment Of The Same Name; Also Capital And Emporium Of The Republic; Situated On The Northern Coast Of The Rio De La Plata (see La Plata, Rio Da). Founded In 1726, Its Inhabit Ants Numbered Only 3,500 In 1818, And ...

Montezuma
Montezuma, Surnamed Xocoyotzin And Called Montezuma Ii, Chief, Or Emperor, Of Ancient Mexico: B. 1479 (authority Of Bernal Diaz) ; D. Tenochtitlan, Mexico, 30 June 1520. He Is Well Known As The Ruler Of The Aztecs At The Time Of The Spanish Invasion. He Succeeded His Uncle Ahuizotl As Chief ...

Montfort
Montfort, M'ont'fort (fr. Moti-for), Simon De, Earl Of Leicester, English Political Reformer: B. France, About 1208; D. Evesham, 4 Aug. 1265. His Father Was Simon, The Con Queror Of The Albigenses, His Mother, Alice Of Montmorency; The Former Had Been Disin Herited Of His English Estates By King John In ...

Montgomery
Montgomery, Richard, American Sol Dier: B. Convoy House, Near Raphoe, Ireland, 2 Dec. 1736; D. Quebec, 31 Dec. 1775. At 18 He Obtained A Commission In The British Army, In 1757 Began His Career Of Active Service In America, And At The Siege Of Louisburg In 1758 And Elsewhere Gave ...

Montgomery
Montgomery, Ala., State Capital And Third City Of The State In Population, Ani. Seat Of Montgomery County, 52 Miles Southeast Of The Centre; On The Left Bank Of The Alabama, 410 Miles Above The Gulf By Water And 180 By Rail. It Is The Greatest Railroad Centre In The State, ...

Month
Month, A Period Of Time Derived From The Motion Of The Moon. The °sidereal') Month May Be Regarded As The Period In Which The Moon, As Seen From A Fixed Star, Would Appear To Make A Complete Revolution Round The Earth; It Is Evidently The Period In Which She Passes ...

Monticelli
Monticelli, Adolphe, French Painter: B. Marseilles, 1824; D. Mar Seilles, 1886. He Made A Short Stay In Paris And Contributed To The Salon; But, Not Meet Ing With Success, Returned To His Dative Town, Where He Died Poor, Ignored And Insane. Un Appreciated, He Sold His Pictures In Cafés For ...

Monticello
Monticello, Mon-te-serld (it. Little Mountain), Virginia, The Estate And Residence Once Owned By Thomas Jefferson (q.v.), Third President Of The United States. It Is In Albe Marle County, Va., About Two Miles From Char Lottesville. The Estate Was An Unbroken Forest In The Early Part Of The 18th Century, Until ...

Montpelier
Montpelier, Mont-peryer, Vt., City, Capital Of The State, County-seat Of Washington County, On The Winooski River, And On The Central Vermont, The Montpelier And White River, And The Montpelier And Burlington Rail Roads, About 38 Miles Southeast Of Burlington. It Is Situated In A Beautiful Valley Surrounded By Hills And ...