Socialists also claim that in a co-operative society the sum total of human happiness would be immensely increased by making the produc tion of goods in itself pleasurable. When profit and the competitive struggle are abolished and productive energies fully utilized there will be a possibility of that leisurely artistic creative ac tivity, which modern psychology and pedagogy i agree is capable of furnishing the most intense pleasure and valuable educational training to the individual worker while, at the same time, pro ducing the best possible goods for the satisfac tion of human needs. It is this phase of Social ism which has always attracted artists and has given rise to the now extensive arts and crafts movement. It is easy to see in this connection that Socialism would offer a much greater field for the development of individuality than is possible for the great mass of the people to day.
The theory of Socialism is itself a product of evolution, the ideal appearing long before the philosophy of society and the scientific analysis of social relations which make possible the realization of that ideal were worked out. Ever since the days of Plato, and especially since the writing of Sir Thomas More's (Utopia,' men have dreamed of a society which should be a co operative brotherhood. During the latter part of the 18th and first half of the 19th century,' utopian Socialism reached a high degree of de velopment and found numerous illustrious fol lowers. Among these were Fourier, Babceuf, Saint Simon and Cabet in Europe, and a few years later, Greeley, Dana and Nathaniel Haw thorne in America. Robert Owen marked some what of an advance on this position. While he founded colonies and pictured utopias, he also set forth many ideas that have since become a part of modern scientific socialism. Lassalle, Rodhertus and Weitling in Germany, Colins and De Paepe in Belgium also helped to some de gree to formulate present socialist philosophy while they also partook of a Utopian character. It is with the work of Karl Marx (q.v.) and Friedrich Engels (q.v.), however, that modern Socialism began definitely to take on the forms by which it is known to-day. In 1845 Marx was ordered out of Paris and went to Brussels where he was joined by Engels and where they founded the "German Working-Men's Asso ciation)" with the Deutsche Briisseter Zeitung as its organ. It was while here that they became members of the Communist League and wrote the 'Communist Manifesto,' to which reference was previously made.
A philosophical and a political goal pre supposes an organization for propaganda and political activity. The body that is generally looked upon as the ancestor of the present world-wide Socialist organizations is "The League of the organized in Paris in 1836. The aims of this organization were, however, very indefinite, and its principal significance lies in its transformation in 1847 into the "Com munist League." This change was brought about through the influence of Marx and En gels. While the "Communist League') exercised considerable influence on Continental labor movements during tht. first two or three years of its existence, yet it was overwhelmed in the reaction which followed the revolutions of 1848, and by 1853 it had practically disappeared. Its great contribution to Socialism lies in the fact that under its auspices was issued a document that for far-reaching consequences and lasting influence must be considered one of the most remarkable ever written. This was the 'Com munist Manifesto' drawn up by Marx and En gels as a committee of the Communist I.eague
in 1848. This work consists of a summary of the philosophy of Socialism and has been trans lated into almost every known language, and still constitutes the most generally circulated work on Socialism in existence. New editions and translations appear continually throughout the world. The next great step was the organ ization of the International Working-Men's Association (q.v.) at Saint Martin's Hall. Lon don, 8 Sept. 1864. A committee appointed at this meeting and composed of 50 members representing six nationalities presented a dec laration of principles which was written by Karl Marx and which was unanimously accepted by the organization. Since this declaration • has formed the basis of almost countless socialist platforms in different countries since that time it is worth reproduction: " In consideration that the emancipation of the working class must be accomplished by the working class itself, that the struggle for the emancipation of the working class does not signify a struggle for class privileges and monopolies, but for equal rights and duties, and the abolition of class rule; That the economic dependence of the working man upon the owner of the tools of production, the sources of life, forms the h-icis of every kind of servitude, of social misery, of spiritual degradation, and political dependence; That, therefore, the economic emancipation of the work ing class is the great end to which every political movement must be subordinated as a simple auxiliary; That all exertions which, up to this time, have been directed toward the attainment of this end have failed on account of the want of solidarity between the various branches of labor in every land, and by reason of the absence of a brotherly bond of unity between the working classes of different countries; That the emancipation of labor is neither a local nor a national, but a social problem, which embraces all countries in which modern society exists, and whose solution depends upon the practical and theoretical co-operation of the most advanced countries; That the present awakening of the working class in the industrial countries of Europe gives occasion for a new hope, but at the same time contains a solemn warning not to fall back into old errors, and demands an immediate union of the movements not yet united; The First International Labor Congress declares that the International Working Men's Association, and all societies and individualities belonging to it, recognize truth, right and morality as the basis of their conduct toward one another and their fellow men, without respect to color, creed, or nationality. This Congress regards it as the duty of man to demand the rights of a man and citizen, not only for nim self, but for every one who does his duty. No rights without duties; no duties without rights." At the last European meeting of the "Inter anarchistic forces under the leader ship of Bakounin threatened to gain control, and in order to avoid this catastrophe the Socialists who were still in the majority voted to remove the headquarters of the organization from London to New York. There was another purpose in this also. It was felt by Marx and others that since the doctrines of Socialism had been included in various national working-men's movements and had been somewhat systematized by the discussions of the congress, that the time for a great centralized organization was past, and that its disappearance would he the best thine' possible.