During the first three years of the war the Austrian Socialists were rendered impotent through the strong militarist policy of the im perial government. By 1918, however, Socialist demonstrations increased; a "peace strike)) in volving 100,000 in Vienna alone was inaugurated in January. The Socialists protested vigorously against the emperor's instructions to the Premier on 4 May to take measures to prevent the reassembling of Parliament. The Social Democratic party on 2 June demanded the as sembling of Parliament and the initiation of steps toward peace. During the summer Bol shevik influences were manifest in several parts of the empire. Revolutionary activity increased and mutiny and desertion were rife in the army. The fall of the empire came on 3 November, a provisional government was organized and a republic proclaimed, which was composed of the moderate wing of the Socialists. In Finn gary a more radical group seized the reins of government and chaos resulted for a time.
Great Britain.— The Socialist movement in Great Britain has always been distinguished from that of the Continent by a greater free dom from dogma and a greater variety of expression. There has never been one large unified party and Socialist legislation has come through the action of various bodies. The Social Democratic Federation, organized in 1879 and adopting a Marxist platform in 1883, was the first Socialist party. It has gone through many changes and finally merged in the British Socialist party, which split in 1915 on the question of the attitude to be taken toward the war. The Independent Labor party, which has never been distinctly Marxian, was organized in 1893. The Fabian Society, organ ized in 1884, is a body of educated writers and speakers, the most prominent of whom is Ber nard Shaw, and which is distinctly anti-Marx ian. The Labor party, which started as the La bor Representation Committee, with representa tives of all the foregoing organizations and also of the unions, is the political expression of the Socialist movement. The total membership of the bodies united in the Labor party in 1912 was given as 1,895,498. Of these 1,858,178 were included in the union membership and 31,237 were members of the various Socialist organi zations. It casts about 1,000,000 votes, and had 40 members in the Parliament which was in session during the war. The Socialists of Great Britain were sharply divided on the war. The Independent Labor party fought against the war until it came, then opposed conscrip tion and worked constantly for peace. Large numbers of its membership were imprisoned for their agitation. The Labor party, while insisting upon its position as a peace party, generally supported the government during the war. The British Socialist party split, with H. M. Hyndman, often called the father of English Socialism, leading the pro-war faction. All sections of the Labor party fought continu ously to protect working-class interests during the war and were almost uniformly successful. At the general election of December the Labor party did not increase its strength, but it was successful in several by-elections held subse quently.
Belgium.— In Belgium there is but one So cialist party, the Parti Ouvrier Belge, which was founded in 1885. For several years the franchise was very limited and the Socialists were barred from any effective political action. Accordingly the early years of the party were given up to agitation in favor of universal suf frage. This culminated in a series of great demonstrations and finally in a general strike in 1893, which resulted in the granting of uni versal suffrage to all males over the age of 25 years. This was much qualified, for in many elections there is a complex system of plural voting by which those possessing property or special educational qualifications have two or three votes, while the propertyless wage-workers have but one. Yet at the first election in 1894 the Socialist party polled 320,000 votes and elected 28 deputies out of 152. Owing to fu sion with the Liberals at recent elections it is impossible to give the Socialist vote exactly but it is generally estimated at 500,000 for the election of 1914, when 40 Socialist deputies and four senators were elected. The principal characteristic of the Belgian Socialist move ment is the peculiarly close affiliation of the three phases of the working class movement, the co-operative, trade union and political ac tivity. Practically every trade unionist is also a Socialist and a member of some one of the co-operative organizations.
Denmark.— The Socialist movement of Denmark is closely affiliated with the unions, which include 75 per cent of the working class, including rural laborers. A powerful co-opera tive movement among the farmers is also con nected with the Socialist movement, and has made Danish agriculture a model of organi zation. The movement here has shown a steady growth and in 1913 the Socialists polled more votes than any other political party, and 30 per cent of all votes cast. The king asked the Social Democrats to form a government. They refused to do this but agreed to support a rad ical government if pledged to a series of re forms for which the Socialists had been fight ing. These reforms included universal suffrage for all men and women over 25 years of age, direct election of members of Parliament by popular vote and the removal of all right of appointment to office from the king. This agreement was made and the radicals formed a government. But upon the outbreak of the war an effort was made to postpone these measures. The strong Socialist representation refused to compromise and on 5 June 1915 the suffrage law demanded went into effect, and the other measures were taken up for consideration. The vote of the party from the beginning has been as follows: 1872 268 1898 31,872 1876 1,076 1901 42,972 1881 1,689 1903 55,479 1884 6,806 1906 76,612 1887 8,408 1909 93,079 1890 17,232 1910 98,718 1892 20,094 1913 107.365 1895 24,508 The Socialist strength in the government was impaired at the general elections of April 1918 at which but 39 Socialists were returned members of the Folketing.