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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25

Statistics
Statistics Is The Science That Deals With The Collection, Tabulation, Analysis And Presentation Of Numerical Data. Any Phenom Ena That May Be Classified And Counted May Be Studied By The Statistical Method, In Fact, No Other Method Will Yield A Comprehensive, Quantitative View Of Many Kinds Of Phenomena. Statistics Thus ...

Stavropol
Stavropol, Stiv'ro-poly, Russia, In The Caucasus, (1) Capital Of The Government Of Stavropol, On The Atchla, 307 Miles Southwest Of Astrakhan. It Is The Seat Of A Greek Catholic Bishop And Is A Well-built Town. The Schools Include Gymnasia For Both Sexes, And Several Town And Industrial Schools; There Are ...

Steam
Steam. Steam Is Water In A Gaseous State. It Liquefies At A Temperature Of 100° C., Or 212° F., Under A Pressure Of One Atmosphere At The Sea-level, Namely, 14.7 Pounds Per Square Inch. High Pressure And Low Pressure Steam Once Meant Steam Used At Pressures Above Or Below This ...

Steam Engine
Steam-engine, The Apparatus By Means Of Which The Stored Heat-energy Of Fuel,'trans Ferred To Water And Steam, Is Transformed Into Mechanical Work. This Transformation Of Thermal Into Dynamic Energy, This Thermodyna Mic Change, Requires For Its Successful And Economical Conduct Special Forms Of Mechanism And Is Subject To A Variety ...

Steam Vehicles Or Steam
Steam Vehicles Or Steam Car Riages, As The Name Implies, Are Carriages Or Conveyances In Which Steam Is Used As The Motive Power. The Name Is Now Usually Ap Plied To Those Vehicles Which Preceded The Steam Locomotive On Rails And Were Designed For Use On The Ordinary Highways. In ...

Steam Vessels
Steam Vessels. The Paddle Wheel Was In Use For The Propulsion Of ,a Vessel Long Before The Application Of Steam To Navigation. In The War Galleys Of The Ancient Egyptians Romans There Were Wheels Operated By Hand Power Through A Windlass; And In One Of The Punic Wars The Romans ...

Steamship Speeds
Steamship Speeds. Transatlantic Records.- In The Days Of The Fast-sailing Packet Ships The Old Yorkshire Crossed From Liverpool To New York In 21 Days, And Ashburton Made The Passage In 24 Days. With Our Modern °greyhounds° Of The Ocean The Following Records Show The Ever Increasing Speed Of The Liners ...

Steel
Steel. Before The Introduction Of 'the Modern Methods Of Steel Making In The Middle Of The 19th Century The Name Of Steel Was Ap Plied Only To Iron Containing A Sufficient Per Centage Of Carbon To Become Intensely Hard On Rapid Cooling (quenching) From A Red Heat Or Higher Temperature. ...

Steel Car Industry
Steel Car Industry, The. The Building Of Steel Railroad Cars Is Recognized As One Of The Most Prominent Of Our Industries. European Countries Were Pioneers In The Use Of Iron Cars, And As Early As 1861 We Find Records Of Cars With Iron Bodies Being Built In France, While In ...

Steel Tubing
Steel Tubing. This Is The Most Mod Ern And One Of The Widest Used Products Of Steel. For Many Years Steel Tubing Was Not Con Sidered Entirely Satisfactory By Manufacturers Because The Welded Parts Were Not As Strong As The Rest Of The Tubing. This Difficulty Has Been Overcome And ...

Steel Wire And Nail
Steel Wire And Nail Making. The Importance Of The Steel Wire And Nail In Dustry In The United States May Be Measured By The Fact That In 1902 There Was Produced A Total Of 1,574,293 Tons Of Wire Rods Of Which Nearly 500,000 Tons Were Made Into Wire Nails. In ...

Stefansson
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, Arctic Explorer: B. Ames, Manitoba, Canada, 3 Nov. 1879. He Received His Education At The State University Of North Dakota And The State University Of Iowa. In 1903-04 He Studied At The Harvard Divinity School, And In 1904-06 At The Harvard Graduate School. His Early Years Were Spent ...

Stegocephalia
Stegocephalia, One Of The Primary Divisions Of The Amphibia, Sometimes Considered As A Sub-class, Sometimes As An Order, Especially Characterized By The Great Development Of Der Mal Or Superficial Bones On The Dorsal Surface Of The Head. Being Totally Extinct And Conse Quently Known Only From Their Skeletal Remains Many ...

Steinthal
Steinthal, Stin'tal, Heymann, German Philosopher And Philologist: B. Grobzig, Anhalt, 16 May 1825; D. 1899. He Was Distinguished As A Follower Of The Herbartian Ethical School, Maintaining That The Psychology Of Society Com Bined With Comparative Philology Yielded The Best Results Toward The Solution Of Human Problems. His Philosophy Was ...

Stellite
Stellite, Name Applied To A Series Of Alloys Consisting Essentially Of Cobalt And Chromium. The Alloy Consisting Of Cobalt And Chromium Only Is Made By Melting The Two Metals Together And Casting The Resulting Mix Ture Into Bars. If The Chromium Does Not Ex Ceed 25 Or 30 Per Cent, ...

Stem
Stem, The Main Axis Of A Plant. Stems Usually Bear Foliar Organs, Such As Leaves, Hut In The Carrion-flower (stapelia) And In Some Other Plants No Leaves Are Produced; And In Cacti The Leaves Are Rarely Observed Because They Are Early Deciduous. Though There Are Stem-like Organs Among The Alga: ...

Stencils
Stencils. A Stencil Is A Thin Metal Plate Or A Fibrous Or Waxed Sheet Of Paper Bearing Wording Or A Design Formed By Cutting Through The Plate Or The Chemical Coating Or Waxed Sur Face Of A Paper Sheet, Or By Embossing The Wording Upon' A Thin Metal Plate. The ...

Stephanus
Stephanus (estienne, Etienne), Henry (nephew Of The Preceding), French Scholar And Printer: B. Paris, 1528; D. Lyons, March, 1598. He Was Educated By The Most Accomplished Scholars Of His Day And In 1551 Accompanied His Father To Geneva, Where He Acted As Corrector Of The Press In His Father's Printing ...

Stephens
Stephens, Stevenz, Alexander Hamil Ton, American Statesman: B. Near Crawfords Ville, Wilkes County, Ga., 11 Feb. 1812; D. At Lanta, Ga., 4 March 1883. He Was Of Scotch Irish Ancestry; His Grandfather, A Youthful Ad Herent Of The House Of Stuart, Came To Penn Sylvania In 1746, Fought Under Washington ...

Stephenson
Stephenson, George, Eng Lish Inventor: B. Wylam, Near Newcastle, 9 June 1781; D. Near Chesterfield, 12 Aug. 1848. He Was Successively Assistant Fireman, Fireman And Brakeman In A Colliery, In 1802 Was Made Engineman At Willington Ballast Hill, In 1808 Took With Two Others The Contract To Operate The Engines ...

Stephenson_2
Stephenson, Robert, English Civil Engineer: B. Willington Quay, Near Newcastle, 16 Oct. 1803; D. London, 12 Oct. 1859. He Was The Son Of George Stephenson (q.v.). In 1822 He Studied At Edinburgh University. The Elder Stephenson Having Shortly After This En Gaged In The Locomotive Manufactory At New Castle In ...

Stephensons Depot Carters Farm
Stephenson's Depot (carter's Farm), Engagement At. On 19july 1864 General Averell With 1,000 Cavalry, 1,350 Infan Try And Two Batteries, Marched Up The Valley Pike From Martinsburg, W. Va., Drove The Confederate Cavalry From Darkesville Toward Winchester, And Halted Near Stephenson's De Pot, About Six Miles From Winchester. This Placed ...

Steppes
Steppes, Steps, Russia, A Tatar Term Em Ployed Geographically To Denote Those Ex Tensive Tracts Of Land Which, Beginning At The Dnieper, Extend Along The Southeast Of Russia, Round The Caspian And Aral Seas, Between The Ural And Altai Mountains, And Occupy A Con Siderable Portion Of Siberia. These Steppes ...

Stereo Chemistry
Stereo-chemistry (greek; Stereos, "solid"). In The Development Of The Science Of Chemistry, It Was Discovered That Two Or More Compounds May Have The Same Empirical For Mula And Yet Differ From One Another In Chem Ical And Physical Properties To A Marked Degree. Resorcin, Pyrocatechin And Hydroquinone, For Example, All ...

Stereoscope
Stereoscope, An Optical Apparatus Which Enables Us To Look At One And The Same Time Upon Two Photographic Pictures Nearly The Same, But Taken Under A Small Difference Of An Gular View, Each Eye Looking Upon One Picture Only; And Thus, As In Ordinary Vision, 'two Images Are Conveyed To ...

Sterility
Sterility Is A Condition Which May Be Present In Either Sex Where From Various Types Of Disorder There Is Incapacity To Reproduce The Species. In The Male Sex The Spermatozoa May Be Absent In The Semen Or If Present May Be Diseased And Incapable Of Impregnating The Ovum Of The ...

Sterling
Sterling. A Term Used For The °stand Ard') Quality Of English Silver. The British Sterling Alloy Proportion Has Varied At Different Times In The Course Of Her History. For A Long Series Of Years The Standard Of Silver (sterling) Has Been 11 Ounces And Two Pennyweights Of Chemically Pure Silver ...

Sternberg
Sternberg, Constantin Ivanovitch Elder Von, Pianist, Composer, Educator And Author: B. Saint Petersburg, Russia, 9 July 1852. He Studied At The Leipzig Conservatory Under Moscheles, Reinecke, Richter, Hauptmann And David In 1856-67; Later Under Kullak At The Berlin Academy Of Music In 1872-74, Also In Weimar And Rome Under Liszt. ...

Sterne
Sterne, Laurence, English Humorist : B. Clonniel, Ireland, 24 Nov. 1713; D. London, 18 March 1768. He Was A Great-grandson Of Richard Sterne, The Master Of Jesus College, Who Attended Laud To The Scaffold And After Wards Became Archbishop Of York. The Arch Bishop's Third Son, Named Simon, Married Mary ...

Stettin
Stettin, Stet-ten', Germany In Prussia, Capital And Port Of Pom&ania, And Of The Gov Ernment Of Stettin, On The Oder, 60 Miles North East Of Berlin. The Old And New Towns Are Distinct Sections. Since The Removal Of The For Tifications (1873) The Town Has Extended Greatly And Several Outlying ...

Stevens
Stevens, John, American Engineer And Inventor: B. New York, 1749; D. Hoboken, N. J., 6 March 1838. He Was Graduated In Law In 1771. In 1787, Having Accidently Seen The Imperfect Steamboat Of John Fitch, He At Once Became Interested In Steam Propulsion, And Experimented Constantly For The Next 30 ...

Stevens Institute Of Tech
Stevens Institute Of Tech Nology, Is Located At Castle Point, Hoboken, N. J. It Was Founded In 1870 By Edwin A. Stevens, Who Bequeathed About Two Acres Of Land, $150,000 For Buildings, And $500,000 For An Endowment For °an Institution Of Learning?) The Trustees Decided That The New °institution° Should ...

Stevens_2
Stevens, Thaddeus, American States Man: B. Danville, Vt., 4 April 1792; D. Wash Ington, D. C., 11 Aug. 1868. He Was Graduated At Dartmouth College In 1814; Went To York, Pa., Where He Taught School. He Was Gradu Ated In Law, And Began To Practise In Gettys Burg. In 1828 ...

Stevenson
Stevenson, Burton Egbert, American Novelist, Dramatist And Anthologist: B. Chilli Cothe, Ohio, 9 Nov. 1872. He Was Educated At Princeton University, And Entered Newspaper Work In 1893. Since 1899 He Has Been Librarian Of The Chillicothe Public Library. His Novels Are At Odds With The Regent' (1900) ; 'a Soldier ...

Stevenson
Stevenson, Robert Louis (baptized Robert Lewis Balfour), Scottish Novelist, Es Sayist, And Poet: B. 8 Howard Place, Edinburgh, 13 Nov. 1850; D. Vailima, Island Of Upolu, Samoa, 3 Dee. 1894. He Was The Only Child Of Thomas Stevenson, An Eminent Light-house En Gineer,—: As His Father, Robert Stevenson, Had Been ...

Stewart
Stewart, Dugald, Scottish Philosopher: B. Edinburg, 22 Nov. 1753; D. There, 11 June 1828. He Was The Son Of Matthew Stewart, Who For 25 Years Was Professor Of Mathematics At Edinburgh University, And There Young Dugald Studied From 1765 To 1769, Devoting Himself To Mathematics And Philosophy. In The Latter ...

Stickleback
Stickleback, A Small Fish Of The Fam Ily Gosterosteide, Order Hentibranchii,in Which The Rays Of The First Dorsal Fin Form A Series Of Detached Spines. The Body Is Elongated And Compressed And Tapers Behind To A Narrow Caudal Peduncle. Teeth Exist In Both Jaws, But Are Absent From The Tongue ...

Stigma
Stigma, Plural, Stigmas, Or Stigmata (greek Stigma, Mark, Puncture, Brand), A Mark Made With A Red-hot Iron; A Brand Impressed On Slaves And Others. The Original Greek Signifi Cation Of The Word Has Received Many Secondary Meanings. Owing To Its Association With The Branding Of Slaves, Stigma Has Come To ...

Stigmata
Stigmata, The Greek Plural Form Of Stigma, Is Used In Various Collective Significations. Anatomical Stigmata, For Instance, Comprises Irregularities Or Malformations Of Various Parts Of The Anatomy, Among Them Being Those Of The Face, The Skull-cap, Palate, Teeth, Tongue, Lips, Nose, Ears, Limbs, Fingers, Thorax And, In Gen Eral, Any ...

Stigmatization
Stigmatization, Derived From The Greek Word Stigma, A Puncture, The Name Ap Plied By Roman Catholic Writers To The Im Pression On Certain Individuals Of The °stig Mata," Or Marks Of The Wounds Which Christ Suffered During The Course Of His Passion. In The Early Days Many Christians Branded The ...

Stiles
Stiles, Stilz, Charles Wardell, American Zoologist : B. Spring Valley, N. Y., 15 May 1867. He Was Educated At Wesleyan University, Conn., 1:•:5-86; College De France, 1886-87; Berlin University, 1887-89; Leipzig University, 1889-90; Trieste Zoological Station, 1891; Pas Teur Institute And College De France, 1891. He Was Zoologist, 1891-190; And ...

Stiles_2
Stiles, Ezra, American Clergyman And College President : B. North Haven, Conn., 15 Dec. 1725; D. New Haven, Conn., 12 May 1795. He Was Graduated From Yale In 1746, And Was A Tutor There 1749-55. Dr. Franklin Having Sent An Electrical Apparatus To Yale, Stiles Entered With Great Zeal Upon ...

Stilicho
Stilicho, Flavius, Roman Gen Eral: B. Of Vandal Origin About 359 A.d. ; D. Ravenna, 23 Aug. 408. In 384 A.d. He Was Sent By The Emperor Theodosius On An Important Mission To Persia Where He Arranged A Peace That Was Very Advantageous To His Sovereign And On His Return ...

Still
Still, Andrew Taylor, Discoverer And Founder Of Osteopathy : B. Near Jonesboro, Va., 6 Aug. 1828; D. 12 Dec. 1917. With His Father, Abram, Methodist Minister And Doctor, He Re Moved To Tennessee, And At The Age Of Nine To Missouri. At 19 He Married Mary M. Vaughn And In ...

Still_2
Still. See Distillation. A Branch Of The Art Of Painting Which Deals With The Portrayal Of Life Less Objects. It Is Called In Germany, Still Leben; In Holland, Stilleven; In France, Nature Morte; In Italy, Riposo. The Subjects Generally Chosen Are Dead Animals—deer, Birds Or Fish, Kitchen And Table Utensils, ...

Stillman
Stillman, William James, American Author: B. Schenectady, N. Y., 1 June 1828; D. Surrey, England, 6 July 1901. After Graduation From Union College (1848) He Studied Land Scape Art With F. E. Church, And In 1849 Went To England To Continue His Art-work. He Adopted The Views Of Rossetti And ...

Stillwater
Stillwater, Stirwirter, Minn., City, County-seat Of Washington County, On Saint Croix River, 30 Miles From Its Junction With The Mississippi River, And On The Chicago, Milwaukee And Saint Paul, The Northern Pacific And The Chicago, Saint Paul, Minnesota And Ohio Railroads, About 18 Miles Northeast Of Saint Paul. It Has ...

Stimulants
Stimulants, Agents Which Temporarily Increase The Vital Activities, Either In Particular Organs And Functions Or In The Whole Physical Organism. They Are Among The Most Valuable And Important Of Medicines, And Perhaps Are More Often The Direct Means Of Saving Life Than Any Others. But As They Are Powerful, Their ...

Stinde
Stinde, Stin'd'e, Julius, German Humor Ist: B. Kirch-niichel, In The Eastern Part Of The Province Of Holstein, 28 Aug. 1841; D. Olsberg (bei Kassel), Westphalia, 7 Aug. 1905. He Attended The Gymnasium At Eutin, Near His Native Village, Became An Apothecary In 1858, And Then Attended The Universities Of Kid, ...

Sting
Sting, A Weapon Possessed By Many Plants And Small Animals, In Various Forms, Employed To Pierce And In Most Cases Also To Poison, The Flesh Of Animals To Be Killed For Food, Or From Which Injury Is Received Or Expected. In Plants This Office Is Performed By Stiff, Sharp, Hollow ...

Stipules
Stipules, In Botany, Are Organs Con Nected With The Leaves, Existing Only In The Dico Tyledonous Plants. They Are Small Scale-like Or Leafy Appendages At The Point Where The Leaves Come Off From The Stem, And Are Commonly In Pairs. There Being One On Each Side Of The Petiole, As ...

Stirling
Stirling (formerly Stryvelyne Or Estrivelin), A River-port, City And County In Scotland: (1) County-seat Of Stirlingshire, On The South Side Of The Forth, 29 Miles Northeast Of Glasgow. It Occupies A Commanding Site, Castle Hill, Resembling Its Namesake At Edin Burgh. The Castle Is Of Great Historical Inter Est. It ...

Stirlings Plantation On Bayou
Stirling's Plantation On Bayou Fordoche, Engagement At. On 5 Sept. 1863, General Herron S Division Of The Thirteenth Corps, General Banks' Army, Em Barked On Transports At Carrollton, La., And Sailed Up The Mississippi To Disperse A Confed Erate Force Under Gen. R. Taylor, Which Was Then On The West ...

Stirner
Stirner, Sterner, Max, German Phi Losopher, A Pseudonym For Johann Kaspar Schsturr, B. Bayreuth, 25 Oct. 1806; D. Berlin, 26 June 1856. His Reputation Is Based Upon A Single Book, 'der Einzige And Sein Eigentum' (1845, English Tr. The Ego And His Own,' By S. T. Byington, London 1913). After ...

Stock
Stock (anglo-saxon, Stoce, Post, Trunk, Stick) In Law, Represents The Capital Of Cor Porations And Is Usually Divided Into Shares Of A Definite Value Denoting The Rights In The As Sets, Profits And Management Of The Company Possessed By The Members Of The Corporation Or The Persons Contributing The Capital. ...

Stock Breeding
Stock Breeding, The Art Of Producing And Rearing Domestic Animals, Particularly Those Of Greater Agricultural Value Known As Farm Live Stock, Including Cattle, Horses, Pigs, Sheep And Fowls. The Successful Practise Of This Art Depends Upon An Intimate Knowledge Of The Particular Kind Of Stock To Be Bred And A ...

Stockholder
Stockholder. A Stockholder Is One Who Owns Stock In A Corporation Or Joint Stock Company, And Who Has Been Vested With Certain Rights And Liabilities By Law, By Virtue Of His Relation To Other Owners Of Stock And To Cred Itors Of The Corporation. The Term Shareholder Is Used Commonly ...

Stockholm
Stockholm, Stok'h151m, Capital Of Sweden, Situated On The Milar See (lake Malar), 440 Miles Southwest Of Saint Peters Burg. It Is On A Cluster Of Islands, Connected With The Mainland By Bridges, Chief Of Which Are The Norrbro And Vasabro, Joining The Stadtin Or City With The North Side Of ...

Stockholm_2
Stockholm, Bank Of. As This Was The Earliest Bank To Issue Circulating Notes, An Out Line Of Its History Can Scarcely Fail To Prove Of Practical Value. After The Death Of Gustavus Vasa His Daughter, The Regent Christina, 1632 45, Was Compelled By The Embarrassments Of The Treasury To Issue ...

Stockton
Stockton, Steolciton, Francis Richard, (frank R. Stockton), American Author: B. Philadelphia, Pa. 5 April 1834; D. Washington, D. C., 20 April 1902. After A Secondary Educa Tion To Philadelphia, He Became A Wood-en Graver, Practised The Art With Some Success, And Invented A Double Graver (1866). In 1872 He Entered ...

Stockton
Stockton, Cal., City, The Metropolis And Chief Distributing Centre Of The San Joaquin Valley, County-seat Of San Joaquin County; 78 Miles East Of San Francisco And 397 Miles North West Of Los Angeles. Transportation And Commerce.— Stockton Is Favorably Situated To Command The Trade Of The San Joaquin Valley And ...

Stoicism
Stoicism, The Stoic System Of Philosophy And Practical Attitude Toward Life. The Stoic School Of Philosophy Was Founded At Athens, About 300 A.c. By Zeno, A Native Of Citium, In Cyprus. It Received Its Name From The Stoa Pcecile, Or Mottled Porch, Where Its Meetings Were Held. Zeno Had Been ...

Stokes
Stokes, Frank Wilbert, American Artist; B. Nashville, Tenn. He Was Educated At Phil Adelphia, Pa.; Studied Music Under Prof. Hugh Clark Of The University Of Pennsylvania, And Art Under Eakins, At Philadelphia Academy Of Fine Arts. •in Paris He Studied Art Under Gerome At Ecole Des Beaux Arts; Also At ...

Stokes_2
Stokes, James Graham Phelps, Ameri Can Socialist: B. New York, 18 March 1872. He Was Son Of Anson Phelps Stokes And Was Graduated (1892) At Sheffield Scientific School (yale). In 1896 He Received The Degree M.d., At The College Of Physicians And Surgeons (columbia), When He Took Up Graduate Work ...

Stokes_3
Stokes, Whitley, Irish Celtic Scholar: B. Dublin, 28 Feb. 1830; D. 1909. He Was Edu Cated At Trinity College, Dublin, And Called To The Bar At The Inner Temple In 1855. He Went To India In 1862 And Became Successively Secre Tary To The Governor-general's Legislative Council And To The ...

Stomach
Stomach. The Ancients Conceived Di Gestion (q.v.) As A Process Of Cooking, Executed By The Animal Heat Of The Body. Not Until The 17th Century Was The Idea Advanced That Digestion In The Stomach Was 4 Chemical Process Largely Due To Ferments. In 1752 Reaumur, And In 1783 Spallanzani, Established ...