Austria-Hungary.—Austria-Htmgary's losses of territory and population are mudi greater than those of Germany. The area of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy at the beginning of the war was 260,000 square miles and the population 51,000,000. The Austrian territory was stated at 116,000 square miles and the popu lation in 1910 213,325,000; the Hungarian terri tory 126,000 square miles and the population 21,000,000, and in adffition to this, Hungary had the administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina with an area of about 19,000 square miles and a population of about 2,000,000. In October 1918 a part of the territory formerly known as Austria established itself as a republic under the title of German Austria, the area which it claimed amounting to about 40,000 square miles or approximately 15 per cent of ffie former Austro-Hungarian Empire, the population about 9,000,000 or about 19 per cent of the former empire. In the same month, the Austrian prov inces of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia and cer tain Hungarian area designated as Slovakia organized themselves as the Republic of Czecho Slovakia. The Austrian territory passing into this new republic was about 30,000 square miles and the poptdation about 9,000,MO; that of Hungary passing into the Czecho-Slovalcian Republic was estimated at approximately 30,000 square miles and the population about 4,000,000. At the same time, the southern part of Hungary established itself as an independent nation with the title of Jugo-Slavia or Yugo-Slavia and including Bosnia-Herzegovina, Dalmatia, Croa tia, Slavonia, Carniola, Carinthia, Styria, Istria, Gorizia-Gradisca, and certain adjacent islands. Some of these islands and smaller provinces have, however, passed to the control of Italy. A small section at the southeast of Austria was transferred to Italy and this included the for mer Austrian port of Trieste, leaving Austria without direct access to tidewater over her ovm tcrritory. The fragment of former Austria which now retains the title of German Aus tria is about 40,000 square miles in area as against 107,000 in the former Austria and with a population of about 9,000,000 as against 28,000,000 in Austria in 1913.
Hungary established itself as an independent republic (the Hungarian Peoples Republic) in November 1918 with an area much less than that of the Hungarian Kingdom as it existed as a.part of Austria-Hungary. A considerable sec Uon at the south was incorporated into the new state of Jugo-Slavia, and a large section at the east including Transylvania passed under the control of Rumania. Subsequently (in the lat ter half of 1919) Rumanian troops occupied a considerable part of the eastern section of the territory which had been designated as the Hun garian Peoples Republic, and still later an at tempt was niade to transforni this republic into a limited monarchy. No definite statement can at this time be given a.s to the exact area or population of the Hungarian state. The best estimate available is an area of about 35,000 square miles or 30 per cent of the area formerly the Kingdom of Hungary, and the population about 8,000,000 or a little over one-third that of the kingdom in 1913. Her principal port of
Fiume passed under control of the new state of Jugo-Slavia but its control was late in 1919 taken over by a tnilitary organization originating in Italy, and finally occupied by the Italian gov ernment pending a final settlement Hungary, by these Incidents, loses her entire frontage on the Adriatic as does also German Austria. though it is expected that both the new repub lics will be given access to the Adriatic through the internationalization of certain railwaY lines connecting their trade centres with certain of the Adriatic ports.
Bulgaria,— Bulgaria, by the terms of the treaty submitted by the Peace Conference late in 1919 and accepted by Bulgaria, loses sundry small areas in adjusunent of her boundaries with the new state of Jugo-Slavia; also western Thrace which formed her outlet to the iElpean, though she still retains her frontage upon the Black Sea and is promised traffic routes to the lEgean by some plan not yet announce& Russia.— The changes in Russian territory as relates to political divisions and government are even more strilcing than those o.f Gerrr-any or Austria-Hungary. While the vanous groups of Russian political agitators attempted one by one to include all of the former Russian tern tory in their proposed governments, they were opposed by various groups of people in the dif ferent sections of that great area, who desired to establish themselves respectively as new and independent states composed of distinct ethnic or racial stoc.ks. The abdication of the Em peror Nicholas II in March 1917 was followed by a provisional government which continued until 16 May 1917, when it was reorganized with Alexander Kerensky as the head of the new Cabinet, but this was in turn reorganized in October 1917, maintaining itself until 7 Novena bei 1917, when the Military Revolutionary Com mittee seized the government authority. and handed it over to the All-Russian Congress of the Councils of Workmen's, Soldiers' and Pea.s. ants' Deputies. A Constituent Assembly was created and a form of goverruneut established controlled by the Executive Committee of the Congress of the C,ouncils of Worlanen's, Sol diers' and Peasants' Deputies. On 31 Jan. 1918, a decree was issued establishing the permanent character of the Workmen's arid Peasants' (Bolshevik) goverrunent On 14 March, 1918, the People's Commissioners Left Petrograd for Moscow, which thus became the centre of the government. The title of the governmeot thus established is the °Russian Federated Repub lic)); its flag is red with the legend, 'Federal Republic of the Soviets? Its control over Rus, sian territory cannot be defiaitely stated, how ever, as to the area in which it exercises juris diction and administers government or the number of peqple under its immediate control or administration. In every part of the area formerly known as Russia. groups of people have established themselves by proclamation and organization as independent govez;nments, in nearly all cases republics.